Celestial Atlas
(IC 3050 - 3099) ←     IC Objects: IC 3100 - 3149 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (IC 3150 - 3199)
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3100, 3101, 3102, 3103, 3104, 3105, 3106, 3107, 3108, 3109, 3110, 3111, 3112, 3113, 3114, 3115, 3116,
3117, 3118, 3119, 3120, 3121, 3122, 3123, 3124, 3125, 3126, 3127, 3128, 3129, 3130, 3131, 3132, 3133,
3134, 3135, 3136, 3137, 3138, 3139, 3140, 3141, 3142, 3143, 3144, 3145, 3146, 3147, 3148, 3149

Page last updated Dec 27, 2015: Checked revisions in Steinicke's discovery information
WORKING: Add remaining pix, tags

IC 3100 (= PGC 39381)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (849)
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Virgo (RA 12 17 05.3, Dec +12 17 22)
Based on a recessional velocity of 535 km/sec, IC 3100 is about 25 million light years away, but it is listed as a member (VCC 218) of the Virgo Cluster, and the motion of the Local Group toward the Virgo Cluster reduces recessional velocities by several hundred km/sec, so the galaxy's actual distance is probably closer to the 50 million light year average distance of the Cluster. Depending upon the distance chosen, IC 3100's apparent size of 1.9 by 0.6 arcmin corresponds to 13 to 25 thousand light years (smaller if only 25 million light years away, larger if closer to 50 million light years' distance).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 3100
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3100
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 3100

IC 3101 (= PGC 39405)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (850)
A magnitude 14.3 elliptical galaxy (type dE4?) in Virgo (RA 12 17 19.5, Dec +11 56 36)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 230) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 3101
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3101
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 3101

IC 3102 (=
NGC 4223 = PGC 39412)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4223)
Discovered (Oct 30, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (6) (and later listed as IC 3102)
A magnitude 11.9 lenticular galaxy (type SA0(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 17 25.8, Dec +06 41 22)
Schwassmann's position is very good, but the NGC listings were muddled, hence the double listing and some unfortunate misidentifications (for which and anything else, see NGC 4223).

IC 3103
Recorded (Feb 10, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 14.4 star in Virgo (RA 12 17 28.4, Dec +09 21 38)
Per Dreyer, IC 3103 (Schwassmann #81, 1860 RA 12 10 21, NPD 79 51.7) is "very faint, very small, stellar" (per Corwin, Schwassmann's original notes read "like 13th magnitude star"). The position precesses to RA 12 17 29.3, Dec +09 21 37, less than 0.2 arcmin east of the star listed above, and given the description, its identification as IC 3103 is certain.

IC 3104 (= PGC 39573)
Discovered (May 22, 1900) by
DeLisle Stewart (362)
A magnitude 12.6 irregular galaxy (type IB(s)m?) in Chamaeleon (RA 12 18 46.1, Dec -79 43 51)
Apparent size 3.8 by 1.8 arcmin. Only a little over 7 million light years away, this is among the nearest 60 or 70 galaxies.
DSS image of irregular galaxy IC 3104
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3104
Below, a detail of part of the galaxy's core (Image Credits: Hubble Legacy Archive)
A raw HST image of part of irregular galaxy IC 3104 (the streaks are caused by cosmic rays)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near irregular galaxy IC 3104

IC 3105 (= PGC 39431)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann (177)
Also observed (May 7, 1904) by Royal Frost (#?)
A magnitude 14.1 irregular galaxy (type Im?) in Virgo (RA 12 17 33.5, Dec +12 23 10)
Apparent size 1.9 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 241) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy IC 3105
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3105
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing most of IC 3099
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy IC 3105, also showing most of spiral galaxy IC 3099

IC 3106
Recorded (Feb 10, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 15.3 star in Virgo (RA 12 17 45.8, Dec +09 36 47)
Per Dreyer, IC 3106 (Schwassmann #130, 1860 RA 12 10 38, NPD 79 36.5) is "very faint, very small, extended 95". The position precesses to RA 12 17 46.2, Dec +09 36 49, almost exactly on the star listed above, so the identification is considered certain. There is a galaxy an arcmin or so to the northeast of Schwassmann's position that is extended about 95, but as pointed out by Corwin, the galaxy is far too faint to have been recorded on Schwassmann's plate, so it cannot be what he observed. (Keep in mind that modern CCD cameras are far more sensitive to faint sources of light than the glass-plate technology of the late 1800's and early to mid 1900's, so faint galaxies are far more noticeable in modern images.)

