Celestial Atlas
(IC 4350 - 4399) ←     IC Objects: IC 4400 - 4449 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (IC 4450 - 4499)
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Page last updated Mar 2, 2016
WORKING: Check uncertain/duplicate entries (re Corwin+), add pix/captions/tags

IC 4400
Recorded (1898) by
Robert Innes
A small group of stars in Centaurus (RA 14 22 13.6, Dec -60 34 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4400 (= Innes, 1860 RA 14 12 05, NPD 149 56) is "faint, small, extended". The position precesses to RA 14 22 19.8, Dec -60 34 39, less than an arcmin southeast of the group of stars listed above. The group consists of four brighter members slightly extended east-west compared to their overall distribution, and several fainter stars that were probably beyond the reach of Innes' 7 inch refractor, so the description of IC 4400 is usually "four stars" instead of "a small group of stars". Corwin notes that there are some additional stars just west of the group and supposes that "extended" may indicate that they appeared to be part of it, but believes that even on a night of poor seeing Innes would have seen them as a separate grouping; so that possibility is generally ignored.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.65 by 0.5 arcmin.
DSS image of the region near the four stars that probably constitute the main (or only) part of IC 4400
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 4400

WORKING HERE: Need to discuss complex historical identification of IC 4401

IC 4401 (= PGC 51173)
Discovered (Sep 16, 1896) by
Lewis Swift (XI-168)
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(r)a?) in Virgo (RA 14 19 25.1, Dec -04 29 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4401 (= Howe list II, 1860 RA 14 12 07, NPD 93 50.4) is "very faint, small, much extended 200░, near IC 997". The position precesses to RA 14 19 24.9, Dec -04 29 12, right on the galaxy listed above, and the description and reference to IC 997 fit perfectly, so the identification is certain. However, the history of this object's observations involves considerable complications, as indicated by the fact that the discovery is now attribted to Swift, whereas Dreyer attributed it to Howe. As a result, this entry will add a discussion of those complications (cf Corwin) and the confusion resulting from them in its next iteration; however, that does not affect the certainty of the identification given here.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 0.55 arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4401
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 4401
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4401

IC 4402 (= PGC 51288)
Discovered (May 13, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 11.6 spiral galaxy (type Sb??) in Lupus (RA 14 21 12.9, Dec -46 17 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4402 (= Frost #1099, 1860 RA 14 12 09, NPD 135 39) is "large, extremely extended 125░, pointed ends". The position precesses to RA 14 21 08.0, Dec -46 17 42, on the eastern periphery of the galaxy, and the description is perfect, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.2 by 0.9 arcmin?

IC 4403 (= PGC 51091)
Discovered (Jul 3, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 18 16.9, Dec +31 39 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4403 (= Javelle #1302, 1860 RA 14 12 12, NPD 57 41.6) is "faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, 14th magnitude star to north". The position precesses to RA 14 18 17.3, Dec +31 39 32, on the northern periphery of the galaxy, and the star to its north makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4275 km/sec, IC 4403 is about 200 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 210 to 240 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4403
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4403
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4403

IC 4404
Recorded (Aug 22, 1884) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A star in Ursa Minor (RA 14 10 49.2, Dec +78 37 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4404 (= Bigourdan #417, 1860 RA 14 12 19, NPD 10 43) is "extremely faint". The position precesses to RA 14 10 48.8, Dec +78 37 43, right on the star listed above. Per Corwin, the object has been misidentified as PGC 200313, a faint galaxy just north of NGC 5547 (hence its entry immediately below), or even NGC 5547 itself. But he adds that Bigourdan separately observed NGC 5547 on one night, so it cannot be that object, and on both that night and another his measurements point "exactly to the star", so the identification with the star is certain.
DSS image of region near the star listed as IC 4404, also showing PGC 200313, which is sometimes misidentified as IC 4404, and NGC 5547, which is also sometimes misidentified as IC 4404
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 4404, also showing NGC 5547 and PGC 200313

PGC 200313 (not =
IC 4404)
Not an IC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as IC 4404
A magnitude 15(?) galaxy (type S?) in Ursa Minor (RA 14 09 49.0, Dec +78 36 46)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.25 by 0.25 arcmin. (LEDA lists it as a double system with NGC 5547, with a recessional velocity identical to the value listed for the NGC object; but odds are that the velocity in LEDA is simply a careless copying of the other galaxy's information, caused by the historical confusion about what object is or is not IC 4404.)
DSS image of galaxy PGC 200313, which is sometimes misidentified as IC 4404
Above, a 0.6 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 200313; for a wider-field image see IC 4404

IC 4405 (= PGC 51167)
Discovered (Jun 14, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type Sab??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 19 16.4, Dec +26 17 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4405 (= Javelle #1303, 1860 RA 14 12 58, NPD 63 03.3) is "faint, small, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 14 19 15.8, Dec +26 17 56, on the eastern edge of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.6 arcmin?

