Celestial Atlas
(IC 350 - 399) ←     IC Objects: IC 400 - 449 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (IC 450 - 499)
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Page last updated Feb 21, 2014
WORKING: Verify/update historical/physical information

IC 400 (probably = PGC 905996)
Discovered (Jan 21, 1889) by
Ormond Stone
A 17th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S?) in Lepus (RA 05 03 45.1, Dec -15 49 30)
plus a 15th-magnitude star at RA 15 03 44.7, Dec -15 49 31
Per Dreyer, IC 400 (Ormond Stone (#209), 1860 RA 04 57 25, NPD 105 58) is "extremely faint, extremely small". The position precesses to RA 05 03 43.9, Dec -15 46 00, but there is nothing there. This is hardly surprising, as Stone did not bother to measure the declination of his #209, only giving the position of his comparison star and an offset in right ascension, so the object he observed could be somewhat north or south of the IC position (hence Dreyer's guess-timated North Polar Distance). As it happens there are only two galaxies in the area, both only a couple of arcmin to the south. Looking at modern photographs, the more likely candidate would appear to be 6dFJ0503456-154909, a 16th-magnitude "spindle"; but if we take into account the realities of late 19th-century visual observations, the 17th-magnitude galaxy listed above is actually more likely to be IC 400, because the superimposed 15th-magnitude star, combined with its small apparent size, makes it a perfect fit to Stone's description as "16.0 magnitude, 0.1 arcmin", while the technically brighter but larger galaxy was probably too faint for him to see, since its light is spread out over a much larger area, and if seen, should have led to a larger estimate of the size. Given these circumstances it is hardly surprising that some references list PGC 905996 as IC 400, and others list the other galaxy (though usually with a warning about the considerable uncertainty of the identification, in either case); so even though the spindle is less likely to be IC 400, it is discussed immediately below. Apparent size 0.25 by 0.1 arcmin (counting the star that makes PGC 905996 the most likely candidate for IC 400); nothing else available.
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 905996 and its superimposed star, which probably comprise IC 400, and spiral galaxy 6dFJ0503456-154909, which is less likely to be IC 400 but is more often identified as such
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 905996 and 6dFJ0503456-154909
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 905996 and its superimposed star, which probably comprise IC 400, and spiral galaxy 6dFJ0503456-154909, which is less likely to be IC 400 but is more often identified as such

6dFJ0503456-154909 (possibly but probably not =
IC 400)
Probably not an IC object but listed here since often identified as IC 400
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sd?) in Lepus (RA 05 03 45.6, Dec -15 49 09)
(See IC 400 for images, and a discussion of this galaxy's relationship to that entry.) Based on a recessional velocity of 3485 km/sec, 6dFJ0503456-154909 is about 160 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 0.1 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across.

IC 401 (= PGC 16672)
Discovered (Feb 9, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (605)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Eridanus (RA 05 04 19.8, Dec -10 04 33)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.5 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 401
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 401
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 401

IC 402 (= PGC 16742)
Discovered (Dec 12, 1887) by
Frank Muller (212)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd) in Eridanus (RA 05 06 14.8, Dec -09 06 27)
Apparent size 2.3 by 1.5 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 402
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 402
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 402

IC 403
Recorded (Feb 7, 1891) by
Rudolf Spitaler (6)
A 16th-magnitude star in Auriga (RA 05 15 15.8, Dec +39 58 24)
or that star and its 15th-magnitude "companion" at RA 05 15 15.6, Dec +39 58 16
Per Dreyer, IC 403 (Spitaler #6, 1860 RA 05 05 33, NPD 50 11.6) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round". The position precesses to RA 05 15 16.0, Dec +39 58 26, but there is nothing there save for scattered stars. Per Thomson, Spitaler added "about 5 arcsecs diameter", which suggests that his #6 is either one of those stars, or perhaps a very close pair. Since Dreyer's position falls right on the northern member of a pair of stars separated by only 8 arcsec, IC 403 is probably that star, or (depending upon whether Spitaler could separate the stars) the pair.
DSS image of region near the star (or pair of stars) listed as IC 403
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 403

IC 404 (= PGC 16935)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (606)
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Orion (RA 05 13 19.7, Dec +09 45 17)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.6 arcmin.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 404
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 404
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 404