IC 3107 (= PGC 39458)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann (153)
Also observed (May 7, 1904) by Royal Frost (#?)
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Sbc(s)) in Virgo (RA 12 17 47.0, Dec +10 50 41)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 257) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3107
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3107
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3107

IC 3108 (= PGC 39449)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (851)
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type Sa) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 17 42.6, Dec +13 22 46)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 249) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3108
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3108
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3108

IC 3109 (= PGC 39451)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (852)
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type Sc(s)) in Virgo (RA 12 17 44.0, Dec +13 10 16)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 251) of the Virgo Cluster, but actually far beyond the Cluster. Per Corwin, the faint galaxy to the east of IC 3109 (PGC 39467) was misidentified as IC 3109 in the CGCG catalog, so in case some references have repeated the error, the PGC object is discussed immediately below.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3109
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3109
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 39467
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3109, also showing dwarf elliptical galaxy PGC 39467, which has been misidentified as IC 3109

PGC 39467 (not =
IC 3109)
Not an IC object, but listed here since sometimes misidentified as IC 3109
A 16th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type dE2) in Virgo (RA 12 17 52.7, Dec +13 10 36)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.45 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 261) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of dwarf elliptical galaxy PGC 39467, which has been misidentified as IC 3109
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 39467; for a wider-field view, see IC 3109

IC 3110 (= PGC 3088320)
Discovered (Jun 13, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1222)
A magnitude 16.0 spiral galaxy (type S) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 17 44.8, Dec +37 24 01)
Apparent size 0.55 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3110
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3110
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3110

IC 3111 (= PGC 39464)
Discovered (Jan 25, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann (36)
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type Sab(s)?) in Virgo (RA 12 17 50.7, Dec +08 25 51)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 259) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3111
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3111
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3111

IC 3112 (= PGC 39450)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-2)
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 17 48.3, Dec +26 01 51)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3112
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3112
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3112

IC 3113 (=
NGC 4246 = PGC 39479)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4246)
Discovered (Oct 30, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3113)
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c) in Virgo (RA 12 17 58.1, Dec +07 11 08)
Per Dreyer, IC 3113 (Schwassmann #7, 1860 RA 12 10 49, NPD 82 02.1) is "considerably faint, pretty large, extended". The position precesses to RA 12 17 57.7, Dec +07 11 13, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. Per Corwin, uncertainty about whether NGC 4246 really existed may have led to the duplicate listing, but Schwassmann failed to label several NGC objects as such, and in each case Dreyer assigned an IC number to Schwassmann's observation, so this may be merely another such oversight. Either way, the identity of the two entries is certain, so see NGC 4246 for anything else.

IC 3114
Recorded (Feb 10, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 14.3 star in Virgo (RA 12 17 56.8, Dec +09 08 07)
Per Dreyer, IC 3114 (Schwassmann #82, 1860 RA 12 10 49, NPD 80 05.3) is "considerably faint, very small, stellar". Per Corwin, Schwassmann's notes added "like 12 to 13th magnitude star". The position precesses to RA 12 17 57.3, Dec +09 08 01, almost exactly on the star listed above, so the identification is certain.

IC 3115 (=
NGC 4241 = PGC 39483)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4241)
Discovered (Oct 30, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3115)
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)cd) in Virgo (RA 12 17 59.9, Dec +06 39 15)
Per Dreyer, IC 3115 (Schwassmann #8, 1860 RA 12 10 51, NPD 82 34.1) is "very faint, pretty large, extended". The position precesses to RA 12 17 59.8, Dec +06 39 13, dead center on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. (See NGC 4241 about the double listing and anything else.)

IC 3116 (= PGC 89574)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-3)
A magnitude 15.4 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 17 57.2, Dec +25 04 34)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3116
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3116
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3116

IC 3117
Recorded (Feb 10, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A pair of magnitude 14.9 and 17.6 stars in Virgo (RA 12 18 04.7, Dec +09 04 35)
Per Dreyer, IC 3117 (Schwassmann #83, 1860 RA 12 10 56, NPD 80 09.0) is "extremely faint, small, extended 30". The position precesses to RA 12 18 04.3, Dec +09 04 19, right on the brighter member of a pair of faint stars aligned at a 30 angle, so the identification appears certain.