IC 4406
Discovered (1899) by
DeLisle Stewart (403)
A magnitude 10.2 planetary nebula in Lupus (RA 14 22 26.4, Dec -44 09 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4406 (= Fleming #94, Innes, DeLisle Stewart #403, 1860 RA 14 13 35, NPD 133 30) is a "planetary, stellar, 10th magnitude, extended 80░". The position precesses to RA 14 22 27.0, Dec -44 08 33, less than half an arcmin north of the nebula, and the description is perfect, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 0.6 arcmin.
DSS image of region near planetary nebula IC 4406
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 4406
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide HST image of the planetary
HST image of planetary nebula IC 4406

IC 4407 (perhaps = PGC 49236 =
NGC 5324?)
Perhaps discovered (Mar 5, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 5324)
Recorded (Sep 20, 1883) by William Finlay (and later listed as IC 4407)
Probably a lost or nonexistent object in Virgo (RA 14 21 20.8, Dec -05 59 35)
or perhaps a poorly recorded reobservation of NGC 5324
(A magnitude 11.7 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) at RA 13 52 05.8, Dec -06 03 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4407 (= Finlay (#4), 1860 RA 14 14 ..., NPD 95 21) has "no description" (the position was given by Finlay to only the nearest minute of time). The position precesses to RA 14 21 20.8, Dec -05 59 35, give or take half a minute of time (whence the position above), but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there. Most catalogs assign this object to PGC 51404, which lies just over 2 minutes of time to the east of Finlay's position (hence its entry immediately below). But Finlay used only 6 and 7 inch telescopes, which should have made it impossible for him to observe the magnitude 14.5 object. (Thomson asked Curtis Croulet, an experienced deep sky observer, to try to observe the object using his 12.5 inch telescope, and despite using an excellent deep-sky site, he was unable to see the object.) It is therefore highly unlikely that the galaxy in question is Finlay's object, and IC 4407 should probably be listed as lost or nonexistent. (Note added Dec 30, 2013: In a private communication, Corwin agrees that IC 4407 cannot be PGC 51404, but adds that if Finlay made a 30 minute error in his RA (a not uncommon sort of error), his object might be identifiable. Using an 1860 RA of 13 44 instead of 14 14, the position precesses to RA 13 51 18.7 (plus or minus half a minute of time), Dec -06 02 42, which is only a minute of time west of 12th magnitude NGC 5324, which is bright enough for Finlay to have seen, so IC 4407 may well be a poorly recorded reobervation of the NGC object. Unfortunately, as Corwin notes, since Finlay gave no description of the object or the surrounding starfield, there is probably no way to know if this is a correct identification of IC 4407, or merely a coincidence.)
Physical Information: If IC 4407 is lost or nonexistent, there is no physical information to be discussed. If IC 4407 = NGC 5324, see that object for anything else.
DSS image of region near Finlay's position for the apparently nonexistent IC 4407
Above, a 30 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Finlay's position for IC 4407
Below, a 30 arcmin wide DSS image centered 30 (1860) minutes to the west, also showing NGC 5324
DSS image of region half an hour of 1860 right ascension west of Finlay's position for IC 4407, also showing NGC 5324

PGC 51404 (not =
IC 4407)
Not an IC object but listed here because usually misidentified as IC 4407
A magnitude 14.5(?) spiral galaxy (type SB(s)m) in Virgo (RA 14 23 36.7, Dec -05 58 58)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry for IC 4407 this galaxy is usually identified as that IC object, but it is far too faint to have been observed by Finlay, so that identification must be wrong.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 0.75 arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 51404, which is often misidentified as IC 4407
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 51404, which is usually misidentified as IC 4407
Below, a 2.0 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 51404, which is often misidentified as IC 4407

