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IC 5350 - 5386 ← NGC Objects: NGC 1 - 49 → NGC 50 - 99
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Page last updated Aug 12, 2017

NGC 1 (= PGC 564)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1861) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Aug 20, 1873) by Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)bc?) in Pegasus (RA 00 07 15.9, Dec +27 42 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1 (= GC 1, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 00 04, NPD 63 04.3) is "faint, small, round, between 11th and 14th magnitude stars". The position precesses to RA 00 07 15.8, Dec +27 42 28, within 0.1 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above, and there are appropriate stars to the northeast and southwest, so the identification is certain.
Historical Notes: Dreyer's description is identical to that in the GC, but the position is slightly different (the GC lists 1860 RA 00 00 05, NPD 63 04 00). Neither position agrees exactly with d'Arrest's four observations, which fall slightly but not significantly northeast of the NGC position. However, the 4th Lord Rosse's summary of observations made between 1848 and 1878 notes the presence of a companion almost exactly 2 arcmin south southeast (= NGC 2), and although that paper gives no indication of the actual position of either object, Dreyer's 1877 Supplement to the GC lists a position for NGC 2 (as observed by Lord Rosse) which is identical to the one in its NGC entry. So the NGC position for NGC 1 was probably also taken from the measurements at Birr Castle.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4550 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 1 is about 210 to 215 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 175 to 245 million light years. (Another recessional velocity measurement of 2215 km/sec would place the galaxy only about 100 million light years away, which seems unlikely given the redshift-independent results, so it is probably a misattributed value for a different galaxy, one reason for the effort made on this site to determine what galaxy corresponds to a given designation.) Given that and its apparent size of about 2.25 by 2.0 arcmin (counting the fainter outer regions, as seen in the images below), it is about 135 to 140 thousand light years across. Note: Although close in the sky (see the wide-field image below), NGC 1 and 2 are at very different distances; if stars, they would be called an "optical double".
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1, also showing NGC 2 and NGC 7839
Above, a 12 arcmin SDSS image centered on NGC 1, also showing NGC 2 and 7839
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1
Below, a 12 arcmin SDSS image centered on NGC 1, also showing NGC 2 and 7839 and PGC 1818016
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1, also showing NGC 2, NGC 7839 and a PGC object

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IC 5350 - 5386 ← NGC Objects: NGC 1 - 49 → NGC 50 - 99