Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Mar 21, 2016
Updated Corwin positions, checked original Dreyer NGC entries
WORKING 90, 91 (change in Steinicke database)

NGC 50 (= PGC 983)
Discovered (1865) by
Gaspare Ferrari
Reported (1866) by Angelo Secchi
Also observed (Oct 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 12.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 00 14 44.6, Dec -07 20 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 50 (= GC 5092, Secchi (#13), 1860 RA 00 07 39, NPD 98 08.8) is "very faint". The position precesses to RA 00 14 48.0, Dec -07 22 05, about 1.8 arcmin southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above but not far from its southeastern border, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Ferrari discovered the nebula, its observation was published by Secchi, whence Dreyer's attribution. Swift also recorded this object as his list V #1, stating "pretty bright, pretty small, round, very much brighter middle, 1st of 3". His position precesses to RA 00 14 57.4, Dec -07 21 08, about 3 arcmin nearly due east of the galaxy, and a comparison with his observation of NGC 54 (his "2nd of 3") shows a consistent positional error. Given Ferrari's earlier observation, Dreyer's not bothering to mention Swift's observation is not surprising, but it bears mentioning here as his "1st of 3" in connection with his observations of NGC 54 and 58 (his "3rd of 3").
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5700 km/sec, NGC 50 is about 265 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.7 by 2.2 arcmin (counting its extensive halo), it is about 210 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 50
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 50
Also see NGC 58 for a wide-field view of NGC 50, 54 and 47 (= NGC 58)
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 50
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 50
Also shown are PGC 943, 971, 972 and 996, and PGC objects 1018921, 1021293 and 1021824
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 50, also showing numerous PGC objects

NGC 51 (= PGC 974)
Discovered (Sep 7, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Oct 13, 1890) by Guillaume Bigourdan
Also observed by Edward Barnard
A magnitude 13.1 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Andromeda (RA 00 14 34.9, Dec +48 15 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 51 (Swift list II (#8), 1860 RA 00 07 47, NPD 42 31.6) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, brighter middle". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected 1860 RA (per Bigourdan and Barnard) of 00 07 15; using that and the original NPD the position precesses to RA 00 14 35.1, Dec +48 15 07, only 0.2 arcmin from the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5350 km/sec, NGC 51 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.1 by 1.3 arcmin (including its distorted extensions), it is about 150 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 51, also showing NGC 48 and NGC 49
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 51, also showing NGC 48 and 49 and PGC 212487
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 51

NGC 52 (= PGC 978)
Discovered (Sep 18, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 26, 1827) by John Herschel
Also observed (Nov 13, 1889) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Pegasus (RA 00 14 40.1, Dec +18 34 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 52 (= GC 25 = JH 11 = WH III 183, 1860 RA 00 07 48, NPD 72 14.3) is "very faint, small, extended". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 00 07 28; using that and the original NPD, the position precesses to RA 00 14 41.4, Dec +18 32 25, nearly 2 arcmin south of the galaxy listed above, but there is nothing else nearby and the elongated appearance of its brighter portion confirms the identification.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5390 km/sec, NGC 52 is about 250 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 210 to 285 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.1 by 0.4 arcmin, it is about 155 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 52
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 52
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing PGC 1563523
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 52, also showing PGC 1563523
Below, a 12 arcmin wide centered on NGC 52
Also shown are PGC objects 212489, 1561202, 1563523, 1564261 and 1565741
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 52, also showing several PGC objects

NGC 53 (= PGC 982)
Discovered (Sep 15, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)ab?) in Tucana (RA 00 14 42.9, Dec -60 19 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 53 (= GC 26 = JH 2314, 1860 RA 00 07 53, NPD 151 06.2) is "extremely faint, small, round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 14 46.8, Dec -60 19 28, less than an arcmin east of the center of the galaxy listed above and within its outline, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4570 km/sec, NGC 53 is about 215 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.2 by 1.7 arcmin, it is about 135 thousand light years across. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as an example of type (R')SB(r)ab. Note: See PGC 977 for a discussion of the double star listed as that PGC object, and the galaxy (J001440.4-601838) whose physical information is frequently misattributed to the double star, because the galaxy is often misidentified as PGC 977.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 53
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 53
Below, a 2.7 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 53, PGC 977 and J001440.4-601838
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 53, also showing the double star listed as PGC 977 and the galaxy often misidentified as PGC 977
Below, a 2.2 by 2.5 arcmin wide image shows PGC 977 as merely a double star (de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies)
de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies image of spiral galaxy NGC 53, also showing the double star listed as PGC 977
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC objects 977, 364114 and 364446
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 53, showing several PGC objects

Per Corwin, there is an apparent companion (PGC 977) at RA 00 14 40.5, Dec -60 18 39,
but with a recessional velocity of 37300 km/sec, it is many times further away, and is only an optical double

NGC 54 (= PGC 1011)
Discovered (1886) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Also observed (Oct 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)ab?) in Cetus (RA 00 15 07.7, Dec -07 06 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 54 (Tempel, Swift list V (#2), 1860 RA 00 07 58, NPD 97 54.3) is "very faint, pretty small, round, (GC) 5092 (= NGC 50) to southwest". The position precesses to RA 00 15 07.0, Dec -07 07 35, only an arcmin south of the galaxy listed above, there is nothing else nearby and as shown in the widefield image for NGC 58 (= NGC 47), NGC 50 is to the southwest, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: This is the "2nd of 3" noted by Swift in his list V, and his position falls to the east of the galaxy, just as his positions for NGC 50 and 58 fall to the east of those galaxies (though not by the same amount in the case of NGC 58), confirming that he really did observe all three galaxies on the night in question.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5335 km/sec, NGC 54 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.05 by 0.35 arcmin, it is about 75 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 54
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 54
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 54
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 54, also showing PGC objects 1023173 and 1024961
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 54, also showing some PGC objects

