Celestial Atlas
(IC 100 - 149) ←     IC Objects: IC 150 - 199 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (IC 200 - 249)
Click here for Introductory Material
QuickLinks:
150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166,
167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183,
184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199

Page last updated Feb 21, 2014
WORKING: Historical / physical data

IC 150 (= PGC 6316)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (534)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb) in Pisces (RA 01 42 57.6, Dec +04 11 57)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5550 km/sec, IC 150 is about 260 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 235 to 245 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.5 arcmins, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 150
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 150
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 150

IC 151
Recorded (Aug 11, 1890) by
Lewis Swift
A lost or nonexistent object in Pisces (RA 01 43 57.3, Dec +13 12 11)
Per Dreyer, IC 151 (Swift list X (#7), 1860 RA 01 36 29, NPD 77 30.2) is "extremely faint, pretty small, northwestern of 2", the other being IC 152. The position precesses to RA 01 43 57.3, Dec +13 12 11 (whence the position above), but there is nothing anywhere near that location. Per Corwin, Swift "discovered" four "nebulae" in this region (IC 151, 152, 153 and 157) "for which his positions refer to nothing in the area", so essentially the same comments apply to each of them.
SDSS image of region near the position of the apparently nonexistent IC 151 (indicated by a box)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the position of the nonexistent IC 151

IC 152
Recorded (Aug 11, 1890) by
Lewis Swift
Probably a lost or nonexistent object in Pisces (RA 01 44 07.1, Dec +13 02 10)
Per Dreyer, IC 152 (Swift list X (#8), 1860 RA 01 36 39, NPD 77 40.2) is "extremely faint, small, round, very faint star close, southeastern of 2", the other being IC 151. The position precesses to RA 01 44 07.1, Dec +13 02 10 (whence the position above), but there is nothing nearby save for PGC 6368, which lies a couple of arcmin to the northwest (and as a result, is sometimes identified as IC 152). Per Corwin, Swift "discovered" four "nebulae" in this region (IC 151, 152, 153 and 157) "for which his positions refer to nothing in the area", so essentially the same comments apply to each of them, with one exception for IC 152. Namely, as noted above IC 152 is sometimes identified as PGC 6368. Corwin supposes that might be a reasonable possibility, but points out that there is nothing near any of the other "lost" objects' IC positions, which casts considerable doubt on the identification of IC 152. Barring further evidence I find that argument compelling, and feel it best to list the IC entry as lost or nonexistent, and only give PGC 6368 a subsidary entry immediately below.
SDSS image of region near the position of the apparently nonexistent IC 152 (indicated by a box); also shown is spiral galaxy PGC 6368, which is sometimes (probably incorrectly) identified as IC 152
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the position of IC 152, also showing PGC 6368

PGC 6368 (probably not =
IC 152)
Probably not an IC object, but listed here since sometimes (mis?)identified as IC 152
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sdm pec?) in Pisces (RA 01 44 01.2, Dec +13 04 28)
(See IC 152 for a discussion of the probable misidentification of PGC 6368 with that IC entry.) Based on a recessional velocity of 8095 km/sec, PGC 6368 is about 375 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 6368, which is sometimes (probably incorrectly) identified as IC 152
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 6368
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 6368, which is sometimes (probably incorrectly) identified as IC 152

IC 153
Recorded (Sep 25, 1890) by
Lewis Swift
A lost or nonexistent object in Pisces (RA 01 44 36.6, Dec +12 37 43)
Per Dreyer, IC 153 (Swift list X (#9), 1860 RA 01 37 09, NPD 78 04.6) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round, southwestern of 2", the other being IC 157. The position precesses to RA 01 44 36.6, Dec +12 37 43 (whence the position above), but there is nothing anywhere near that location. Per Corwin, Swift "discovered" four "nebulae" in this region (IC 151, 152, 153 and 157) "for which his positions refer to nothing in the area", so essentially the same comments apply to each of them.
SDSS image of region near the position of the apparently nonexistent IC 153 (indicated by a box)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the position of the nonexistent IC 153

IC 154 (= PGC 6439)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (535)
A 14th-magnitude galaxy (type Sab?) in Pisces (RA 01 45 16.2, Dec +10 38 59)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5545 km/sec, IC 154 is about 260 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.35 by 0.25 arcmin, it is about 100 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 154
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 154
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 156
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 154, also showing spiral galaxy IC 156