IC 3118 (= PGC 39503)
Discovered (Feb 10, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann (131)
Also observed (May 7, 1904) by Royal Frost (#?)
A magnitude 14.1 irregular galaxy (type Im) in Virgo (RA 12 18 11.1, Dec +09 30 01)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 275) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy IC 3118
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3118
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy IC 3118

IC 3119 (= PGC 39490)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-4)
A magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type Sbc pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 08.4, Dec +24 41 20)
Based on a recessional velocity of 6795 km/sec, IC 3119 is about 315 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.55 by 0.55 arcmin, it is about 50 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3119
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3119
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3119

IC 3120 (= PGC 39513)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (853)
A magnitude 14.7 dwarf galaxy (type S0?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 15.3, Dec +13 44 54)
Based on a recessional velocity of 245 km/sec, IC 3120 is about 11 million light years away, but for such distances peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities can significantly affect the results, and because of the motion of the Local Group toward the Virgo Cluster, the recessional velocity may be even lower than normal. So the actual distance of this low surface brightness galaxy is unknown. It is listed as a member (VCC 281) of the Virgo Cluster, and if so would be closer to 50 or 60 million light years away, but that membership was determined by surveys that were based only on position and appearance, not actual distances; so it may be a much closer, fainter object than it would have to be if a true member of the Cluster. If the galaxy is as close as its recessional velocity suggests, its apparent size of 0.65 by 0.65 arcmin would correspond to only 2 thousand light years, and even if 50 or 60 million light years away it would be only 10 thousand light years across; so either way it is a dwarf galaxy, and should perhaps be considered a dwarf elliptical galaxy, instead of a dwarf lenticular, as suggested by its listed type.
SDSS image of dwarf galaxy IC 3120
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3120
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3126
SDSS image of region near dwarf galaxy IC 3120, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3126

IC 3121 (= PGC 39508 + PGC 39512)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (854)
A magnitude 16.5 pair of galaxies in Virgo (RA 12 18 17.3, Dec +13 15 26)
PGC 39508 = A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) at RA 12 18 17.4, Dec +13 15 30
PGC 39512 = A 16th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) at RA 12 18 17.7, Dec +13 15 23
The radial velocity of PGC 39512 is 20740 km/sec; that of PGC 39508 is unknown, so whether the galaxies are physically interacting or merely an optical double is unknown, but their similar size and apparent proximity make a physical pairing seem more likely. The apparent size of PGC 39508 is about 0.3 by 0.25 arcmin; that of PGC 39512 is about 0.25 by 0.15 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 39508 and elliptical galaxy PGC 39512, which comprise IC 3121
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3121
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 39508 and elliptical galaxy PGC 39512, which comprise IC 3121

IC 3122 (= PGC 39519)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-5)
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 21.4, Dec +25 13 02)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3122
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3122
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3122

IC 3123
Recorded (Jan 20, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 7.3 star in Virgo (RA 12 18 27.6, Dec +08 03 54)
Per Dreyer, IC 3123 (Schwassmann #37, 1860 RA 12 11 19, NPD 81 09.4) is a "nebula, or star". The position precesses to RA 12 18 27.5, Dec +08 03 55, right on 7th-magnitude HD 107035, so the identification as a star seems certain, and given the description, completely appropriate. (Many of Schwassmann's IC discoveries are merely stars, so he must have had some difficulty distinguishing very small nebulae from the glare surrounding brighter stars.)

IC 3124
Recorded (Feb 10, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 15.2 star in Virgo (RA 12 18 27.6, Dec +09 35 19)
Per Dreyer, IC 3124 (Schwassmann #132, 1860 RA 12 11 20, NPD 79 38.1) is "considerably faint, small, equal to a 13th-magnitude star". The position precesses to RA 12 18 28.1, Dec +09 35 13, almost right on a 14th-magnitude star, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification of that star with the IC entry is essentially certain. (As noted in the entry for IC 3123, many of Schwassmann's objects turned out to be stars, especially when his description gives any hint of that possibility.)