IC 405, the Flaming Star Nebula
Discovered (Mar 21, 1892) by
John Schaeberle
A 9th-magnitude emission nebula in Auriga (RA 05 16 29.4, Dec +34 21 22)
Apparent size 30 by 20 arcmin. An emission nebula energized by ultraviolet radiation from AE Aurigae, the 6th-magnitude star just right of center in the image below. A little less than 3 million years ago AE Aurigae and μ Columbae were massive members of the Orion Nebula star-forming region. A close encounter between the two apparently flung them out of the region as so-called "runaway" stars, and they are now over 60 degrees apart in the sky. As a result, the gases being lit up by AE Aurigae have nothing to do with its formation, but just happen to be in its path as it speeds through space.
NOAO image of emission nebula IC 405, also known as the Flaming Star Nebula
Above, a 30 arcmin wide false-color image centered on IC 405
(Image Credits: T.A.Rector and B.A.Wolpa/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 20 arcmin wide closeup superimposing a more typical false-color image on the image above
(Image Credits: Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of emission nebula IC 405, also known as the Flaming Star Nebula, superimposed on an NOAO background image to fill in missing areas

IC 406
Discovered (Feb 9, 1891) by
Rudolf Spitaler
A group of 16th-magnitude stars in Auriga (RA 05 17 48.9, Dec +39 53 08)
Per Dreyer, IC 406 (Spitaler #7, 1860 RA 05 08 06, NPD 50 16.4) is an "extremely faint nebula or extremely small nebulous cluster". The position precesses to RA 05 17 48.9, Dec +39 53 08, but there is nothing there but scattered stars. However, the description suggests that perhaps those scattered stars are exactly what Spitaler observed, and the position does fall dead center on a group of three stars in a northwest-southeast line, so that is generally considered to be his #7, and therefore IC 406.
DSS image of region near the group of stars thought to be IC 406 (as indicated by the box at the center of the image)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the stars thought to be IC 406

IC 407 (= PGC 17056)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle (134)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Lepus (RA 05 17 42.6, Dec -15 31 24)
Apparent size 2.2 by 0.5 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 407
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 407
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 407

IC 408 (probably not =
IC 2121 = PGC 17110)
Recorded (February, 1889) by Lewis Swift
A lost or nonexistent object in Lepus (RA 05 17 54.0, Dec -25 05 23)
or a pair of 14th- and 15th-magnitude stars at RA 05 18 04.2, Dec -25 10 18
Per Dreyer, IC 408 (Swift list VIII (#38), 1860 RA 05 12 10, NPD 115 14.5) is "very faint, pretty small, extended, 8.5 magnitude star 5' south". The position precesses to RA 05 17 54.0, Dec -25 05 23 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there. Several references equate IC 408 with IC 2121, which has nearly the same declination as Swift's VIII-38, but lies nearly 2 minutes of time to the east. However, that object was also discovered by Swift, and since his description for it ("most extremely faint, small, round, very difficult, 7th magnitude star 14s west, 3.6 arcmin south") is very different from his description of IC 408, the suggested duplication is almost certainly wrong; hence the disclaimer in the title for this entry. Corwin suggests that IC 408 might be the pair of stars a few arcmin southeast of Swift's position, presumably because they fit the description reasonably well, and have stars of magnitude 7.5 and 8.5 about 5' to their south; but although that suggestion seems more reasonable than the one for IC 2121, it probably can't be assigned any great degree of certainty. So for now, the most reasonable conclusion is that IC 408 is a lost or nonexistent object.
DSS image of region near Swift's position for IC 408, also showing the pair of stars that may or may not be that entry
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on Swift's position for IC 408
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the stars that may or may not be IC 408
DSS image of region near the pair of stars that may or may not be IC 408, also showing Swift's position for the entry

IC 409 (= PGC 17105)
Discovered (Jan 12, 1894) by
Stephane Javelle (607)
A 14th-magnitude binuclear galaxy (type E?+E3?) in Orion (RA 05 19 33.6, Dec +03 19 04)
Either two superimposed galaxies, or a pair of elliptical galaxies in the process of merging; but there is no sign of the kind of distortion typical of such events, so pending a multispectral analysis of the region, a superposition seems more likely. Apparent size of the pair 1.3 by 0.95 arcmin.
SDSS image of the apparently binuclear galaxy listed as IC 409
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 409
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the object
SDSS image of region near the apparently binuclear galaxy listed as IC 409, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas

IC 410
Discovered (Sep 25, 1892) by
Max Wolf
An emission nebula in Auriga (RA 05 22.2, Dec +33 31.8)
Per Dreyer, IC 410 (Max Wolf [A.N.](#3130), 1860 RA 05 13 20, NPD 56 38) is "diffuse, many stars involved" (#3130 refers to a note published by Wolf in the Astronomische Nachricten of that number). The position precesses to RA 05 22 31.7, Dec +33 30 32, just east of the brightest part of the very extended nebula (whose position is listed above), so the identification is certain. The only problem is that some references treat IC 410 as being the same as NGC 1893, the open cluster discovered by John Herschel that lies a little southeast of Dreyer's position. But as noted by Corwin, Herschel probably did not see the nebula at all (and in any event made no mention of it), while Wolf's comments were specifically about the discovery of "some new extended nebulae", and Dreyer's description implies that IC 410 was meant to refer only to the diffuse nebula, and not the easily observed cluster embedded within the nebula. So the cluster is the NGC object, the nebula is the IC object, and neither is equal to the other. Since even the brightest part of the nebula was a difficult object for early observers, IC 410 should technically refer to only the brightest portion, near Dreyer's position; but current usage is to treat the entire region of nebulosity surrounding the cluster as IC 410, and as a result the position is often listed as essentially that of the cluster, even when the cluster and nebula are correctly treated as separate objects. Under those circumstances the position of the nebula is given as RA 05 22 45, Dec +33 24.8, and that is used as the center of the wide-field image below. Apparent size 55 by 45 arcmin.
DSS image of the original IC 410, namely the brightest part of the emission nebula near open cluster NGC 1893
Above, a 12 arcmin wide closeup of the 'original' IC 410, consisting of its brightest portion
Below, a degree wide view of the entire nebula, more nearly centered on open cluster NGC 1893
DSS image of the modern IC 410, namely the entire emission nebula surrounding open cluster NGC 1893

IC 411 (= PGC 17130)
Discovered (February 1889) by
Lewis Swift (VIII-39)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Lepus (RA 05 20 18.2, Dec -25 19 28)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 411
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 411
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 411

IC 412 (= PGC 17180 =
IC 2123)
Discovered (1888) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 412)
Discovered (1895+) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 2123)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a pec?) in Orion (RA 05 21 56.7, Dec +03 29 10)
Per Dreyer, IC 412 (Barnard, Javelle #608, 1860 RA 05 14 36, NPD 86 39.3) is "very faint, very small, stellar, part of a pair separated by 36 arcsec, at position angle 115", the other being IC 413. The position precesses to RA 05 21 57.2, Dec +03 29 10, on the east edge of the galaxy, and the description perfectly matches the pair, so the identification is certain. (See IC 2123 for a discussion of the duplicate entry.) Apparent size 1.4 by 0.7 arcmin. IC 412 and 413 are a pair of strongly interacting galaxies.
SDSS image of the pair of interacting galaxies that are listed as IC 412 and 413
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 412 and 413
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near the pair of interacting galaxies that are listed as IC 412 and 413 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas

IC 413 (= PGC 17181 =
IC 2124)
Discovered (1888) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 413)
Discovered (1895+) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 2124)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a pec?) in Orion (RA 05 21 58.8, Dec +03 28 56)
Per Dreyer, IC 413 (Barnard, Javelle #609, 1860 RA 05 14 39, NPD 86 39.5) is "extremely faint, very small, stellar, part of a pair separated by 36 arcsec, at position angle 115", the other being IC 412. The position precesses to RA 05 22 00.2, Dec +03 28 58, on the east edge of the galaxy, and the description perfectly matches the pair, so the identification is certain. (See IC 2124 for a discussion of the duplicate entry.) Apparent size 1.0 by 1.0 arcmin. IC 412 (which see for images) and 413 are a pair of strongly interacting galaxies.

IC 414 (= PGC 17179)
Discovered (Nov 8, 1891) by
Sherburne Burnham
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S?) in Orion (RA 05 21 55.0, Dec +03 20 31)
Apparent size 0.65 by 0.4 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 414
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 414
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 414

IC 415 (= PGC 2816473)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1891) by
Stephane Javelle (135)
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S?) in Lepus (RA 05 21 21.6, Dec -15 32 34)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.35 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 415
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 415
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 415

IC 416 (= PGC 17229)
Discovered (Feb 18, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (610)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c pec?) in Lepus (RA 05 23 56.4, Dec -17 15 38)
Apparent size 1.45 by 0.7 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 416
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 416
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 416

IC 417
Discovered (Sep 25, 1892) by
Max Wolf
An emission nebula and open cluster in Auriga (RA 05 28 07.2, Dec +34 25 25)
Although the open cluster is the most obvious part of IC 417, Wolf's paper is about the extended nebulae he found, so the IC object is the emission nebula and cluster, not the other way round. Still, since the position of the cluster is easier to determine than that of the nebula, it is shown above and used as the center of the image below. Apparent size 14 by 10 arcmin.
DSS image of region near emission nebula and open cluster IC 417
Above, a 15 arcmin wide region centered on the open cluster within IC 417