IC 155
Recorded (Dec 30, 1893) by
Max Wolf
A nonexistent object in Cassiopeia (RA 01 47 27.6, Dec +59 47 09)
Per Dreyer, IC 155 (Max Wolf #3214, 1860 RA 1 38 00, NPD 30 55) is "very faint, considerably large, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 01 47 27.6, Dec +59 47 09 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there (NED lists the position as RA 01 47 32.3, Dec +60 36 39, but that is incorrect). Corwin states that Wolf gives the position three times in his paper, so it cannot be due to an error in reduction or transcription, and he suspects that it may be one of the earliest examples of a plate defect being mistaken for a nebula.
SDSS image of region near Wolf's position for IC 155
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on Wolf's position for IC 155

IC 156 (= PGC 6448)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (536)
A 14th-magnitude galaxy (type (R)SAB(rs)a?) in Pisces (RA 01 45 29.1, Dec +10 33 12)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5525 km/sec, IC 156 is about 260 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.3 by 1.0 arcmin, it is about 100 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 156
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 156
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 154
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 156, also showing spiral galaxy IC 154

IC 157
Recorded (Sep 25, 1890) by
Lewis Swift
A lost or nonexistent object in Pisces (RA 01 45 42.2, Dec +12 52 25)
Per Dreyer, IC 157 (Swift list X (#10), 1860 RA 01 38 14, NPD 77 49.8) is "most extremely faint, small, round, double star to west, northeastern of 2", the other being IC 153. The position precesses to RA 01 45 42.2, Dec +12 52 25 (whence the position above), but there is nothing anywhere near that location save for a 13th-magnitude star that Swift couldn't possibly have mistaken for an object described as "most extremely faint". Per Corwin, Swift "discovered" four "nebulae" in this region (IC 151, 152, 153 and 157) "for which his positions refer to nothing in the area", so essentially the same comments apply to each of them.
SDSS image of region near the position of the apparently nonexistent IC 157 (indicated by a box)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the position of the nonexistent IC 157

IC 158 (= PGC 144318)
Discovered (Dec 14, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (537)
A 15th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Cetus (RA 01 45 53.4, Dec -06 56 07)
Based on a recessional velocity of 15675 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 158 is about 730 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 690 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 705 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.75 arcmin, the galaxy is about 200 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 158
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 158
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 158

IC 159 (= PGC 6505)
Discovered (Dec 17, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (538)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b pec) in Cetus (RA 01 46 25.0, Dec -08 38 12)
Based on a recessional velocity of 3915 km/sec, IC 159 is about 180 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.6 by 0.8 arcmin, it is about 85 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 159
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 159
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 159

IC 160 (= PGC 6511)
Discovered (Jan 2, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (71)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB0- pec?) in Cetus (RA 01 46 29.5, Dec -13 14 50)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5580 km/sec, IC 160 is about 260 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 90 thousand light years across.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 160
Above, a 1 arcmin wide view of IC 160
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 160

IC 161 (= PGC 6644)
Discovered (Jan 8, 1891) by
Lewis Swift (X-11)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Pisces (RA 01 48 43.8, Dec +10 30 30)
Corwin states that Swift's positions for IC 161 and 162 were poor, but that it seems certain he saw the brighter one in 1889 and both in 1890 (a more detailed discussion will be in the next iteration of this page). Hence the identifications are more likely to be correct than not. Based on a recessional velocity of 5335, IC 161 is about 250 million light years away. This is in the same distance range as IC 162, suggesting that whether they are a physical pair or not, they are at least members of the same group or cluster. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.45 arcmin, IC 161 is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 161
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 161; for a wide-field view see IC 162

IC 162 (= PGC 6643 =
Arp 228)
Discovered (Oct 3, 1889) by Lewis Swift (IX-3)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S0) in Pisces (RA 01 48 53.4, Dec +10 31 20)
(See IC 161 for Corwin's note about it and IC 162.) Based on a recessional velocity of 5160 km/sec, IC 162 is about 240 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 220 to 270 million light years. Given that and apparent size of 1.4 by 1.3 arcmin, about 100 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 162, which is also known as Arp 228, and spiral galaxy PGC 6653
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 162 and PGC 6653
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 161 and PGC 6653
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 162, which is also known as Arp 228, also showing spiral galaxies IC 161 and PGC 6653

PGC 6653
Not an IC object but listed here due to its proximity to
IC 162
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab pec?) in Pisces (RA 01 48 56.9, Dec +10 30 46)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.25 arcmin. Vr 5410 km/sec. At about the same distance as IC 162 (which see for images), so probably in the same group or cluster; and given its distorted appearance, perhaps even a physical companion of the IC object.