IC 4408 (= PGC 51283)
Discovered (Jul 8, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type Sb??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 21 13.1, Dec +29 59 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4408 (= Javelle #1304, 1860 RA 14 15 06, NPD 59 21 00) is "faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 21 14.2, Dec +30 00 29, less than an arcmin north of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is considered certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 4409 (= PGC 51306)
Discovered (Jul 3, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type Sbc? pec) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 21 33.4, Dec +31 35 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4409 (= Javelle #1305, 1860 RA 14 15 28, NPD 57 46.7) is "faint, small, round, 13.5 magnitude star close". The position precesses to RA 14 21 32.1, Dec +31 34 49, on the southeastern end of the galaxy listed above, and the star next to the galaxy makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4409
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4409
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4409

IC 4410 (= PGC 51338)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type Sb??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 22 14.0, Dec +17 23 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4410 (= Frost #1100, 1860 RA 14 15 31, NPD 71 58) is "very faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 14 22 07.3, Dec +17 23 33, about 1.5 arcmin west of the galaxy listed above, but there is nothing else nearby and the error is within typical limits for Frost's observations, so the identification is considered certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.3 arcmin?

IC 4411
Recorded (1899) by
DeLisle Stewart
Probably a nonexistent object in Centaurus (RA 14 25 01.0, Dec -35 01 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4411 (= DeLisle Stewart #404, 1860 RA 14 16 36, NPD 124 23) is "faint, small, extremely extended 45░". The position precesses to RA 14 25 01.0, Dec -35 01 13 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there. Corwin suggests that the "object" was probably a plate defect, as almost all the objects found by Stewart on the 1-hour plate in question were within an arcmin of his recorded position, but adds that it would be necessary to examine the original plate (presumably still at Harvard) to be sure. There is, unfortunately, a very common misidentification involving an object (PGC 51398) far too faint to have registered on the plate, so as a warning it is discussed immediately below.
DSS image of region centered on Stewart's position for the apparently nonexistent IC 4411
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Stewart's position for IC 4411

PGC 51398 (not =
IC 4411)
Not an IC object but listed here because often misidentified as IC 4411
A magnitude 16(?) spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Centaurus (RA 14 23 23.2, Dec -35 06 45)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry for IC 4411, PGC 51398 is often listed as that IC object, but per Corwin it is far too faint to have registered on the 1-hour plate examined by Stewart, and if it were IC 4411 the error in its position is not only large but involves an unlikely combination of errors in right ascension and declination. It is therefore certain that PGC 51398 is not IC 4411.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.15 arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 51398, which is often misidentified as IC 4411
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 51398
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 51398, which is often misidentified as IC 4411

IC 4412 (= PGC 51391 =
NGC 5594)
Discovered (May 19, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 5594)
Discovered (Jul 14, 1895) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 4412)
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 23 10.2, Dec +26 15 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4412 (= Javelle #1306, 1860 RA 14 16 54, NPD 63 05.4) is "faint, small, round, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 14 23 10.6, Dec +26 16 18, on the northern periphery of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain. The only problem is the duplicate entry, for which Corwin says "see NGC 5594" (that part of the discussion will be covered in a later iteration of the two entries).
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 5594 for anything else.

IC 4413 (= PGC 51375)
Discovered (Jun 29, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 22 57.2, Dec +37 31 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4413 (= Javelle #1307, 1860 RA 14 17 12, NPD 51 48.8) is "faint, small, round". The position precesses to RA 14 22 58.8, Dec +37 32 54, an arcmin north of the galaxy listed above, but there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is reasonably certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.3 by 0.3 arcmin?

IC 4414 (=
IC 1008 = PGC 51414)
Discovered (May 4, 1866) by Truman Safford (and later listed as IC 1008)
Discovered (Jul 27, 1895) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 4414)
A pair of interacting galaxies in Bo÷tes
A magnitude 15? spiral galaxy (type Sa? pec) at RA 14 23 42.2, Dec +28 20 47
A magnitude 15? spiral galaxy (type Sab? pec) at RA 14 23 42.6, Dec +28 20 50
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4414 (= Javelle #1308, 1860 RA 14 17 33, NPD 61 01.0) is "pretty bright, considerably small, gradually brighter middle and nucleus, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 14 23 44.4, Dec +28 20 46, practically on the eastern periphery of the object listed above, so the identification is certain. As noted in the entry for IC 1008, there has been some disagreement about its identification as PGC 51414, so although that identification is essentially certain, the object is sometimes listed as IC 1008, and sometimes as IC 4414. Since tradition generally assigns the "earlier" designation to an object, I am treating the proper designation for the duplicate entry as IC 1008. Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see IC 1008 for anything else.