IC 418, the Spirograph Nebula
Discovered (Mar 26, 1891) by
Williamina Fleming (69)
A 9th-magnitude planetary nebula in Lepus (RA 05 27 28.2, Dec -12 41 49)
Apparent size 0.3 by 0.25 arcmin.
HST image of planetary nebula IC 418, also known as the Spirograph Nebula
Above, a detailed view of IC 418 (Image credit: NASA and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)
Acknowledgment: Dr. Raghvendra Sahai (JPL) and Dr. Arsen R. Hajian (USNO), Hubblesite)

Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the planetary nebula
The star at the center is an overexposed image of the nebula and its central star
DSS image of region near planetary nebula IC 418, also known as the Spirograph Nebula

IC 419
Recorded (Sep 25, 1892) by
Max Wolf
A lost or nonexistent object in Auriga (RA 05 30 57.5, Dec +30 08 49)
or a line of four 14th- to 16th-magnitude stars at RA 05 30 52.1, Dec +30 07 05
Per Dreyer, IC 410 (Max Wolf [A.N.](#3130), 1860 RA 05 22 00, NPD 59 58) is "pretty bright, large, much extended" (#3130 refers to a note published by Wolf in the Astronomische Nachricten of that number). The position precesses to RA 05 30 57.5, Dec +30 08 49 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there. However, Corwin points out that the line of stars a couple of arcmin southwest of Wolf's position fits his description (their separation is probably too small to be seen as separate objects on Wolf's plate), and that seems a reasonable possibility. It would require a look at the original plate to decide whether the line of stars has the appropriate appearance, but if it is not the line of stars, IC 419 is a lost or nonexistent object.
DSS image of region near the possibly lost or nonexistent IC 419, showing the line of four stars that may be Wolf's object
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on Wolf's position for IC 419, also showing the stellar candidate

IC 420
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (63)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 05 32 08, Dec -04 31.3)
Per Dreyer, IC 420 (Pickering, 1860 RA 05 25 20, NPD 94 36) is "very faint, 9th magnitude star to west-southwest (not verified)". Although Dreyer lists Pickering as the discoverer, that was because he was the director and therefore the credited author of publications by the Harvard Observatory; but in many cases (including this one) one of his assistants was the actual discoverer. The position precesses to RA 05 32 15.5, Dec -04 29 39, on the northern edge of the reflection nebula listed above, so the identification is reasonably certain. The main problem is the position of the 8th magnitude star nearest Fleming's position, which is due south of her position and due east of the brightest part of the nebula; but since such nebulae are hard to observe and their positions hard to measure, the fact that there is a star of the appropriate brightness near the position is more important than its exact location. In any event, the 'modern' position listed in the description for this entry (and used as the center of the image below) is based not on Fleming's position, but on the brightest part of the nebula. (Note: IC 420 is one of many emission, reflection and absorption nebulae scattered across the region near the Orion Nebula, and is on the northwestern edge of that star-forming region as seen from our point of view.) Apparent size about 6 arcmin.
DSS image of region near the reflection nebula IC 420
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 420

IC 421 (= PGC 17407)
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (66)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc) in Orion (RA 05 32 08.6, Dec -07 55 05)
Apparent size 3.3 by 3.2 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 421
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of IC 421
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 421

IC 422 (= PGC 17409 =
IC 2131)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1893) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 422)
Discovered (Oct 16, 1896) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 2131)
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Lepus (RA 05 32 18.5, Dec -17 13 27)
Per Dreyer, IC 422 (Javelle #611, 1860 RA 05 26 06, NPD 107 19.7) is "pretty bright, very small, round, suddenly brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 05 32 18.6, Dec -17 13 26, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. (See IC 2131 for a discussion of the duplicate entry.) Apparent size 0.95 by 0.95 arcmin.
DSS image of elliptical galaxy IC 422
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 422
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy IC 422

IC 423
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (58)
An emission nebula in Orion (RA 05 33 20.9, Dec -00 36 45)
Apparent size 5.5 by 3.5 arcmin. (Description uncertain...)
DSS image of region near emission nebula IC 423
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 423

IC 424
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (56)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 05 33 36.9, Dec -00 24 42)
Apparent size 2.5 by 1.5 arcmin.
DSS image of region near emission nebula IC 424
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 424

IC 425
Recorded (Sep 25, 1892) by
Max Wolf
A nonexistent object in Auriga (RA 05 37 08.1, Dec +32 25 35)
Per Dreyer, IC 425 (Max Wolf [A.N.](#3130), 1860 RA 05 28, NPD 57 40) is "faint, very very large" (#3130 refers to a note published by Wolf in the Astronomische Nachricten of that number). The position precesses to RA 05 37 08.1, Dec +32 25 35 (whence the position above), but there is nothing resembling the description anywhere near there. Per Corwin, this is a probably a defect on Wolf's plate, and therefore a nonexistent object.
DSS image of region near the supposed position of the apparently nonexistent IC 425
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the position of IC 425