IC 163 (= PGC 6675)
Discovered (Dec 27, 1866) by
Truman Safford (72)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBdm) in Aries (RA 01 49 15.0, Dec +20 42 38)
Based on a recessional velocity of 2750 km/sec, IC 163 is about 130 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 85 to 120 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.9 by 0.85 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 163
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 163
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 163

IC 164 (= PGC 6666)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1889) by
Lewis Swift (IX-5)
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Cetus (RA 01 49 08.4, Dec -03 54 16)
Per Dreyer, IC 164 (Swift list IX (#5), 1860 RA 01 42 19, NPD 94 37.2) is "pretty faint, small, round, between 2 stars (perhaps a small cluster)". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 01 42 03. The corrected position precesses to RA 01 49 07.0, Dec -03 55 18, only an arcmin south of the galaxy, and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain. Based on a recessional velocity of 5280 km/sec, IC 164 is about 245 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.0 by 1.4 arcmin, it is about 140 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 164
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 164
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 164

IC 165 (=
NGC 684 = PGC 6759)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 684)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1890) by Edward Swift (and later listed as IC 165)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Triangulum (RA 01 50 14.1, Dec +27 38 46)
Per Dreyer, IC 165 (Swift list IX (#6), 1860 RA 01 42 19, NPD 63 04.2) is "extremely faint, small, a little extended, very faint star close to east". The position precesses to RA 01 50 12.4, Dec +27 37 38, just south of the galaxy, and the 12th-magnitude star to its east makes the identification certain. The second IC noted the identity with NGC 684 (which see for anything else). Per Corwin, that equality was probably first pointed out by Isaac Roberts in 1897, so it has been known for more than a century.

IC 166 (= OCL 334)
Discovered (1890) by
William Denning
A 12th-magnitude open cluster (type III1r) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 52 22.0, Dec +61 51 12)
Apparent size 8.0 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near open cluster IC 166
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 166

IC 167 (=
Arp 31 = PGC 6833)
Discovered (Jan 4, 1889) by Guillaume Bigourdan (133)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c) in Aries (RA 01 51 08.5, Dec +21 54 45)
Based on a recessional velocity of 2930 km/sec, IC 167 is about 135 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 65 to 110 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.9 by 1.9 arcmin, it is about 115 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 167
Above, a 3 arcmin wide view of IC 167
Below, a 12 arcmin wide view of the region near the galaxy, also showing NGC 694
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 167, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 694

IC 168 (= PGC 6763)
Discovered (Oct 7, 1891) by
Sherburne Burnham
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Cetus (RA 01 50 27.5, Dec -08 31 25)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5355 km/sec, IC 168 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.05 by 0.4 arcmin, it is about 75 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 168
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 168
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 168

IC 169 (= PGC 949241)
Discovered (Jan 2, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (72)
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 50 39.3, Dec -12 40 45)
Based on a recessional velocity of 8475 km/sec, IC 169 is about 395 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.75 by 0.55 arcmin, it is about 85 thousand light years across.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 169
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 169
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 169

IC 170 (= PGC 6890 = PGC 174275)
Discovered (Dec 17, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (540)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 51 57.4, Dec -08 31 02)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5215 km/sec, IC 170 is about 240 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 170
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 170
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 170

IC 171 (= PGC 7139)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1888) by
Lewis Swift (VIII-1)
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Triangulum (RA 01 55 10.3, Dec +35 16 55)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5360 km/sec, IC 171 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.2 by 1.5 arcmin, it is about 160 thousand light years across.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 171
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 171
(Serious photomosaic artifacts have been removed as well as time permitted)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 171

IC 172 (= PGC 7116)
Discovered (Dec 12, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (541)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab pec?) in Cetus (RA 01 54 54.2, Dec +00 48 42)
Based on a recessional velocity of 8210 km/sec, IC 172 is about 380 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.65 arcmin, it is about 105 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 172
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 172
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 172

IC 173 (= PGC 7217)
Discovered (Dec 26, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (542)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc) in Cetus (RA 01 55 57.1, Dec +01 17 05)
Based on a recessional velocity of 13915 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 173 is about 650 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 615 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 630 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 160 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 173
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 173
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 175
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 173, also showing spiral galaxy IC 175

