Celestial Atlas
(IC 150 - 199) ←IC Objects: IC 200 - 249 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (IC 250 - 299)
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Page last updated Jun 10, 2017
Checked Corwin positions, updated formatting for historical/physical entries
Checked Dreyer entries, Steinicke revised historical database, removed title tags
Updated image/tag formatting, pix
WORKING 215: Updating distance calculations / images
NEXT STEP: Historical identification / physical information

IC 200 (= PGC 7967)
Discovered (Dec 1, 1866) by
Truman Safford
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Triangulum (RA 02 05 26.6, Dec +31 10 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 200 (Safford 71, 1860 RA 01 59 18, NPD 59 29.9) is "pretty bright, pretty large, round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 02 07 25.5, Dec +31 10 16, but there is nothing there. Two galaxies have been tentatively identified as IC 200: PGC 8064, a 15th-magnitude galaxy about 35 seconds of time to the west of Safford's position, and the considerably brighter PGC 7967, about 2 minutes of time to the west. As noted by Corwin, the nearer galaxy is probably too faint for Safford to have observed it, and Safford made a number of whole-minute errors in his records, so the 2 minutes of time error for PGC 7967 would be a more likely one than the fractional minute error for PGC 8064. Given that and the difference in brightness, PGC 7967 is by far the more likely candidate for what Safford observed, and is therefore treated as such in this entry; but since PGC 8064 is listed as IC 200 in some databases, it is discussed immediately following this entry.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5275 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 200 is about 245 million light years away, in good agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 235 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.5 by 1.5 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 175 to 180 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 7967, which is almost certainly IC 200
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 7967, which is probably IC 200
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 7967, which is almost certainly IC 200

PGC 8064 (not =
IC 200)
Not an IC object but listed here since often misidentified as IC 200
A 15th-magnitude galaxy (type SBd pec?) in Triangulum (RA 02 06 49.6, Dec +31 09 26)
Historical Misidentification: (See IC 200 for a discussion of the misidentification.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3845 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 8064 is about 180 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 30 to 35 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 8064, which is often misidentified as IC 200
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 8064, which is probably not IC 200
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 8064, which is often misidentified as IC 200

IC 201 (= PGC 212916)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Cetus (RA 02 07 15.3, Dec +09 06 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 201 (Javelle #556, 1860 RA 01 59 50, NPD 81 33.8) is "very faint, small, diffuse".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.35 arcmin (from the images below); apparently nothing else available
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 201, also showing IC 202 and 203
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 201, also showing IC 202 and 203
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 201
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy IC 201

IC 202 (= PGC 8101)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Cetus (RA 02 07 28.7, Dec +09 10 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 202 (Javelle #557, 1860 RA 02 00 03, NPD 81 30.5) is "very faint, very small, diffuse".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 9120 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 202 is about 425 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 340 to 355 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 410 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, a little over 415 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.4 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 165 to 170 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 202, also showing IC 201 and 203
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 202, also showing IC 201 and 203
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxyDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 202
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy IC 202

IC 203 (= PGC 212915)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 16th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Cetus (RA 02 07 29.7, Dec +09 07 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 203 (Javelle #558, 1860 RA 02 00 05, NPD 81 33.4) is "very faint, very small, round, 10th magnitude star to southeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below); apparently nothing else available
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 203, also showing IC 201 and 202
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 203, also showing IC 201 and 202
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 203
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy IC 203

IC 204 (= PGC 8100)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1867) by
Truman Safford
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Cetus (RA 02 07 27.1, Dec -01 25 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 204 (Safford 98, 1860 RA 02 00 17, NPD 92 03.6) has "No description".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11865 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 204 is about 550 to 555 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was nearly 530 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, just under 540 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 75 to 80 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 204
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 204
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 204