IC 426
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (57)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 05 36 30, Dec -00 17 48)
Apparent size 8 by 6 arcmin.
DSS image of region near emission nebula IC 426
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 426

IC 427
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (67)
A reflection and emission nebula in Orion (RA 05 36 15, Dec -06 37 24)
Northeast of NGC 1999, and part of an extensive complex of absorption, emission and reflection nebulae.
SDSS image of reflection and emission nebula IC 427
Above, a 9 arcmin wide closeup of IC 427
Below, a 20 arcmin wide region centered on IC 427, also showing NGC 1999
(Image Credits: Z. Levay (STScI/AURA/NASA), T.A. Rector (U. of Alaska Anchorage) & H. Schweiker (NOAO/AURA/NSF))
NOAO image of nebulosity near IC 427, also showing NGC 1999
Below, a 24 arcmin wide image centered on IC 427, also showing NGC 1999
(Image Credits: T.A.Rector, B.Wolpa and G.Jacoby (NOAO/AURA/NSF))
NOAO image of region near IC 427, also showing NGC 1999
Below, a labeled version of the image above (Image Credits as above)
Labeled NOAO image of region near IC 427, also showing NGC 1999

IC 428
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (64)
A reflection and emission nebula in Orion (RA 05 36 23.0, Dec -06 27 02)
DSS image of region near reflection and emission nebula IC 428
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 428
Below, another view of the same region
SDSS image of region near reflection and emission nebula IC 428

IC 429
Discovered (Feb 6, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (612)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 05 38 19.1, Dec -07 02 28)
Per Dreyer, IC 429 (Javelle #612, 1860 RA 05 31 32, NPD 97 08.0) is "very faint, very small, round [perhaps involved with following one]", the following one naturally being IC 430. The position precesses to RA 05 38 19.1, Dec -07 02 54, just south of a bright cometary nebula, so the identification seems certain. Per Corwin the 'tail' of the 'comet' does stretch toward the much larger reflection nebula to its southeast, so Dreyer's suspicion that the two are related was correct. Unfortunately an early version of Steinicke's database included a mistaken reference (since corrected) to IC 429 as equal to IC 430, and that error has been perpetuated in some places; but the description of the two objects makes it clear that IC 429 is only the smaller brighter nebula to the northeast, and IC 430 is the larger fainter one to the southeast. Apparent size 1.0 by 0.25 arcmin.
DSS image of region near reflection nebulae IC 429 and 430
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region showing IC 429 and 430, also indicating 49 Orionis
Below, another view of the same region
SDSS image of region near reflection nebulae IC 429 and 430

IC 430
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (65)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 05 38 32.3, Dec -07 05 25)
Per Dreyer, IC 430 (Pickering, 1860 RA 05 31 45, NPD 97 10.0) is a "nebulous band 10 arcmin long, northwest of 5th magnitude star". Although Dreyer lists Pickering as the discoverer, that was because he was the director and therefore the credited author of publications by the Harvard Observatory; but in many cases (including this one) one of his assistants was the actual discoverer. The position precesses to RA 05 38 32.0, Dec -07 04 56, well within the boundary of the nebula, and 5th-magnitude 49 Orionis makes the identification certain. As noted in the entry for IC 429 (which see for images), the two nebulae have an appearance suggesting a mutual involvement, as though IC 430 were a diffuse tail spreading away from the comet-like 'head' of IC 429. Apparent size 9 by 8 arcmin.

IC 431
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (61)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 05 40 14.3, Dec -01 27 52)
Apparent size 6 by 4 arcmin.
DSS image of region near reflection nebula IC 431
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 431; see IC 432 for a wider view

IC 432
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (60)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 05 40 58.7, Dec -01 30 35)
Apparent size 9 by 5 arcmin.
DSS image of region near reflection nebula IC 432
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 432
Below, a 20 arcmin wide region showing IC 432 and 431
DSS image of region near reflection nebulae IC 431 and 432

IC 433 (= PGC 17580)
Discovered (Feb 18, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (613)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Lepus (RA 05 40 31.3, Dec -11 39 57)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 433
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 433
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 433