IC 4415 (= PGC 84155)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 15.1 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 24 26.7, Dec +16 38 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4415 (= Frost #1101, 1860 RA 14 17 48, NPD 72 44) is "very faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 24 25.4, Dec +16 37 49, about half an arcmin southwest of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is reasonably certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.55 by 0.2 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4415
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4415
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4415

IC 4416 (= PGC 51452)
Discovered (Jul 6, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 24 17.4, Dec +29 38 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4416 (= Javelle #1309, 1860 RA 14 18 08, NPD 59 43.9) is "faint, small, round, nuclear". The position precesses to RA 14 24 16.0, Dec +29 37 56, practically on the eastern periphery of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 4417 (= PGC 51480)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 24 53.6, Dec +17 02 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4417 (= Frost #1102, 1860 RA 14 18 13, NPD 72 19) is "very faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 24 49.4, Dec +17 02 52, an arcmin northwest of the galaxy listed above, but since the position was only given to about that accuracy and there is nothing else nearby, the identification is reasonably certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin?

IC 4418 (= PGC 51510)
Discovered (Jun 18, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.3 elliptical galaxy (type E0??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 25 27.2, Dec +25 31 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4418 (= Javelle #1310, 1860 RA 14 19 00, NPD 63 50.5) is "pretty bright, small, round, gradually brighter middle and nucleus". The position precesses to RA 14 25 17.6, Dec +25 31 26, about 2 arcmin west of the galaxy listed above. This is less accurate than most of Javelle's positions, but there is nothing else in the region that fits the description, so the identification is essentially certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.6 arcmin?

IC 4419 (= PGC 84167)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 15.7 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 25 54.6, Dec +16 37 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4419 (= Frost #1103, 1860 RA 14 19 12, NPD 72 44) is "faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 25 49.1, Dec +16 37 59, about 1.3 arcmin west of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby that fits the description, so the identification is essentially certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.65 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4419
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4419
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4419

IC 4420 (= PGC 51520)
Discovered (Jun 17, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 25 39.3, Dec +25 22 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4420 (= Javelle #1311, 1860 RA 14 19 21, NPD 63 59.3) is "faint, small, extended 220░, nuclear". The position precesses to RA 14 25 38.9, Dec +25 22 41, right on the galaxy listed above, and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin?

IC 4421 (= PGC 51704)
Discovered (May 19, 1898) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 12.3 elliptical galaxy (type E4??) in Centaurus (RA 14 28 31.2, Dec -37 35 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4421 (= Swift list XI (#170), 1860 RA 14 19 34, NPD 126 57.3) is "most extremely faint, very small, round, faint star to east". The position precesses to RA 14 28 07.9, Dec -37 35 10, about 5 arcmin west of the object listed above, but there is nothing else nearby, the error in right ascension is typical for Swift, and the 11th magnitude star just east of the galaxy makes the identification essentially certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.7 arcmin?

IC 4422 (= PGC 51530)
Discovered (Jul 6, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 13.9 elliptical galaxy (type E1??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 25 59.1, Dec +30 28 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4422 (= Javelle #1312, 1860 RA 14 19 54, NPD 58 53.7) is "faint, considerably small, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 14 25 59.2, Dec +30 28 20, right on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin?

IC 4423 (= PGC 51549)
Discovered (Jun 14, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 26 17.6, Dec +26 14 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4423 (= Javelle #1313, 1860 RA 14 20 02, NPD 63 07.8) is "very faint, small, round, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 14 26 17.6, Dec +26 14 16, only half an arcmin south of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4423
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4423
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4423

IC 4424 (=
IC 1016 = PGC 51624 = "NGC 5619B")
Discovered (Apr 28, 1891) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 1016)
Discovered (May 23, 1892) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 4424)
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)bc?) in Virgo (RA 14 27 32.4, Dec +04 49 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4424 (= Bigourdan #320, 1860 RA 14 20 33, NPD 84 32) is "extremely faint, small, stellar". The position precesses to RA 14 27 33.4, Dec +04 50 10, less than an arcmin north of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby (the much brighter, much larger NGC 5619 would never have been described as "small" or "stellar"), so the identification is essentially certain. In fact per Corwin, the arcmin error in declination is entirely due to an error in the position of Bigourdan's comparison star, so the identification is absolutely certain. Although Swift's observation was not as accurate as Bigourdan's, his description makes it certain that IC 4424 is a duplicate of the entry for IC 1016, so the object should be called IC 1016; but as in many such cases, the object is sometimes called IC 1016, sometimes IC 4424, and even quite needlessly NGC 5619B, due to its proximity to NGC 5619.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see IC 1016 for anything else.