IC 174 (= PGC 7249)
Discovered (Nov 5, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle (73)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0 pec?) in Pisces (RA 01 56 16.1, Dec +03 45 45)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5205 km/sec, IC 174 is about 240 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.35 by 0.85 arcmin, it is about 95 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 174
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 174
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 174

IC 175 (= PGC 7261)
Discovered (Dec 26, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (543)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SABab?) in Cetus (RA 01 56 18.8, Dec +01 19 57)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin; apparently nothing else available.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 175
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 175
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 173
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 175, also showing spiral galaxy IC 173

IC 176 (= PGC 7306)
Discovered (Dec 3, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle (74)
A 14th-magnitude edge-on spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Cetus (RA 01 56 53.5, Dec -02 01 08)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4445 km/sec, IC 176 is about 205 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 175 to 220 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.05 by 0.4 arcmin, the galaxy is about 120 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 176
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 176
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 176

IC 177 (= PGC 7326)
Discovered (Nov 7, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Cetus (RA 01 57 00.6, Dec -00 05 21)
Per Dreyer, IC 177 (Javelle #75, 1860 RA 01 49 57, NPD 90 50.1) is "faint, very small, round, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 01 57 06.5, Dec -00 08 57, which is 4 arcmin south-southeast of the galaxy listed above. As noted by Corwin, this is an uncharacteristically large error for Javelle. Per Thomson, Javelle used the wrong position for his reference star, causing the 1860 position to be 6 seconds of RA and 3' 25" of NPD too large. This implies a corrected 1860 position of RA 01 49 51, NPD 90 46.7, which precesses to RA 01 57 00.6, Dec -00 05 32, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain after all. However, under the circumstances it is hardly surprising that a misidentification was also made, involving a galaxy (PGC 7299) almost 6 arcmin southwest of the IC's incorrect position. Based on a recessional velocity of 13545 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 177 is about 630 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was nearly 600 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, a little over 610 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.55 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 95 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 177
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 177
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 177

PGC 7299 (not =
IC 177)
Not an IC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as IC 177
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Cetus (RA 01 56 48.5, Dec -00 12 46)
Vr = 13625 km/sec (z = 0.04545). Redshift-independent distance estimates 465 to 765 light years. Apparent size 0.65 by 0.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 7299
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 7299
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 7299

IC 178 (= PGC 7488)
Discovered (Nov 8, 1866) by
Truman Safford (67)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab) in Andromeda (RA 01 58 54.9, Dec +36 40 30)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4840 km/sec, IC 178 is about 225 million light years away, in good agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 230 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.75 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 178
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 178
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 178

IC 179 (= PGC 7581)
Discovered (Jun 28, 1890) by
Lewis Swift (X-13)
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Andromeda (RA 02 00 11.5, Dec +38 01 17)
Per Dreyer, IC 179 (Swift list X (#13), 1860 RA 01 51 33, NPD 52 38.9) is "pretty bright, small, a little extended, 9.5 magnitude star to northeast". The second lists a corrected 1860 RA (per Howe) of 01 51 50. The corrected position precesses to RA 02 00 10.4, Dec +38 02 01, on the northern edge of the galaxy, and even if the position weren't as accurate, the star to the northeast would make the identification certain. Based on a recessional velocity of 4210 km/sec, IC 179 is about 195 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 180 to 220 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.0 by 1.3 arcmin, it is about 115 thousand light years across
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 179
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 179
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 179

IC 180 (= PGC 7558)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (544)
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB0/(s)a?) in Aries (RA 02 00 00.3, Dec +23 36 18)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4910 km/sec, IC 180 is about 230 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.4 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 180
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 180
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 776 and IC 181
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 180, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 776 and lenticular galaxy IC 181

IC 181 (= PGC 7559)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (545)
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Aries (RA 02 00 02.3, Dec +23 39 33)
Apparent size 0.55 by 0.45 arcmin; apparently nothing else available.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 181, also showing part of spiral galaxy NGC 776
Above, a 1.24 arcmin wide closeup of IC 181
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 776 and IC 180
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 181, also showing spiral galaxies NGC 776 and IC 180