IC 205 (= PGC 8098)
Discovered (Dec 3, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)bc?) in Cetus (RA 02 07 27.6, Dec -02 05 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 205 (Javelle #76, 1860 RA 02 00 22, NPD 92 45.9) is "pretty bright, very small, irregularly round".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8345 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 205 is about 385 to 390 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was a little over 375 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, a little over 380 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 105 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 205
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 205
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 205

IC 206 (= PGC 8238)
Discovered (Jan 26, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBdm?) in Cetus (RA 02 09 30.8, Dec -06 58 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 206 (Javelle #77, 1860 RA 02 00 34, NPD 97 41.7) is "pretty faint, small, irregularly round". The position precesses to RA 02 07 31.8, Dec -07 01 37, but there is nothing there. Per Corwin, IC 206 and 207's identities were determined from the fact that Javelle's positions for IC 206 and 207 have the same relative positions as two galaxies that match Javelle's descriptions. This suggested that Javelle might have used a reference star that was not the same as the one he thought he used. Per Thomson, it turns out that in both cases Javelle said he used CD-7 364 (J2000 RA 02 08 25.2, Dec -07 03 27) as his reference star, but must have actually used CD-7 372 (J2000 RA 02 10 23.6, Dec -07 00 02). The difference in the stars' positions led to an 1860 RA that was 1m 58s too small, and an NPD that was 3.6 arcmin too large. A corrected 1860 position for IC 206 (RA 02 02 32, NPD 97 38.1) precesses to RA 02 09 29.8, Dec -06 58 13, almost exactly on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4845 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 206 is about 225 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 60 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 206, also showing IC 207
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 206, also showing IC 207
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 206

IC 207 (= PGC 8251)
Discovered (Jan 26, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 09 39.4, Dec -06 55 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 107 (Javelle #78, 1860 RA 02 00 43, NPD 97 39.0) is "pretty faint, small, irregularly round". The position precesses to RA 02 07 40.9, Dec -06 58 55, but there is nothing there. Per Corwin, IC 206 and 207's identities were determined from the fact that Javelle's positions for IC 206 and 207 have the same relative positions as two galaxies that match Javelle's descriptions. This suggested that Javelle might have used a reference star that was not the same as the one he thought he used. Per Thomson, it turns out that in both cases Javelle said he used CD-7 364 (J2000 RA 02 08 25.2, Dec -07 03 27) as his reference star, but must have actually used CD-7 372 (J2000 RA 02 10 23.6, Dec -07 00 02). The difference in the stars' positions led to an 1860 RA that was 1m 58s too small, and an NPD that was 3.6 arcmin too large. A corrected 1860 position for IC 207 (RA 02 02 41, NPD 97 35.4) precesses to RA 02 09 38.8, Dec -06 55 32, almost exactly on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4870 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 207 is about 225 to 230 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.4 by 0.35 arcmin for the central galaxy and 2.25 by 0.45 arcmin for its outer extensions (from the images below), the central part of the galaxy is about 90 to 95 thousand light years across and the outer extensions span about 145 to 150 thousand light years.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 207, also showing spiral galaxy IC 206
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 207, also showing IC 206
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its outer extensions
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 207 and its outer extensions
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the main galaxySDSS image of central portion of spiral galaxy IC 207

IC 208 (= PGC 8167)
Discovered (Dec 3, 1888) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 08 27.8, Dec +06 23 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 208 (Bigourdan #134, 1860 RA 02 01 08, NPD 84 18) is "very faint, pretty large, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 02 08 28.5, Dec +06 22 01, about 1.7 arcmin south of the galaxy, but the description fits, and the only other nearby object is the previously known NGC 825, so the identification is reasonably certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3525 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 208 is about 165 million light years away, over 40 million light years further than the few redshift-independent distance estimates of about 120 to 125 million light years. Assuming the Hubble distance is more accurate, the galaxy's apparent size of about 1.55 by 1.4 arcmin (based on the images below) corresponds to about 75 thousand light years.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 208, also showing NGC 825
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 208, also showing NGC 825
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 208