IC 434, the background of the Horsehead Nebula
Discovered (Feb 1, 1786) by
William Herschel
An emission nebula in Orion (RA 05 40 59.8, Dec -02 27 37)
Near the Flame (NGC 2024) and Horsehead Nebulae, IC 434 is the ionized hydrogen region that lies behind and highlights the Horsehead. Apparent size 60 by 10 arcmin?
IC 434, an emission nebula that backlights and outlines the Horsehead Nebula
Above, a 12 arcmin wide closeup of the Horsehead Nebula, as highlighted by IC 434
(Image Credits: Tracey and Russ Birch/Flynn Haase/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
Below, a 1-degree wide region centered on the nebula; the 2nd magnitude star at top is Alnitak
The wide-field image also shows NGC 2023 and IC 435
DSS image of region near emission nebula IC 434, which backlights and highlights the Horsehead Nebula; also shown are NGC 2023 and IC 435
Below, an infrared view of the Horsehead (Image Credits: NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA))
HST infrared image of the Horsehead Nebula, an absorption nebula superimposed on emission nebula IC 434

IC 435
Discovered (Jun 27, 1888) by
Williamina Fleming (59)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 05 43 00.6, Dec -02 18 46)
Apparent size 7 by 5 arcmin.
DSS image of region near reflection nebula IC 435
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 435

IC 436
Recorded (Mar 6, 1891) by
Rudolf Spitaler
Three 16th- and 17th-magnitude stars in Auriga (RA 05 53 40.0, Dec +38 37 44)
Per Dreyer, IC 436 (Spitaler #8, 1860 RA 05 44 01, NPD 51 24.5) is "extremely faint". The position precesses to RA 05 53 40.5, Dec +38 37 47, but there is nothing there save for scattered stars. However, Spitaler's position does fall on the northeastern border of a compact group of three very faint stars (and a few other stars of negligible brightness) that he would have seen as a single faint object, so it seems certain that it is what he recorded.
DSS image of region near the compact group of stars listed as IC 436
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 436 (the compact group of stars just above the label)

IC 437 (= PGC 90030)
Discovered (Feb 11, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (614)
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Lepus (RA 05 51 37.4, Dec -12 33 54)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.4 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 437
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 437
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 437

IC 438 (= PGC 18047)
Discovered (Jan 7, 1891) by
Lewis Swift (X-15)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)c) in Lepus (RA 05 53 00.1, Dec -17 52 35)
Apparent size 2.7 by 2.1 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 438
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of IC 438
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 2151
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 438, also showing spiral galaxy IC 2151

IC 439
Recorded(Sep 25, 1892) by
Max Wolf
A lost or nonexistent object in Auriga (RA 05 56 37.2, Dec +32 01 37)
Per Dreyer, IC 439 (Max Wolf [A.N.](#3130), 1860 RA 05 47 30, NPD 58 00) is "most extremely large, extremely extended 150" (#3130 refers to a note published by Wolf in the Astronomische Nachricten of that number). The position precesses to RA 05 56 37.2, Dec +32 01 37 (whence the position above), but there is nothing resembling the description anywhere near there. Per Corwin, this is a probably a defect on Wolf's plate, and therefore a nonexistent object.
DSS image of region near the supposed position of the apparently nonexistent IC 439
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the position of IC 439

IC 440 (= PGC 18807)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1890) by
William Denning (4)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(r)ab) in Camelopardalis (RA 06 19 13.0, Dec +80 04 07)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.85 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 440
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 440
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 440

IC 441 (= PGC 18315)
Discovered (Feb 11, 1893) by
Stephane Javelle (615)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)c) in Lepus (RA 06 02 42.7, Dec -12 29 58)
Apparent size 1.2 by 1.2 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 441
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 441
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 441

IC 442 (= PGC 19306 + PGC 2787456)
Discovered (Nov 9, 1890) by
William Denning (5)
A 13th-magnitude binuclear galaxy in Camelopardalis
PGC 19306 = A lenticular galaxy (type S0/a pec?) at RA 06 36 12.1, Dec +82 58 09
PGC 2787456 = A lenticular galaxy (type SB0 pec?) at RA 06 36 10.7, Dec +82 57 51
Probably two galaxies in the later stages of merging into a single galaxy, though there is a possibility that it is a chance superposition of separate objects. Either way there is so much overlap between the "pair" that no meaningful size can be assigned to either as an individual object. The very slightly barred southern nucleus is a little smaller and fainter than the rounder northern nucleus. NED lists a recessional velocity of 4320 km/sec for the southern object and 4265 km/sec for the pair, though at a position well to the east of the actual object. LEDA lists recessional velocities of 4315 km/sec for the southern object and 4460 km/sec for the northern one, but with an uncertainty greater than the difference in the individual values. Using a rough average for the recessional velocities of 4375 km/sec implies a distance of about 200 million light years. Given that and its overall apparent size of 1.7 by 1.2 arcmin, the object is about 100 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of PGC 19306 and PGC 2787456, the apparently merging pair of lenticular galaxies that comprise IC 442
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 442
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near the apparently merging pair of lenticular galaxies that comprise IC 442