IC 182 (= PGC 7556)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (546)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SBb) in Pisces (RA 01 59 51.7, Dec +07 24 44)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4695 km/sec, IC 182 is about 220 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.85 by 0.6 arcmin, the inner brighter region is about 55 thousand light years across. Its fainter outer region, with an apparent size of 1.3 by 1.2 arcmin, is about 85 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 182
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 182
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 182

IC 183 (= PGC 7538)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (547)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S0/a?) in Cetus (RA 01 59 33.9, Dec -05 20 50)
Based on a recessional velocity of 3800 km/sec, IC 183 is about 175 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.25 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 183
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 183
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 183

IC 184 (= PGC 7554)
Discovered (Oct 15, 1887) by
Ormond Stone (55)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)a?) in Cetus (RA 01 59 51.1, Dec -06 50 26)
Based on a recessional velocity of 5380 km/sec, IC 184 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.1 by 0.55 arcmin, it is about 80 thousand light years across. Listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 184
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 184
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 184

IC 185 (= PGC 7576)
Discovered (Dec 14, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (548)
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Cetus (RA 02 00 06.1, Dec -01 31 40)
Based on a recessional velocity of 13190 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 177 is about 615 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was nearly 585 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 595 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.55 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 95 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 185
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 185
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 186
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 185, also showing the triplet of galaxies listed as IC 186

IC 186 (= PGC 7599 (= PGC 144487) + PGC 7600)
Discovered (Dec 14, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (549)
Three galaxies in Cetus
PGC 7599 = A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) at RA 02 00 24.0, Dec -01 33 11
PGC 7600 = A pair of lenticular galaxies (IC 186 NED 02 and IC 186 NED 03)
IC 186 NED03 = A 16th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) at RA 02 00 25.4, Dec -01 33 05
IC 186 NED02 = A 17th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) at RA 02 00 25.3, Dec -01 32 54
The three galaxies that comprise IC 186 are believed to be an interacting triplet. The two brighter galaxies have recessional velocities of 12830 and 12760 km/sec, but that of the faintest galaxy is unknown. Based on an average recessional velocity of 12795 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 186 is about 595 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the group was 565 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, almost 580 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and their apparent sizes of 0.6 by 0.35, 0.25 by 0.2 and 0.2 by 0.1 arcmin, the members of the triplet are about 100, 40 and 30 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 7599 and the pair of lenticular galaxies that comprise PGC 7600, the triplet being known collectively as IC 186
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 186
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the triplet, also showing IC 185
SDSS image of the triplet of lenticular galaxies listed as IC 186, also showing spiral galaxy IC 185

IC 187 (= PGC 7683 + PGC 2800932)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1890) by
Edward Swift
A pair of interacting galaxies in Triangulum
PGC 7683 = A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) at RA 02 01 30.7, Dec +26 28 52
PGC 2800932 = A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) at RA 02 01 33.8, Dec +26 29 05
Per Dreyer, IC 187 (Swift list IX (#7), 1860 RA 01 53 56, NPD 64 12.4) is "most extremely faint, round". The position precesses to RA 02 01 51.4, Dec +26 28 19, almost 5 arcmin east-southeast of the pair of galaxies listed above, but there is nothing else nearby, so the identification with the pair seems reasonable and has been generally accepted. The two galaxies have nearly identical recessional velocities (5145 and 5150 km/sec). Based on that they have a Hubble-redshift distance of about 240 million light years, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 220 to 280 million light years. Given that and apparent sizes of 2.0 by 0.7 arcmin for PGC 7683 and 1.3 by 0.3 arcmin for PGC 2800932, the galaxies are about 130 and 45 thousand light years across. They are presumed to be physical companions.
SDSS image of PGC 7683 and 2800932, the pair of spiral galaxies listed as IC 187
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 187
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy pair, also showing PGC 7706
SDSS image of PGC 7683 and 2800932, the pair of spiral galaxies listed as IC 187, also showing spiral galaxy PGC 7706, which is sometimes (probably incorrectly) identified as IC 188