IC 209 (= PGC 8200)
Discovered (Jan 28, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 02 08 58.7, Dec -07 03 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 209 (Javelle #79, 1860 RA 02 02 00, NPD 97 43.6) is "pretty bright, small, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 02 08 57.6, Dec -07 03 40, almost exactly on the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3965 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 209 is about 185 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 185 to 210 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.65 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 85 to 90 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 209
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 209
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 209

IC 210 (= PGC 8232)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1867) by
Aaron Skinner
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 09 28.2, Dec -09 40 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 210 (Safford 101, 1860 RA 02 02 32, NPD 100 20.3) has "no description". The position precesses to RA 02 09 25.0, Dec -09 40 25, less than an arcmin northwest of the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer cites Safford's paper, a footnote in the paper states that Skinner was the actual observer.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1940 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 210 is about 90 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 60 to 90 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.1 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 55 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 210
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 210
Below, a 2.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 210

IC 211 (= PGC 8360)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 02 11 08.0, Dec +03 51 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 211 (Javelle #559, 1860 RA 02 03 53, NPD 86 49.2) is "faint, pretty small, round, brighter middle, (NGC) 851 to southeast".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3255 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 211 is about 150 to 155 million light years away, nearly twice as far as redshift-independent distance estimates of about 75 to 85 million light years. If the Hubble distance is correct, the galaxy's apparent size of about 2.3 by 1.65 arcmin (from the images below) corresponds to about 100 to 105 thousand light years, but if the redshift-independent distances are more accurate, the galaxy is only about 55 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 211, also showing NGC 851
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 211, also showing NGC 851
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 211

IC 212 (= PGC 8527)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S(rs)ab? pec) in Aries (RA 02 13 38.2, Dec +16 35 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 212 (Javelle #560, 1860 RA 02 05 57, NPD 74 03.8) is "faint, very small, round, stellar".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11090 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 212 is about 515 to 520 million light years away, somewhat further than redshift-independent distance estimates of about 400 to 465 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 495 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 505 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below, including its distorted outer arms), the galaxy is about 105 to 110 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 212
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 212
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 212

IC 213 (= PGC 8556)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)ab?) in Aries (RA 02 14 04.3, Dec +16 27 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 213 (Javelle #561, 1860 RA 02 06 24, NPD 74 12.4) is "faint, small, gradually brighter middle, 13.5 magnitude star close".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8215 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 213 is about 380 to 385 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 365 to 460 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 370 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 375 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 2.1 by 1.4 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 225 to 230 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 213
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 213
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 213

IC 214 (= PGC 8562 = PGC 1279308)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude double galaxy (type SBb? + Irr? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 14 05.7, Dec +05 10 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 214 (Javelle #562, 1860 RA 02 06 46, NPD 85 29.4) is "pretty bright, small, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: An extremely distorted and active galaxy, almost certainly a result of the collision or merger of two galaxies. Based on a recessional velocity of 9060 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that IC 214 is about 420 to 425 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 405 to 410 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 410 to 415 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy pair is about 85 to 90 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near the interacting double galaxy IC 214
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 214
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy pair
SDSS image of the interacting double galaxy IC 214

WORKING HERE: Updating distance/size calculations

IC 215 (= PGC 8566)
Discovered (Jan 28, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 14 09.4, Dec -06 48 23)
Historical Identification: Javelle #80, 1860 RA 02 07 12, NPD 97 27.6) is "pretty bright, extended east-west".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 215
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 215
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 215

IC 216 (= PGC 8650)
Discovered (Dec 4, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Cetus (RA 02 15 55.5, Dec -02 00 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 216 (Javelle #81, 1860 RA 02 08 50, NPD 92 39.9) is "very faint, extremely small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.35 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 216
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 216
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 216