IC 3125
Recorded (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf
A magnitude 16.2 star in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 25.5, Dec +24 21 56)
Per Dreyer, IC 3125 (Wolf list IV #6, 1860 RA 12 11 21, NPD 64 51.4) is "faint, small, round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 18 25.7, Dec +24 21 56, almost on top of the star noted above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification of that star with the IC entry is essentially certain.

IC 3126 (= PGC 1441312)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (855)
A magnitude 15.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 37.1, Dec +13 48 51)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3126
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3126
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3120
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3126, also showing dwarf galaxy IC 3120

IC 3127 (= PGC 39546)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (856)
A magnitude 15.3 spiral galaxy (type Sbc(s)) in Virgo (RA 12 18 35.2, Dec +11 52 12)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 295) of the Virgo Cluster. Extremely diffuse, so perhaps more like type Sdm than as listed.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3127
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3127
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3127

IC 3128 (= PGC 39562 + PGC 1397873)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (857)
A magnitude 14.2 pair of galaxies in Virgo
PGC 39562 = A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc pec) at RA 12 18 41.9, Dec +11 43 53
PGC 1397873 = A 16th-magnitude compact galaxy (type C) at RA 12 18 43.1, Dec +11 43 32
Per Dreyer, IC 3128 (Frost #857, 1860 RA 12 11 34, NPD 77 30) is "a little extended, perhaps double, magnitude 14.5". It is listed as a member (VCC 302) of the Virgo Cluster, but isn't really one, since it is hundreds of millions of light years further away. Apparent size of PGC 39562 = 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin; of PGC 1397873 is 0.25 by 0.15 arcmin. (Note: PGC 39607 is also listed as being part of the system, but is simply part of the distorted "tail" of PGC 39562.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 39562 and compact galaxy PGC 1397873, which comprise IC 3128, also showing spiral galaxy PGC 39557, which is often called IC 3128B
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3128, also showing PGC 39557
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxies
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 39562 and compact galaxy PGC 1397873, which comprise IC 3128, also showing spiral galaxy PGC 39557, which is often called IC 3128B

PGC 39557 (= "IC 3128B")
Not an IC object but often called IC 3128 since in general vicinity of
IC 3128
A 17th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sm?) in Virgo (RA 12 18 38.5, Dec +11 44 06)
LEDA says Vr 11880 km/sec; NED says Vr 7915 km/sec. Apparent size 0.35 by 0.15 arcmin. For images, see IC 3128.

IC 3129
Recorded (Feb 12, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 13.9 star in Virgo (RA 12 18 45.0, Dec +09 35 31)
Per Dreyer, IC 3129 (Schwassmann #133, 1860 RA 12 11 37, NPD 79 37.6) is "very faint, extremely small, equal to a 14th magnitude star". The position precesses to RA 12 18 45.1, Dec +09 35 44, just north of the 14th-magnitude star listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so as for most of the IC objects described as starlike by Schwassmann, the identification of IC 3129 with the star is essentially certain.

IC 3130
Recorded (Jan 20, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A pair of magnitude 14.4 and 14.9 stars in Virgo (RA 12 18 49.5, Dec +08 14 02)
Per Dreyer, IC 3130 (Schwassmann #38, 1860 RA 12 11 41, NPD 80 59.5) is "extremely faint, pretty small, much extended 140, questionable". The position precesses to RA 12 18 49.4, Dec +08 13 50, close to the brighter member of a pair of stars aligned at a position angle of 140, so the identity is essentially certain.

IC 3131 (=
IC 3132 = PGC 39583)
Discovered (Nov 20, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (40) (and later listed as IC 3132)
Discovered (Jan 20, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (39) (and later listed as IC 3131)
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 18 50.8, Dec +07 51 41)
There is no doubt that the two entries represent the same object, as they differ by less than 0.2 arcmin. Per Corwin, Schwassmann probably didn't realize that they were the same because they were recorded in different "zones" (that is, strips of declination used for observational purposes), and despite their ending up adjacent to each other in his catalog, neither he nor Dreyer made the connection between the two observations. (Giving precedence to the earlier observation, see IC 3132 for anything else.)