IC 188
Recorded (Jan 18, 1890) by
Edward Swift
Probably a nonexistent object in Triangulum (RA 02 01 57.6, Dec +27 01 43)
Per Dreyer, IC 188 (Swift list IX (#8), 1860 RA 01 54 01, NPD 63 39.0) is "most extremely faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 02 01 57.6, Dec +27 01 43, whence the position above, but there is nothing there, or anywhere near there. However, Corwin lists a galaxy half a degree to the south (PGC 7706) as the IC object, and since he is a well-respected authority in the field several databases (including the NED) have accepted that identification. The argument in favor of PGC 7706 is that half-degree errors, though rare, have been shown to occur in the NGC/IC, and as Corwin notes (referring to IC 187 and 188), "Though large errors exist in Swift's places for these two galaxies, they could have been seen by him, and the descriptions are not inconsistent." And it is possible that two 13th-magnitude stars well to the north-northwest of PGC 7706 are what Lewis Swift's Catalogue No. 9 (which credits his son Edward with the discovery) referred to in stating that "2 stars point to it". The argument against PGC 7706 is that although half-degree errors have been shown to occur, they should only be accepted when the description of the object is unequivocal. Swift's description could be applied to PGC 7706, but it could just as easily be applied to a completely nonexistent object, as it puts the "most extremely faint" object at or beyond the limits of his ability to reliably see anything at all. The note about two stars pointing at it does not convincingly apply to the stars to PGC 7706's north-northwest, as they are further from the galaxy than is normally the case in such descriptions, and if you go far enough afield it is easy to find a pair of stars that align with almost any object simply by random chance. Perhaps most telling, as pointed out by Thomson, is that Swift makes no mention of the relative positions of IC 187 and 188. In other cases of two nebulae found in the same region on the same night Swift invariably states that each is "one of 2" preceding or following the other, along with an indication of their relative positions. In this case neither entry mentions the other, suggesting that they were not in the same region. But on the night in question, as noted in Catalogue No. 9, Edward was searching for "Swift's Comet", one of several discovered by his father, and was using a wide-field objective that would have shown both objects in the same field of view if they were as close together as PGC 7706 and IC 187. Under these circumstances, although it is possible that PGC 7706 is IC 188, it seems more likely that the IC entry refers to a nonexistent object, hence my choice to describe it as such. But as in all cases where some controversy exists about the identification of an NGC/IC object, I have provided an entry for PGC 7706 immediately following this one.
SDSS image of region centered on the position of the apparently nonexistent IC 188
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the position of the apparently nonexistent IC 188

PGC 7706 (probably not =
IC 188)
Probably not an IC object, but listed here since sometimes (probably incorrectly) listed as IC 188
A 14th-magnitude galaxy (type Sa pec?) in Triangulum (RA 02 01 46.3, Dec +26 32 46)
(See IC 188 for the arguments for and against PGC 7706 being that IC object.) Based on a recessional velocity of 5010 km/sec, PGC 7706 is about 235 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 175 to 210 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin, it is about 45 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 7706, which is sometimes (probably incorrectly) identified as IC 188
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 7706
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 187
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 7706, which is sometimes (probably incorrectly) identified as IC 188; also shown is the pair of spiral galaxies listed as IC 187

IC 189 (= PGC 7716)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (550)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Aries (RA 02 01 52.9, Dec +23 33 04)
Based on a recessional velocity of 12345 km/sec, a straightforwad calculation indicates that IC 189 is about 575 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was nearly 550 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 560 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.75 by 0.65 arcmin, it is about 120 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 189
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 189
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 190
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 189, also showing also showing elliptical galaxy IC 190

IC 190 (= PGC 7731)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (551)
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Aries (RA 02 02 07.2, Dec +23 33 01)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4770 km/sec, IC 190 is about 220 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.55 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 190
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 190
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 189
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 190, also showing also showing spiral galaxy IC 189

IC 191 (=
NGC 794 = PGC 7763)
Discovered (Oct 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 794)
"Discovered" (Oct 20, 1889) by Lewis Swift (and later recorded as IC 191)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0-?) in Aries (RA 02 02 29.4, Dec +18 22 22)
Per Dreyer, IC 191 (Swift list IX (#9), 1860 RA 01 54 47, NPD 72 18.5) is "pretty bright, pretty large, a little extended [probably = h188]", h188 being NGC 794 (which see for anything else). The position precesses to RA 02 02 27.4, Dec +18 22 09, on the southwestern edge of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. The duplicate listing was obviously suspected right from the beginning. Per Corwin, Dreyer noted that the position of Swift's object was essentially the same as that recorded by Herschel and his son, John Herschel; but the descriptions were so different that he listed them as different objects.