IC 217 (=
IC 1787 = PGC 8673)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1893) by Stephane Javelle (and later recorded as IC 217)
"Discovered" (1896) by Lewis Swift (and later recorded as IC 1787)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Cetus (RA 02 16 10.6, Dec -11 55 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 217 (Javelle #563, 1860 RA 02 09 24, NPD 102 34.9) is "faint, pretty large, extended north-south". The position precesses to RA 02 16 12.0, Dec -11 55 45, nearly on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. (See IC 1787 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 2.5 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 217
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 217
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 217

IC 218 (= PGC 8716)
Discovered (Dec 26, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 17 07.3, Dec +01 16 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 218 (Javelle #564, 1860 RA 02 09 56, NPD 89 22.0) is "very faint, small, diffuse, 13.5 magnitude star close, (NGC) 875 to southeast".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 218, also showing NGC 875
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 218, also showing NGC 875
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 218

Corwin notes the presence of a companion to IC 218 at RA 02 17 10.1, Dec +01 17 00

IC 219 (= PGC 8813)
Discovered (Nov 17, 1887) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Jan 26, 1892) by Stephane Javelle
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Cetus (RA 02 18 38.8, Dec -06 54 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 219 (Javelle #82, Ormond Stone (#67), 1860 RA 02 11 41, NPD 97 33.4) is "pretty bright, small, stellar".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer cites Stone's paper, the paper states that Muller was the actual observer.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5050 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 219 is about 235 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 75 thousand light years across. (Note: PGC 8816, the apparently smaller companion of IC 219, is a much more distant background galaxy, not an actual companion, and twice the size of its nearer "neighbor".)
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 219 and the much more distant PGC 8816
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 219, also showing PGC 8816
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the optical double
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 219 and the much more distant PGC 8816

PGC 8816
Not an IC object but listed here because of its apparent proximity to
IC 219
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 02 18 37.9, Dec -06 53 45)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 22605 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 8816 is about 1050 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 965 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 1000 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.55 by 0.35 arcmin (from the image below), the galaxy is about 155 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 8816 and part of the much closer IC 219
Above, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 8816, also showing part of IC 219 (which see)

IC 220 (= PGC 8847 = PGC 947656)
Discovered (Jan 2, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 19 11.8, Dec -12 46 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 220 (Javelle #83, 1860 RA 02 12 26, NPD 103 25.8) is "very faint, diffuse, a very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 220
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 220
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 220
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy IC 220

IC 221 (= PGC 9035)
Discovered (Dec 24, 1891) by
Rudolf Spitaler
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc? pec) in Triangulum (RA 02 22 40.9, Dec +28 15 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 221 (Spitaler 1, 1860 RA 02 14 33, NPD 62 22.5) is "faint, pretty large, round".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.4 by 1.3 arcmin for the main galaxy, and about 2.3 by 1.4 arcmin with the faint northwestern extension (all from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 221
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 221
Below, a 2.0 by 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 221
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy IC 221
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the central portion of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of central portion of spiral galaxy IC 221

IC 222 (= PGC 9036)
Discovered (Jan 11, 1894) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S(rs)ab? pec) in Aries (RA 02 22 47.8, Dec +11 38 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 222 (Javelle #565, 1860 RA 02 15 18, NPD 79 00.1) is "faint, small, irregular, nuclear, excentric".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 222
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 222
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 222
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy IC 222

IC 223 (= PGC 8998)
Discovered (Nov 19, 1887) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Dec 1, 1888) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A 13th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IBm?) in Cetus (RA 02 22 01.1, Dec -20 44 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 223 (Bigourdan 135, Ormond Stone (#71), 1860 RA 02 15 34, NPD 111 23) is "very faint, small, diffuse, very faint stellar nucleus".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer cites Stone's paper, the paper states that Muller was the actual observer.
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below). Believed to be part of an interacting triplet with NGC 899 and 907.
DSS image of region near irregular galaxy IC 223, also showing NGC 899
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 223, also showing NGC 899
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of irregular galaxy IC 223
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of irregular galaxy IC 223