IC 443
Discovered (Sep 25, 1892) by
Max Wolf
An 11th-magnitude(?) supernova remnant in Gemini (RA 06 16 36, Dec +22 32)
Per Dreyer, IC 443 (Max Wolf [A.N.](#3130), Barnard, 1860 RA 06 08, NPD 67 30) is "faint, narrow, curved" (#3130 refers to a note published by Wolf in the Astronomische Nachricten of that number). Wolf states that there are two very large, very bright nebulae in the region near μ and η Geminorum, with (very rough) positions of about 1890 RA 06 08, Dec +22 (for the southwestern), and 1890 RA 06 14, Dec +24 (for the northeastern). These objects were listed by Dreyer as IC 443 (on the west) and 444 (on the east), with 1860 positions that only roughly correspond to Wolf's original positions, and descriptions that have nothing to do with Wolf's original paper. This suggests (per Corwin) that Dreyer may have corresponded privately with Wolf, obtaining more detailed information and slightly different positions. Dreyer's position precesses to RA 06 16.5, Dec +22.5 (no greater accuracy is justified by the crude IC position), near the middle of a degree-wide supernova remnant located between μ and η Geminorum, so the identification seems certain. Modern studies show that the nebula actually consists of two overlapping nebulae at very different distances, but that is a matter for discussion in a later iteration of this page. For now, the important thing is that the overall nebula must be Wolf's southwestern "Nebelflecke". Apparent size 50 by 40 arcmin. (The listed magnitude seems far too faint for such a bright nebula, and should not be considered definitive.)
DSS image of supernova remnant and emission nebula IC 443
Above, a 1 degree wide region centered on IC 443

IC 444
Discovered (Sep 25, 1892) by
Max Wolf
A lost object in Gemini (near μ and η Geminorum)
Per Dreyer, IC 444 (Max Wolf [A.N.](#3130), Barnard, 1860 RA 06 11 55, NPD 66 41) is a "nebula, 9.5 magnitude star involved" (#3130 refers to a note published by Wolf in the Astronomische Nachricten of that number). As discussed in the entry for IC 443 (which see), Wolf's descriptions and positions for IC 443 and 444 were very rough and incomplete, and Dreyer's notes suggest that the two must have had private correspondence which provided additional details. In the case of IC 443 the nebula involved is huge, very bright, and easily recognizable; but in the case of IC 444, the result is not so happy. Dreyer's position precesses to RA 06 20 43, Dec +23 57, but there is nothing there, and nothing resembling a very large, very bright nebula anywhere near there. There is an extensive nebula near μ Geminorum that Steinicke identifies as IC 444, but it is over a degree to the south of the IC position, and no reason is given for the identification. Similarly, one of two positions listed by Corwin for IC 444 (which is the position used for IC 444 by the NED) lies to the northwest of that nebulosity (though not within it), but no mention is made of the reason for choosing that position. As a result, I am treating IC 444 as a lost object, though hopefully the receipt of further information will allow me to change that; and since the nebulosity near μ Geminorum is the only reasonable candidate for what Wolf might have seen (and perhaps the reason it was chosen as such by Corwin and Steinicke), it is discussed immediately following this entry. (There are additional entries following that, discussing the painfully wrong identifications made by Wikisky and Wikipedia, to serve as a warning to those taken in by their mistakes.)
DSS image of region near Dreyer's position for the currently lost IC 444
Above, a 30 arcmin wide region centered on Dreyer's position for IC 444

μ Geminorum Nebula (possibly = IC 444)
Not definitely an IC object, but probably the best candidate for what Wolf might have observed
An emission nebula in Gemini (RA 06 22 30, Dec +22 52)
See the discussion of IC 444 for why the μ Geminorum Nebula might be that object, and the current objection to such an identification. (The position used for this entry and the image below is Steinicke's.)
Wikisky image of unknown origin showing region near Steinicke's position for the emission nebula that may be IC 444
Above, a 1 degree wide region centered on Steinicke's position for IC 444

Bad IC 144 Identification (not =
IC 444)
Definitely not an IC object, but sometimes misidentified as IC 444
A reflection nebula in Gemini (RA 06 18 34, Dec +23 18 48)
Wikisky identifies this as IC 144, but it is probably too small and faint for Wolf's 2 1/4 inch objective to have recorded, and in any event would never have been identified by him as a large, bright nebula.
DSS image of region near the reflection nebula misidentified by Wikisky as IC 444
Above, a 15 arcmin wide region centered on Wikisky's misidentification of IC 144