IC 192 (= PGC 7768)
Discovered (Feb 14, 1890) by
Rudolf Spitaler (4)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Aries (RA 02 02 32.4, Dec +16 00 51)
Based on a recessional velocity of 3895 km/sec, IC 192 is about 180 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 45 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 192
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 192
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 192

IC 193 (= PGC 7765)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1887) by
Lewis Swift (VII-3)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)c) in Aries (RA 02 02 31.0, Dec +11 05 35)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4650 km/sec, IC 193 is about 215 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.6 by 1.2 arcmin, it is about 100 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 193
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 193
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy (with glare from 7th-magnitude HD 12512)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 193

IC 194 (= PGC 7812)
Discovered (Jan 6, 1894) by
Stephane Javelle (552)
A 14th-magnitude edge-on spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 03 05.1, Dec +02 36 50)
Based on a recessional velocity of 6385 km/sec, IC 194 is about 295 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 290 to 330 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.9 by 0.25 arcmin, it is about 165 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 194
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 194
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 194

IC 195 (= PGC 7846, and with
IC 196 = Arp 290)
Discovered (Oct 20, 1889) by Lewis Swift (IX-10)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB0 pec) in Aries (RA 02 03 44.6, Dec +14 42 33)
Based on a recessional velocity of 3660 km/sec, IC 195 is about 170 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.25 by 0.65 arcmin, it is about 60 thousand light years across. Since it and IC 196 have distorted appearances and essentially identical distances, they are probably a strongly interacting pair.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 195, also showing part of spiral galaxy IC 196, with which it comprises Arp 290
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 195, also showing part of IC 196
Below, a 3 by 4 arcmin closeup of the pair
SDSS image of interacting spiral galaxies IC 195 and 196, also known as Arp 290
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near interacting spiral galaxies IC 195 and 196, also known as Arp 290

IC 196 (= PGC 7856, and with
IC 195 = Arp 290)
Discovered (Oct 20, 1889) by Lewis Swift (IX-11)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb pec) in Aries (RA 02 03 49.7, Dec +14 44 21)
Based on a recessional velocity of 3645 km/sec, IC 196 is about 170 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 145 to 160 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.7 by 0.9 arcmin, it is about 135 thousand light years across. Since it and IC 195 have distorted appearances and essentially identical distances, they are probably a strongly interacting pair.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 196, also known as part of Arp 290
Above, a 2.4 by 3 arcmin wide closeup of IC 196 (see IC 195 for wider views)
(PGC 212903, the small galaxy at upper left, is a far more distant background object)

IC 197 (= PGC 7875)
Discovered (Jan 6, 1894) by
Stephane Javelle (553)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc) in Pisces (RA 02 04 04.9, Dec +02 47 12)
Based on a recessional velocity of 6330 km/sec, IC 197 is about 295 million light years away, in unusually poor agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 190 to 220 million light years. Given the uncertainty in its distance its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.4 arcmin corresponds to a size of 60 to 80 thousand light years.
SDSS image of spiral galaxies IC 197 and PGC 212906
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide view of IC 197 and apparent companion PGC 212906
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the optical double
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxies IC 197 and PGC 212906

IC 198 (= PGC 8011)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle (554)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Pisces (RA 02 06 03.1, Dec +09 17 46)
Based on a recessional velocity of 9245 km/sec, IC 198 is about 430 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 290 to 400 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.5 arcmin, it is about 120 thousand light years across. Possibly a gravitationally bound pair with IC 199.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 198
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 198
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 199
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 198, also showing spiral galaxy IC 199

IC 199 (=
IC 1778 = PGC 8026)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (555) (and later recorded as IC 199)
"Rediscovered" (1897) by Stephane Javelle (and later recorded as IC 1778)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab) in Pisces (RA 02 06 19.4, Dec +09 13 38)
Per Dreyer, IC 199 (Javelle #555, 1860 RA 01 58 54, NPD 81 25.6) is "faint, small, round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 02 06 19.2, Dec +09 14 39, only an arcmin north of the galaxy, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain. (For a discussion of the double listing see IC 1778.) Based on a recessional velocity of 9260 km/sec, IC 199 is about 430 million light years away, in relatively poor agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 340 to 360 million light years. Given the uncertainty in its distance, its apparent size of 1.25 by 0.5 arcmin corresponds to a size of 125 to 160 thousand light years. Possibly a gravitationally bound pair with IC 198.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 199
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 199
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 198
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 199, also showing spiral galaxy IC 198
Celestial Atlas
(IC 100 - 149) ←     IC Objects: IC 150 - 199     → (IC 200 - 249)