IC 224 (= PGC 9148)
Discovered (Oct 13, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0(rs)a?) in Cetus (RA 02 24 45.1, Dec -12 33 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 224 (Javelle #84, 1860 RA 02 18 00, NPD 103 12.3) is "faint, small, irregularly round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 224
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 224
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 224
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy IC 224

IC 225 (= PGC 9283 and perhaps =
NGC 867)
Possibly observed (Dec 21, 1783) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 867)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1893) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 225)
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type dE1? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 26 28.2, Dec +01 09 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 225 (Javelle #566, 1860 RA 02 19 15, NPD 89 27.8) is "faint, small, round, a very little brighter middle, 14th magnitude star 2 arcmin to northeast". The position precesses to RA 02 26 26.9, Dec +01 10 11, only half an arcmin northwest of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain. (For the slight possibility that this is also NGC 867, see that entry.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1535 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 225 is about 70 to 75 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 70 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.4 by 1.25 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 30 thousand light years across. That and its overall luminosity curve classify it as a dwarf elliptical galaxy (whence the "d" in its galaxy type). IC 225 is classified as a starburst galaxy, because it has an exceptionally blue core for an elliptical galaxy, and in fact has two blue cores with unusually high metallicity (that is, containing far more elements heavier than hydrogen and helium than usual for such a galaxy) separated by only 1.4 arcsec, or about 500 light years. The bluer, off-center core exhibits emission lines typically associated with gaseous nebulae and is blue-shifted relative to the other core (meaning that it is moving toward us relative to the central core). All these factors suggest that the star formation in the galaxy's core may be associated with the merger and collision of two even smaller galaxies.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 225
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 225
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 225

IC 226 (= PGC 9373)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1891) by
Rudolf Spitaler
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)Sa? pec) in Triangulum (RA 02 27 45.8, Dec +28 12 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 226 (Spitaler 2, 1860 RA 02 19 38, NPD 62 25.2) is "pretty faint, small, round, brighter middle, 2 faint stars to north".
Physical Information: Greatly distorted, and probably a starburst or Seyfert galaxy. (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 2.5 by 1.6 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 226, also showing IC 227
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 226, also showing IC 227
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 226
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 226

IC 227 (= PGC 9383)
Discovered (Dec 24, 1891) by
Rudolf Spitaler
A 15th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Triangulum (RA 02 28 03.6, Dec +28 10 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 227 (Spitaler 3, 1860 RA 02 19 56, NPD 62 27.2) is "faint, pretty small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 2.0 by 1.25 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 227, also showing IC 226
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 227, also showing IC 226
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 227
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of elliptical galaxy IC 227

IC 228 (=
NGC 944 = PGC 9300)
Discovered (Jan 1, 1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later recorded as NGC 944)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1891) by Stephane Javelle (and later recorded as IC 228)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Cetus (RA 02 26 41.5, Dec -14 30 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 228 (Javelle #85, 1860 RA 02 20 01, NPD 105 08.4) is "very small, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 02 26 42.3, Dec -14 30 29, just north of the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate listing, see NGC 944 for anything else.

Corwin notes the presence of an apparent companion of IC 228 at RA 02 26 39.2, Dec -14 30 45
(Note to self: Should put entry for that object after NGC 944)