IC 3132 (= PGC 39583 =
IC 3131)
Discovered (Nov 20, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (40) (and later listed as IC 3132)
Discovered (Jan 20, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (39) (and later listed as IC 3131)
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 18 50.8, Dec +07 51 41)
Apparent size 1.4 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 308) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 3132
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3132
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 3132

IC 3133
Recorded (Nov 20, 1899) by
Arnold Schwassmann
Three magnitude 15.7, 15.9 and 16.4 stars in Virgo (RA 12 18 54.7, Dec +07 38 22)
Per Dreyer, IC 3133 (Schwassmann #41, 1860 RA 12 11 47, NPD 81 34.8) is "extremely faint, small, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 12 18 55.5, Dec +07 38 32, but there is nothing there save for a triangle of three faint stars, which is generally accepted as being what Schwassmann observed. The position of the "object" is taken to be near the midline of the two brighter stars, but slightly shifted toward the faintest one -- in other words, near the luminosity center of the triangle.

IC 3134 (= PGC 39593)
Discovered (Feb 12, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann (84)
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 18 56.0, Dec +08 57 44)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 313) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 3134
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3134
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 3134

IC 3135 (= PGC 89577)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-7)
A magnitude 15.7 spiral galaxy (type Sdm pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 53.0, Dec +27 29 29)
Apparent size 0.4 by 0.3 arcmin. Probably associated with the 18th-magniude linear structure to its southwest.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3135
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3135
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3135

IC 3136 (= PGC 39601)
Discovered (June, 1865) by
Auguste Voigt (2)
Also observed (Nov 27, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (#?)
A magnitude 14.3 spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Virgo (RA 12 18 57.2, Dec +06 11 01)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 314) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3136
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3136
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of NGC 4260
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3136, also showing part of spiral galaxy NGC 4260

IC 3137 (= PGC 39580)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (858)
A magnitude 15.6 spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Virgo (RA 12 18 54.6, Dec +12 28 10)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.1 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3137
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3137
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3138
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3137, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3138

IC 3138 (= PGC 213972)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (859)
A magnitude 15.4 spiral galaxy (type S?) in Virgo (RA 12 18 56.1, Dec +12 26 43)
Apparent size 0.3 by 0.2 arcmin. Accompanied by a 17th-magnitude apparent companion, PGC 4662827.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3138, also showing its apparent companion, PGC 4662827
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3138 and PGC 4662827; for a wide-field view, see IC 3137

PGC 4662827
Not an IC object but listed here because an apparent companion of
IC 3138
A 17th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 12 18 56.2, Dec +12 26 39)
Apparent size 0.15 by 0.07 arcmin. Nothing else available, so whether a real or merely apparent companion of IC 3138 (which see for images) is unknown.

IC 3139
Recorded (Feb 12, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 15.0 star in Virgo (RA 12 19 00.7, Dec +09 07 37)
Per Dreyer, IC 3139 (Schwassmann #85, 1860 RA 12 11 53, NPD 80 05.6) is "extremely faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 12 19 01.2, Dec +09 07 44, very close to the star noted above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is essentially certain.

IC 3140
Recorded (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf
A magnitude 16.5 star in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 57.8, Dec +27 07 46)
Per Dreyer, IC 3140 (Wolf list IV #8, 1860 RA 12 11 54, NPD 62 05.5) is "very faint, pretty small, irregular figure, diffuse". Listed as not found in most databases, but Thomson notes the identity, and Wolf's position is good enough to be certain of the identification. The DSS image is elongated, giving the appearance of a very close double but the SDSS image shows only a single star.
SDSS image centered on the star listed as IC 3140
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide region centered on IC 3140
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the star
SDSS image centered on region near the star listed as IC 3140

IC 3141 (= PGC 39590)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-9)
A magnitude 14.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 58.5, Dec +24 11 11)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.3 arcmin. The galaxy has a prominent dust plane, giving it the appearance of an edge-on spiral galaxy with an exceptionally bright halo.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 3141
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3141
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 3141

IC 3142 (= PGC 39619 (+
PGC 39610?))
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by Royal Frost (860)
A magnitude 14.5 irregular galaxy (type IB pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 05.1, Dec +13 58 50)
Some references consider only the brighter of the two galaxies near this location to be the IC entry, while others treat the fainter galaxy as part of IC 3142, so both are covered here, albeit in different entries. Corwin thinks the more diffuse elliptical too faint to be part of the IC object, but states that an examination of the original plate would be required to be sure. Apparent size 0.8 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 322) of the Virgo Cluster. The SDSS image hints at a southeastern extension of some size.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy PGC 39619, which is probably IC 3142, and elliptical galaxy PGC 39610, which is sometimes considered part of the IC object
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3142 and PGC 39610
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy PGC 39619, which is probably IC 3142, and elliptical galaxy PGC 39610, which is sometimes considered part of the IC object