Really Bad IC 144 Identification (not =
IC 444)
Definitely not an IC object, but sometimes misidentified as IC 444
A nonexistent object in Gemini (RA 06 31 12, Dec +23 06 34)
Wikipedia identifies IC 144 as a small reflection nebula at the position given above, but there is absolutely nothing anywhere near that location save for randomly scattered stars; so whatever the source of their misinformation, it is just that, and nothing more.
DSS image of region near the nonexistent nebula misidentified by Wikipedia as IC 444
Above, a 15 arcmin wide region centered on Wikipedia's misidentification of IC 144

IC 445 (= PGC 19328)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1888) by
Lewis Swift (VIII-42)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Camelopardalis (RA 06 37 21.2, Dec +67 51 35)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 445
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 445
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 445

IC 446 (=
IC 2167)
Discovered (Jan 24, 1894) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 446)
Discovered (1895+) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 2167)
A reflection nebula and 11th-magnitude star in Monoceros (RA 06 31 06.1, Dec +10 27 35)
Per Dreyer, IC 446 (Barnard, 1860 RA 06 23 14, NPD 79 27.4) is a "nebulous 10th magnitude star". The position precesses to RA 06 30 58.7, Dec +10 27 05, just west of the object listed above, so the identification is certain. (See IC 2167 for a discussion of the duplicate entry.) Apparent size 7 by 4 arcmin.
DSS image of region near the reflection nebula and star listed as IC 446
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on IC 446

IC 447 (=
IC 2169)
Discovered (Jan 24, 1894) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 447)
Discovered (1895+) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 2169)
A reflection nebula in Monoceros (RA 06 31 04.0, Dec +09 52 24)
Per Dreyer, IC 447 (Barnard, 1860 RA 06 23 27, NPD 79 53) is "very faint, most extremely large, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 06 31 10.3, Dec +10 01 26, on the northern edge of a very large, bright reflection nebula enveloping several early-type stars, so the identification is reasonably certain. (Per Corwin, this was identified by Barnard as possibly being identical to NGC 2245, but that lies well to the east, so that suggestion was wrong.) Most references list this as IC 447, but some list it as IC 2169, which see for a discussion of the duplicate entry. Apparent size 23 by 19 arcmin.
DSS image of region near the reflection nebula listed as IC 447
Above, a 30 arcmin wide region centered on IC 447

IC 448
Discovered (Jan 29, 1891) by
Max Wolf
A reflection nebula in Monoceros (near RA 06 32.7, +07 25.25 ?)
Per Dreyer, IC 448 (Max Wolf [A.N.](#3027), 1860 RA 06 25, NPD 82 30) is a "nebulosity northwest of a 5th magnitude star" (#3027 refers to a note published by Wolf in the Astronomische Nachricten of that number, at the end of which he discusses a nebula near 13 Monocerotis). Wolf's paper specifies a position of 1890 RA 06 25, Dec +07 30, "immediately northwest of 5th magnitude star 13 Monocerotis", but his position is well to the west of 13 Monocerotis, which Dreyer must have discovered when he precessed it to the equinox of 1860, so he changed Wolf's position to one nearer the star. Unfortunately the resulting IC position is not northwest but north of the star, so it still does not correspond to the area specified by Wolf's description. The position shown in the description for this entry was obtained by assuming that Wolf's declination was accurate, that the nebulous region to the west of Dreyer's position (and therefore northwest of 13 Monocerotis) is what Wolf observed, and altering the right ascension to match the center of that region. Whether that is what Wolf actually observed (and is therefore IC 448) is another matter, and in the labeled image below I have also shown the positions estimated by Corwin and Steinicke. The brighter region selected by Steinicke seems a likely alternative to me, but whether Wolf could have observed a faint nebula that close to the star seems less certain, and it requires an error in both his coordinates. Corwin's position is closer to that specified by Dreyer, but since there is nothing in Wolf's paper to suggest that Dreyer's position is accurate, being closer to that is not necessarily better. In other words, though there is no doubt that IC 448 is some part of the nebulosity to the northwest of 13 Monocerotis, which part it might be is unknown.
DSS image of region near reflection nebula IC 448
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the position listed here for IC 448
Below, a labeled view of the region, also showing Corwin and Steinicke's positions
Labeled DSS image of region near reflection nebula IC 448

IC 449 (= PGC 19554)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1888) by
Lewis Swift (VIII-43)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Camelopardalis (RA 06 45 41.4, Dec +71 20 37)
Apparent size 1.5 by 1.1 arcmin (from images below).
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 449
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of IC 449
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 449
Celestial Atlas
(IC 350 - 399) ←     IC Objects: IC 400 - 449     → (IC 450 - 499)