IC 229
Recorded (1887) by
John Thome
Probably a 12th-magnitude star in Fornax (RA 02 27 23.8, Dec -23 50 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 229 (Thome (CD -24 1093), 1860 RA 02 21 02, NPD 114 27.0) is "a nebula, 10th magnitude". The position precesses to RA 02 27 22.9, Dec -23 49 11, but there is nothing there save for a 12th-magnitude star an arcmin to the south. The star is not separately recorded in the CD, so it is quite possible that it is what Thome observed, providing he made a one arcmin error in recording its declination. (A one minute correction to Thome's 1875 declination for CD -24 1093 puts the star only 0.6 seconds of time east of his corrected position, which is not much more than the average uncertainty of the Cordoba Durchmusterung's right ascensions.) Since single-digit errors are probably as common in the CD as in any other catalog, it is not at all unlikely that the star is IC 229. The difference in magnitude is no problem, as the CD listed all objects fainter than 10th magnitude as being exactly 10th magnitude, and the faintness of the star would have made it harder for Thome to determine its nature (in his 5-inch aperture objective a 12th-magnitude star would have been barely visible, and depending upon the quality of the night sky, more likely to be seen as a faint nebula than a definitely stellar object). Per Corwin, Dreyer took the object from one of the CD charts, where it was marked as a nebula, correctly measuring the position from the chart, but it cannot be a nebula as all of the nebulae in the area are too faint for Thome to have seen with his small objective. So IC 229 is either the star, or a nonexistent object.
DSS image of region near the star that is probably IC 229
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the star that is probably IC 229

IC 230 (= PGC 9436)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1891) by
Edward Burnham
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0/a?) in Cetus (RA 02 28 47.3, Dec -10 49 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 230 (Burnham, 1860 RA 02 22 01, NPD 101 27.9) is "extremely faint, small, 9.4 magnitude star 9 arcmin to northwest".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 230, also showing NGC 942 and NGC 943, also known as Arp 309
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 230, also showing NGC 942 and 943
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 230
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the central portion of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of the central portion of lenticular galaxy IC 230

IC 231 (= PGC 9514)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Cetus (RA 02 29 56.4, Dec +01 10 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 231 (Javelle #567, 1860 RA 02 22 42, NPD 89 26.0) is "faint, very small, round, stellar".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 231
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 231
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 231

IC 232 (= PGC 9588)
Discovered (Oct 15, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Cetus (RA 02 31 11.6, Dec +01 15 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 232 (Swift list VII (#4), 1860 RA 02 23 53, NPD 89 21.3) is "very faint, small, round (= Javelle 567?)", Javelle 567 being IC 231 (and not the same object).
Discovery Notes: Although the NGC positions for IC 231 and 232 are considerably different, Swift's positions were known to often be well off the mark, and the descriptions of the two objects are very similar; so although Dreyer's proposal that they might be the same object was incorrect it was not unreasonable to raise the question.
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 232
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 232
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 232

IC 233 (= PGC 9622)
Discovered (Jan 6, 1894) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sd?) in Cetus (RA 02 31 40.7, Dec +02 48 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 233 (Javelle #568, 1860 RA 02 24 24, NPD 87 48.8) is "pretty faint, small, round, a little brighter middle, very faint star 1 arcmin to south". The position precesses to RA 02 31 39.2, Dec +02 48 33, right on the galaxy, and there is a 15th-magnitude star an arcmin to the south that makes the identification certain. Despite this, Corwin points out, many references misidentify PGC 9610 (the fainter galaxy right next to the star) as IC 233 (for which reason it is discussed immediately below).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8245 km/sec (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 233 is about 385 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.45 by 0.3 arcmins, it is about 45 thousand light years across. Since it is about the same distance and direction as PGC 9610, they may be a physical pair.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 233 and spiral galaxy PGC 9610, which is often misidentified as IC 233
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 233, also showing PGC 9610
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 233

PGC 9610 (not =
IC 233)
Not an IC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as IC 233
A 16th-(B)magnitude galaxy (type SBd?) in Cetus (RA 02 31 41.6, Dec +02 47 56)
Historical Misidentification: (See IC 233 for a historical discussion and a wide-field image.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8240 km/sec (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 9610 is about 385 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.25 by 0.2 arcmin (from the image below), it is about 30 thousand light years across. Since it is about the same distance and direction as IC 233, they may be a physical pair.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 9610, which is often misidentified as IC 233
Above, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 9610, which is not IC 233