IC 4425 (= PGC 51575)
Discovered (Jun 21, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 26 44.3, Dec +27 11 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4425 (= Javelle #1314, 1860 RA 14 20 34, NPD 62 10.8) is "faint, small, round, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 14 26 47.2, Dec +27 11 19, only half an arcmin east of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4425
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4425
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4425

IC 4426 (= PGC 51607)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 14.3 elliptical galaxy (type E0??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 17.0, Dec +16 49 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4426 (= Frost #1104, 1860 RA 14 20 43, NPD 72 33) is "faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 27 19.4, Dec +16 49 10, just over half an arcmin southeast of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.5 arcmin?

IC 4427 (= PGC 51591)
Discovered (Jun 21, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type Sab??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 26 59.6, Dec +26 51 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4427 (= Javelle #1315, 1860 RA 14 20 45, NPD 62 30.3) is "faint, considerably small, diffuse, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 14 26 58.9, Dec +26 51 51, right on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.3 arcmin?

IC 4428 (= PGC 84193)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 15.2 spiral galaxy (type SABab?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 25.6, Dec +16 11 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4428 (= Frost #1105, 1860 RA 14 20 48, NPD 73 10) is "faint, extremely small, round, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 27 25.7, Dec +16 12 11, just over half an arcmin north of the galaxy listed nearby, and there is nothing else nearby that could possibly be the object observed by Frost, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4428
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4428
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4428

IC 4429 (= PGC 51637)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 14.1 elliptical galaxy (type E0??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 37.3, Dec +16 54 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4429 (= Frost #1106, 1860 RA 14 21 01, NPD 72 29) is "faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 14 27 37.2, Dec +16 53 12, less than an arcmin south of the galaxy listed above (which is almost as good as "right on the galaxy", since the polar distance was only given to the nearest arcmin), and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.7 arcmin?

IC 4430 (probably = PGC 51763)
Discovered (1899) by
DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 11.9 lenticular galaxy (type SB0 pec?) in Centaurus (RA 14 29 19.3, Dec -33 27 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4430 (= DeLisle Stewart #405, 1860 RA 14 21 01, NPD 122 59) is "considerably faint, considerably small, indistinct". The position precesses to RA 14 29 24.0, Dec -33 36 42, but there is nothing there. Per Corwin, odds are that Stewart made a 10 arcmin error in the polar distance, as the description is perfect for what the galaxy listed above would look like on the 1-hour plate examined by Stewart. An 1860 position adjusted for the suggested error precesses to RA 14 29 23.6, Dec -33 26 42, on the northeastern rim of the galaxy, so (such "single-digit" errors not being uncommon) the identification seems reasonably certain. Corwin's suggestion has been generally if not universally accepted, but at least no other object has been suggested as being IC 4430, so it appears that IC 4430 is either PGC 51763, or a lost or nonexistent object.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.3 by 1.3 arcmin.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 4430
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 4430
Below, a 3.0 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 4430

IC 4431 (=
IC 1012 = PGC 51600)
Discovered (May 9, 1866) by Truman Safford (and later listed as IC 1012)
Discovered (Jul 9, 1896) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 4431)
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 09.5, Dec +30 56 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4431 (= Javelle #1316, 1860 RA 14 21 08, NPD 58 26.1) is "faint, considerably small, round, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 14 27 11.5, Dec +30 56 05, less than an arcmin southeast of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing nearby, so the identification is reasonably certain. Per Corwin, Javelle's error was almost entirely due to a catalog error in the position of his comparison star, and the identification is therefore absolutely certain. The duplicate entry is due to Javelle's "error" being in the opposite direction from Safford's, so that the 1860 positions differ by 3 arcmin, giving Dreyer the impression that there were two objects in the area.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see IC 1012 for anything else.