PGC 39610 (perhaps = part of
IC 3142)
Probably not an IC object but treated in some references as part of IC 3142
A 15th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type dE0?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 01.8, Dec +13 58 54)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 319) of the Virgo Cluster. As noted at the entry for IC 3142 (which see for images), PGC 39610 is sometimes treated as a separate companion of IC 3142, and sometimes as part of the IC object

IC 3143 (= PGC 39617)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-10)
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type Sdm?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 05.4, Dec +27 17 53)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3143
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3143
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3143

IC 3144 (= PGC 89578)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-11)
A magnitude 15.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 09.7, Dec +25 17 51)
Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3144
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3144
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3144

IC 3145
Recorded (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf
A magnitude 14.7 star in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 10.6, Dec +24 17 39)
Per Dreyer, IC 3145 (Wolf list IV #12, 1860 RA 12 12 07, NPD 64 55.7) is "faint, small, round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 19 11.4, Dec +24 17 38, just east of a 15th-magnitude star and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is essentially certain. Per Corwin, there is no doubt of the identification, but several references list the object as "not found", so there is bound to be some confusion about the status of the object. However, since it is merely a star, that is probably of little importance.

IC 3146 (= PGC 89579)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by
Max Wolf (4-13)
A magnitude 15.3 spiral galaxy (type Sm pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 12.4, Dec +25 42 53)
Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3146
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3146
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3146

IC 3147 (= PGC 39643 + PGC 39644)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 15.0 pair of galaxies in Virgo
PGC 39643 = A 16th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a pec?) at RA 12 19 18.7, Dec +12 01 06
PGC 39644 = A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) at RA 12 19 17.1, Dec +12 01 00
Per Dreyer, IC 3147 (Schwassmann #178, 1860 RA 12 12 11, NPD 77 12.3) is "very faint, very small, stellar". The position precesses to RA 12 19 18.5, Dec +12 01 02, on the eastern (and slightly fainter) member of a pair of galaxies, and IC 3147 is generally considered to be that pair, as shown above. However, some references argue that only the brighter western galaxy should be considered IC 3147, and the fainter eastern one merely its companion. Although such arguments carry considerable weight in some situations (such as for IC 3142), my feeling is that if Schwassmann perceived the object as stellar, instead of extended along an east-west line, then he could not have distinguished the two galaxies, and they should both be considered components of IC 3147. (The fact that the pair is listed as a single member (VCC 337) of the Virgo Cluster indicates that the dual nature of the object was not apparent until much later.) The apparent size of PGC 39643, the fainter eastern member of the pair, is 0.65 by 0.3 arcmin; and of PGC 39644, the brighter western member, 0.65 by 0.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 39643 and its companion, spiral galaxy PGC 39644, which comprise IC 3147
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3147
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy PGC 39643 and its companion, spiral galaxy PGC 39644, which comprise IC 3147

IC 3148 (= PGC 39658)
Discovered (Nov 20, 1899) by
Arnold Schwassmann (42)
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SBd?) in Virgo (RA 12 19 21.6, Dec +07 52 14)
Per Dreyer, IC 3148 (Schwassmann #42, 1860 RA 12 12 12, NPD 81 21.2) is "very faint, small". Apparent size 0.7 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 343) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3148
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3148
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3150
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3148, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3150

IC 3149 (= PGC 39664)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1900) by
Arnold Schwassmann (179)
Also recorded (May 7, 1904) by Royal Frost (#?)
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)?) in Virgo (RA 12 19 24.2, Dec +12 18 05)
Per Dreyer, IC 3149 (Schwassmann #179, Frost, 1860 RA 12 12 17, NPD 76 55.1) is "very faint, very small". Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 348) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 3149
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 3149
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 3149
Celestial Atlas
(IC 3050 - 3099) ←     IC Objects: IC 3100 - 3149     → (IC 3150 - 3199)