IC 234 (= PGC 9613)
Discovered (Nov 9, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBd?) in Cetus (RA 02 31 37.7, Dec -00 08 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 234 (Javelle #86, 1860 RA 02 24 26, NPD 90 45.6) is "faint, small, diffuse, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin, including faint outer regions (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 234
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 234
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 234

IC 235 (= PGC 9698)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R?)Sab? pec) in Aries (RA 02 32 50.8, Dec +20 38 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 235 (Javelle #569, 1860 RA 02 25 01, NPD 69 58.6) is "faint, small, diffuse".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.65 arcmin including fainter outer regions, and 0.45 by 0.35 for the brighter central galaxy (from the images below). Apparently superimposed on another (background?) galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 235
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 235
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 235

IC 236 (= PGC 1151183)
Discovered (Nov 9, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 32 55.8, Dec -00 07 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 236 (Javelle #87, 1860 RA 02 25 44, NPD 90 45.0) is "faint, small, diffuse, a very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.35 arcmin counting its faint outer extensions, and about 0.65 by 0.35 arcmin for the main galaxy (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 236
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 236
Below, a 1.0 by 1.1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 236

IC 237 (= PGC 9742)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab?) in Cetus (RA 02 33 31.6, Dec +01 08 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 237 (Javelle #570, 1860 RA 02 26 20, NPD 89 29.2) is "faint, small, round, 9.5 magnitude star to west".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 237
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 237
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 237

IC 238 (= PGC 9835)
Discovered (Oct 12, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Aries (RA 02 35 22.7, Dec +12 50 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 238 (Swift list VII (#5), 1860 RA 02 27 38, NPD 77 47.0) is "very faint, very small, round, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 238
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 237
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 238
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the central portion of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of central portion of lenticular galaxy IC 238

IC 239 (= PGC 9899)
Discovered (1893) by
Isaac Roberts
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd) in Andromeda (RA 02 36 27.8, Dec +38 58 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 239 (Roberts, 1860 RA 02 27 48, NPD 51 37.9) is "a very faint spiral, faint stellar nucleus".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of outer arms of about 6.4 by 6.3 arcmin (from the images below).
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near spiral galaxy IC 239 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on IC 239
(Image Credit & © above & below Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/U. of Arizona; used by permission)
Below, a 7 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of spiral galaxy IC 239

IC 240
Recorded (Dec 9, 1890) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
Probably a group of four 15th- to 17th-magnitude stars in Perseus (RA 02 38 58.6, Dec +41 43 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 240 (Bigourdan #136, 1860 RA 02 30 11, NPD 48 53) is "very faint, pretty small". The position precesses to RA 02 39 04.4, Dec +41 43 32, but there is nothing there save for scattered stars, and at a few arcmin distance three previously known NGC objects. Per Corwin, Bigourdan's detailed notes seem to indicate an error in the offsets used to calculate the position of his #136, but an erratum reverses the error, yielding the values copied by Dreyer to the IC. So the detailed notes add nothing but confusion, save for a statement that the object is about 35 to 40 arcsec in size. This suggests that the line of four stars about 35 arcsec long and just over an arcmin west of the IC position is what Bigourdan observed, and although that identification cannot be regarded as certain, it seems the most likely.
DSS image of region near the group of four stars listed as IC 240; also shown are NGC 996, NGC 999 and NGC 1001
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 240, also showing NGC 996, 999 and 1001

IC 241 (= PGC 9969)
Discovered (Nov 19, 1886) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Cetus (RA 02 37 54.5, Dec +02 19 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 241 (Bigourdan #137, 1860 RA 02 30 41, NPD 88 17) is "very faint, pretty small, round, stellar nucleus".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 241, also showing part of NGC 1009
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 241, also showing part of NGC 1009
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 241

IC 242
Recorded (Jan 26, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle
One of a pair of 16th-magnitude stars in Cetus (RA 02 38 24.0, Dec -06 56 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 242 (Javelle #88, 1860 RA 02 31 29, NPD 97 32.3) is "extremely faint, extremely small, very faint star close". The position precesses to RA 02 38 24.4, Dec -06 55 49, just north of the double star listed above. Per Corwin, Javelle's original notes read "nearly in contact with a very small star", and his good position for IC 243 (which see for an image), discovered by Javelle on the same night and less than 3 arcmin to the northeast, implies that his position for IC 242 should be equally good. Therefore IC 242 must be one of the two stars, and the other star must be the one nearly in contact with it; but which is which cannot be known.