WORKING HERE: Need to check region near IC 4432 for appropriate linear groupings of stars

IC 4432
Recorded (1899) by
DeLisle Stewart
Probably a nonexistent object in Centaurus (RA 14 29 48.8, Dec -39 31 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4432 (= DeLisle Stewart #406, 1860 RA 14 21 08, NPD 128 54) is "very faint, very small, much extended 85░". The position precesses to RA 14 29 48.8, Dec -39 31 40 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there. Most catalogs list PGC 51727 as IC 4432, and its nearly quarter-degree positional error, though not encouraging, could be mostly explained away by a 1 minute error in the right ascension, which is a not uncommon digit error. There would also have to be a 1.5 arcmin error in the declination, but that is not atypical, so the identificiation might seem reasonable save for two things. First, the position angle is off by nearly 40░, and more convincingly, the galaxy is far too faint to have been observed on the 1-hour plate examined by Stewart. Per a private communication from Corwin, the paper (Harvard Annals 60) that announced the discovery of IC 4432 stated that 4-hour Bruce Telescope plates showed 14 times more new nebulae than 1-hour plates, and that the minimum brightness of objects found on the 1-hour plates was about the same as the minimum brightness of NGC objects; but PGC 51727 is much fainter than such objects, and therefore could not have been seen on the plate Stewart examined. As a result, IC 4432 is either a nonexistent object, or perhaps a linear grouping of stars that could be mistaken for an edge-on spiral galaxy with the appropriate position angle (in fact, such a group is shown immediately below Stewart's position in the images below, and Corwin notes a couple of linear groupings that might fit Stewart's #406, so I will deal with that possibility in the next iteration of this page.)
Physical Information: If lost or nonexistent, there is nothing to discuss. If a linear grouping of stars, to be discussed in the next iteration of this page.
DSS image of region near Stewart's position for IC 4432
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Stewart's position for IC 4432
Below, a 15 arcmin wide DSS image showing Stewart's position and PGC 51727
DSS image of region near Stewart's position for the apparently nonexistent IC 4432, also showing PGC 51727, which is often misidentified as IC 4432

PGC 51727 (not =
IC 4432)
Not an IC object but listed here since usually misidentified as IC 4432
A magnitude 15.6 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Centaurus (RA 14 28 49.7, Dec -39 33 07)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry immediately above, PGC 51727 is almost universally listed as IC 4432. However, as also noted there, aside from a considerable error in its position angle, which is about 40░ less than the 85░ noted by Stewart for IC 4432, the galaxy is far too faint to have been seen on the 1-hour Bruce Telescope plate examined by Stewart. So it cannot possibly be IC 4432, and this entry serves as a warning to that effect.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.85 by 0.25 arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 51727, which is usually misidentified as IC 4432
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 51727
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 51727, which is usually misidentified as IC 4432

IC 4433 (= PGC 84202)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 15.3 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)bc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 53.3, Dec +16 11 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4433 (= Frost #1107, 1860 RA 14 21 12, NPD 73 10) is "faint, very small, round, much brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 27 49.6, Dec +16 12 13, just over an arcmin west of a pair of galaxies. Without any other information, it could be assumed that one of them is IC 4433, but which might involve some guesswork (usually, it would be presumed that the brighter one is the IC object). However, Frost's #1108, which is listed as IC 4434, has nearly the same position, save for being slightly to the northeast of his position for IC 4433; so it is certain that the southwestern member of the pair (the galaxy listed above) must be IC 4433, and the northeastern member (the galaxy listed in the next entry) must be IC 4434
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.55 by 0.35 arcmin. At about the same distance as its apparent companion, and as a result likely to be a physical companion as well.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4433 and lenticular galaxy IC 4434
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4433 and 4434
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4433 and lenticular galaxy IC 4434

IC 4434 (= PGC 51651)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0? pec) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 54.7, Dec +16 12 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4434 (= Frost #1108, 1860 RA 14 21 18, NPD 73 09) is "faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA , just under an arcmin west of a pair of galaxies, and a fraction of an arcmin northeast of Frost's position for IC 4433 (which see for a discussion of which galaxy corresponds to which IC entry, and for images of the pair).
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.55 arcmin. At about the same distance as its apparent companion, and as a result likely to be a physical companion as well.

IC 4435 (= PGC 51615)
Discovered (Jul 10, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 24.1, Dec +37 28 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4435 (= Javelle #1317, 1860 RA 14 21 40, NPD 51 54.0) is "faint, round, suddenly brighter middle equivalent to 13.5 magnitude star". The position precesses to RA 14 27 24.8, Dec +37 28 14, right on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.6 arcmin?