IC 243 (= PGC 10009, and perhaps =
NGC 1037)
Perhaps observed (Sep 29, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 1037)
Discovered (Jan 26, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 243)
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)ab?) in Cetus (RA 02 38 32.2, Dec -06 54 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 243 (Javelle #89, 1860 RA 02 31 37, NPD 97 30.3) is "very faint, very small, round, brighter middle". See NGC 1037 for a discussion of the possibility that it is a duplicate listing of IC 243.
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.3 by 1.2 arcmin for outer ring, 0.9 by 0.6 arcmin for brighter central regions (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 243, also showing a pair of stars, one of which is listed as IC 242
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 243, also showing IC 242
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 243

IC 244 (= PGC 10061)
Discovered (Jan 11, 1894) by
Stephane Javelle
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SBbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 39 24.7, Dec +02 43 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 244 (Javelle #571, 1860 RA 02 32 08, NPD 87 53.8) is "very faint, very small, diffuse".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 244
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 244
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 244

IC 245 (= PGC 10032)
Discovered (Dec 2, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 38 54.6, Dec -14 18 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 245 (Javelle #90, 1860 RA 02 32 15, NPD 104 54.4) is "pretty bright, small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 245
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 245
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 245
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy IC 245

IC 246 (= PGC 10116)
Discovered (Oct 15, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Cetus (RA 02 40 28.6, Dec +02 28 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 246 (Swift list VII (#6), 1860 RA 02 32 51, NPD 88 07.2) is "most extremely faint, very faint, round, 2 extremely faint stars near" ("very faint" is a mis-transcription of "very small"). The second IC lists a corrected 1860 RA (per Howe) of 02 33 14.
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 246
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 246
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 246

IC 247 (= PGC 10100)
Discovered (Jan 2, 1892) by
Stephane Javelle
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 40 08.8, Dec -11 44 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 247 (Javelle #91, 1860 RA 02 33 23, NPD 102 19.8) is "pretty bright, small, round".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 247
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 247 (glare is from 5th-magnitude ε Ceti)
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 247
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy IC 247

IC 248 (= PGC 10197)
Discovered (September, 1891) by
Sherburne Burnham
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Aries (RA 02 41 25.8, Dec +17 48 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 248 (Burnham, 1860 RA 02 33 37, NPD 72 47.3) is "very faint".
Physical Information: (H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc) Apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 248
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 248
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 248
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy IC 248

IC 249 (=
NGC 1051 = NGC 961 = PGC 10172)
Discovered (Nov 27, 1880) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 1051)
Discovered (1886) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 961)
Discovered (Jan 28, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later recorded as IC 249)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)m? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 41 02.5, Dec -06 56 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 249 (Javelle #92, 1860 RA 02 34 06, NPD 97 32.4) is "pretty bright, very small, round, diffuse, (NGC) 1051 to east". The position precesses to RA 02 41 01.2, Dec -06 56 15, right on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain. Per Corwin the duplication with NGC 1051 occurred because Javelle thought the star superimposed on the northeastern side of the galaxy was the NGC object, and stated that his "nova" was definitely not the previously discovered nebula. The duplicate entry for NGC 961 (which see for additional historical information) was due to Stone's position being well off the mark.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entries, see NGC 961 for anything else.
Celestial Atlas
(IC 150 - 199) ←IC Objects: IC 200 - 249→ (IC 250 - 299)