IC 4436 (= PGC 51654)
Discovered (Jun 21, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 13.9 elliptical galaxy (type E1??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 58.2, Dec +26 30 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4436 (= Javelle #1318, 1860 RA 14 21 44, NPD 62 52.5) is "pretty bright, small, round, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 14 27 58.4, Dec +26 29 46, on the southern periphery of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.9 arcmin?

IC 4437
Recorded (1890's??) by
Edward Barnard
A nonexistent object in Bo÷tes (RA 14 27 25.6, Dec +41 29 15)
or a magnitude 15(?) star at RA 14 27 31.8, Dec +41 30 08
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4437 (= Barnard, 1860 RA 14 21 54, NPD 47 53) has "no description, 8th magnitude star to northeast". The position precesses to RA 14 27 25.6, Dec +41 29 15 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there, save a 9th magnitude star to the southwest. Even assuming the position is off a bit and Barnard's object is to the southwest of the star, there is still nothing there. Corwin suggests that Barnard might have observed the 15th magnitude star about 1.5 arcmin northeast of the IC2 position and inverted the directions, but there is otherwise no credible identification of IC 4437 with any real object.
SDSS image of region near Barnard's position for the apparently nonexistent IC 4437, also showing the star that might be what he observed
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image showing Bigourdan's position for IC 4437
Also shown is the star that might be what he actually observed

IC 4438 (= PGC 51709)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 15.8 spiral galaxy (type Sbc??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 28 34.5, Dec +17 20 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4438 (= Frost #1109, 1860 RA 14 22 01, NPD 72 02) is "faint, very small, round, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 14 28 36.0, Dec +17 20 19, only 0.1 arcmin northeast of the rim of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 4439 (= PGC 51720)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 14.9 spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 28 40.0, Dec +17 01 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4439 (= Frost #1110, 1860 RA 14 22 07, NPD 72 20) is "faint, small, round, much brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 28 42.6, Dec +17 02 20, only an arcmin northeast of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4439
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4439
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4439

IC 4440 (= PGC 51734)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 28 59.2, Dec +17 19 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4440 (= Frost #1111, 1860 RA 14 22 19, NPD 72 03) has a "brighter middle, magnitude 15". The position precesses to RA 14 28 54.0, Dec +17 19 21, just over an arcmin west of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin?

WORKING HERE: Add further discussion of historical identification

IC 4441 (probably =
IC 4444 = PGC 51905)
Discovered (Mar 28, 1897) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 4441)
Discovered (1899) by DeLisle Stewart (and later listed as IC 4444)
A magnitude 11.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Lupus (RA 14 31 38.8, Dec -43 25 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4441 (= Swift list XI (#171), 1860 RA 14 22 28, NPD 132 53.7) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round". The position precesses to RA 14 31 23.4, Dec -43 31 11, but there is nothing there. However, per Corwin there is a suitable candidate (namely, IC 4444) 16 seconds of time to the east and 6 arcmin to the north, which sticks out like a sore thumb on wide-field images of the area. Unfortunately, until fairly recently most references misidentified IC 4441 as a much fainter object, PGC 51825, and some still do (hence its entry immediately below), despite the fact that Thomson has given a convincing argument that PGC 51825 is too far south and far too faint for Swift to have seen from his position on Mt. Lowe (near Pasadena), so it cannot be IC 4441, and Swift's XI-171 must have been a poorly recorded observation of IC 4444, as shown in the title for this entry. (More about this to be added in the next iteration of this page.)
Physical Information: Even though it is reasonably certain that IC 4441 is a duplicate of IC 4444, which will probably lead to a gradual change in the preferrred catalog designation for the object, at the moment it is still called IC 4444 far more often than IC 4441; for that reason, see IC 4444 for anything else.
DSS image region near Swift's position for IC 4441, also showing IC 4444, which is probably what Swift actually observed
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Swift's position for IC 4441
Also shown is the probable IC 4441 (as IC 4444)

PGC 51825 (not =
IC 4441)
Not an IC object but listed here since often misidentified as IC 4441
A magnitude 14.5(?) spiral galaxy (type SA(s)b pec) in Lupus (RA 14 30 18.0, Dec -43 33 40)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry for IC 4441, this galaxy has long been (and sometimes still is) misidentified as that object. A lengthy discussion by Thomson (to be paraphrased here in the next iteration of this page) proves that it was impossible for Swift to have observed PGC 51825, so it cannot be the IC object. This entry serves as a warning to those who might read otherwise elsewhere.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.45 arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 51825, which is often misidentified as IC 4441
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 51825
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 51825, which is often misidentified as IC 4441

IC 4442 (= PGC 51725)
Discovered (Jul 27, 1895) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type SBa??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 28 45.2, Dec +28 57 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4442 (= Javelle #1319, 1860 RA 14 22 35, NPD 60 26.2) is "faint, small, round, nuclear". The position precesses to RA 14 28 43.1, Dec +28 56 10, about 1.7 arcmin south southwest of the galaxy listed above. The position isn't as accurate as might be hoped, but there is nothing else in the region, so the identification is considered essentially certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.6 arcmin?

IC 4443 (= PGC 84220)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 15.1 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 29 17.4, Dec +16 10 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4443 (= Frost #1112, 1860 RA 14 22 42, NPD 73 11) is "very small, very little extended, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 14 29 19.3, Dec +16 11 24, half an arcmin northeast of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else in the region, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.65 by 0.35 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4443
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4443
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4443

IC 4444 (= PGC 51905, and probably =
IC 4441)
Discovered (Mar 28, 1897) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 4441)
Discovered (1899) by DeLisle Stewart (and later listed as IC 4444)
A magnitude 11.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Lupus (RA 14 31 38.8, Dec -43 25 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4444 (= DeLisle Stewart #407, 1860 RA 14 22 46, NPD 132 47) is "very faint, very small, stellar middle, spiral or annular". The position precesses to RA 14 31 41.2, Dec -43 24 27, on the northeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, and the description is perfect, so the identification is certain. Because of this, for a very long time this object was referred to as IC 4444. As discussed in the entry for IC 4441, that object is almost certainly the same galaxy, and as a result many references are gradually switching to IC 4441 as the designation for the object; but I expect it will take a long time for the change to become more nearly universal, so I am using the currently common designation of IC 4444 for this object.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.75 by 1.4 arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4444, which is probably a duplicate entry for IC 4441
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 4444, which is probably also IC 4441
Below, a 2.0 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Cargenie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine image of spiral galaxy IC 4444, which is probably a duplicate entry for IC 4441

IC 4445 (= PGC 51917)
Discovered (May 13, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Lupus (RA 14 31 54.3, Dec -46 02 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4445 (= Frost #1113, 1860 RA 14 22 49, NPD 135 25) is "faint, considerably small, extended 160░". The position precesses to RA 14 31 54.4, Dec -46 02 26, on the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, and the description is essentially perfect, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 4446 (= PGC 51742)
Discovered (Jul 10, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 15.2 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 29 01.4, Dec +37 27 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4446 (= Javelle #1320, 1860 RA 14 23 17, NPD 51 54.7) is "faint, considerably small, round, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 14 29 01.0, Dec +37 27 43, right on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.85 by 0.45 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4446
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4446
Below, a 1.0 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4446

IC 4447 (= PGC 51754)
Discovered (Jul 9, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 29 17.9, Dec +30 49 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4447 (= Javelle #1321, 1860 RA 14 23 34, NPD 58 33.1) is "faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle and nucleus, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 14 29 36.8, Dec +30 49 23, about 4 arcmin east southeast of the galaxy listed above, but there is nothing else in the field and the description is appropriate, so despite the less than perfect position, no one seems to have questioned the identification, and it should probably be considered certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.8 arcmin?

IC 4448 (= PGC 52426)
Discovered (Jun 19, 1900) by
DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SBd??) in Apus (RA 14 40 27.5, Dec -78 48 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4448 (= DeLisle Stewart #409, 1860 RA 14 23 54, NPD 168 12) is "very remarkable, faint, very small, annular, star in middle". The position precesses to RA 14 40 31.5, Dec -78 48 51, on the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, and the description perfectly fits the object, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.8 arcmin?

IC 4449 (= PGC 1479230)
Discovered (May 10, 1904) by
Royal Frost
A magnitude 15.7 spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 31 21.6, Dec +15 14 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 4449 (= Frost #1114, 1860 RA 14 24 42, NPD 74 08) is "very faint, very small, round, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 14 31 20.9, Dec +15 14 39, right on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 4449
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 4449
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 4449
Celestial Atlas
(IC 4350 - 4399) ←     IC Objects: IC 4400 - 4449     → (IC 4450 - 4499)