NGC 55 (= PGC 1014), the Whale Galaxy
Discovered (Jul 7, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Sep 4, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 7.9 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)m?) in Sculptor (RA 00 14 53.9, Dec -39 11 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 55 (= GC 27 = JH 2315, Dunlop 507, 1860 RA 00 08 00, NPD 129 59.6) is "very bright, very large, very much extended, triple nucleus". The position precesses to RA 00 15 02.5, Dec -39 12 53, well within the central part of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
IC 1537: As indicated by Dreyer's description, the galaxy contains several regions which could be seen as separate objects due to the galaxy's relatively small distance. One of the eastern star-forming regions, well separated from the brighter western part of the galaxy, was later designated IC 1537 (as shown in two of the images below, and in a large-scale image viewable on a separate page).
Physical Information: An apparently irregular galaxy, but more likely an edge-on barred spiral. The recessional velocity of NGC 55 is only 130 km/sec, too small to be a reliable indicator of distance, though the 6 million light year distance corresponding to that redshift is in the middle of redshift-independent distance estimates range from 4 to 8 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 30 by 4 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across, with a large margin of error. NGC 55 and NGC 300 are only a million or so light years apart, and are thought be a gravitationally bound pair (the bottom image shows their relative positions). Until recently they were considered members of the Sculptor group of galaxies, but are now known to be foreground galaxies.
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 55
Above, a half degree wide closeup of NGC 55 (Image Credit above and below: ESO)
Click here or on the image above for a 3 megapixel version
Below, a quarter degree wide closeup of the western portion of the galaxy
Also shown are PGC objects 124782, 599244 and 601905
ESO image showing the western portion of spiral galaxy NGC 55
Below, a quarter degree view of the eastern portion of NGC 55
Star-forming region IC 1537 is also shown (Image Credit as above)
ESO image of the eastern disk and nucleus of spiral galaxy NGC 55, also showing the star formation and emission region listed as IC 1537
Below, the image above with labels for many other galaxies, including PGC objects 107623, 124643,
124647, 171726, 599357, 600275, 600628, 601019, 601041, and 601552
Labeled ESO image of the eastern disk and nucleus of spiral galaxy NGC 55, also showing the star formation and emission region listed as IC 1537 and a multitude of more distant galaxies
Below, a 9 degree wide DSS image of the region between NGC 55 and NGC 300
The bright star at the bottom is Ankaa, or α Phoenicis
DSS image of the region between NGC 55 and NGC 300

NGC 56
Recorded (Oct 13, 1825) by
John Herschel
A nonexistent object in Pisces (RA 00 15 21.2, Dec +12 26 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 56 (= GC 28 = JH 12, 1860 RA 00 08 09, NPD 78 20.0) is "extremely faint, extremely large, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 00 15 21.3, Dec +12 26 43, but there is nothing there. Sometimes Dreyer's rounded-off values are a bit off the original position, but in this case Herschel's position (1860 RA 00 08 08.9, NPD 78 19 58.8) is so nearly identical that it makes virtually no difference (as shown by the nearly identical position listed above, obtained by precessing Herschel's position). Per Corwin, the other objects observed by Herschel in the same "sweep" of the sky are where he recorded them, so it is unlikely that the position is in error. Instead, Corwin suggests that Herschel "observed" an internal telescope reflection due to the glare of Algenib (γ Pegasi), which lies about two degrees to the north, but whatever Herschel thought he saw is either lost, or more likely nonexistent. (Corwin's website contains a long discussion of other possibilities raised in recent years, giving a good explanation of why none of them are reasonable, so the net result is the same; there is nothing real that Herschel could have seen anywhere near his position.)
DSS image of region near the apparently nonexistent NGC 56
Above, a 12 arcmin DSS image centered on the supposed position of NGC 56 (shown by a box)

NGC 57 (= PGC 1037)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 26, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Pisces (RA 00 15 30.9, Dec +17 19 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 57 (= GC 29 = JH 13 = WH II 241 = WH II 243, 1860 RA 00 08 18, NPD 73 26.9) is "faint, small, round, suddenly brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 15 31.2, Dec +17 19 49, within 0.1 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain. However, there has been some recent confusion about the identity of WH II 241 and 243, so the proof of their identity is shown below.
Recent and Historical Confusion: As of late 2014, Steinicke's database for all NGC/IC observations lists William Herschel's date of observation as Oct 8, 1784, but his database for John Herschel's observations lists William Herschel's date of observation as Oct 11, 1784. The difference is probably due to the historical confusion involving WH II 241 and WH II 243, which were observed on Oct 8 and 11, 1784, respectively. In his General Catalog the younger Herschel states that a manuscript note by his father equates WH II 241 and 243, and in the notes for the NGC Dreyer quotes John Herschel as follows: "57: h13 = II 241 = II 243. In P.T. (Philosophical Transactions) the determining star is omitted, and in the statement of the places of these nebulae there is much confusion (see list of errata. P.T. 1864, p.44). Auwers has threaded the intricacies of this maze with singular felicity, but has been misled in the case of II 243 into assigning to it a totally erroneous place. — J.H.". Unfortunately, as shown below, the errata also contained an error.
Examining William Herschel's Catalog (Philosophical Transactions 1786, p. 478): WH II 238 through 243 are listed in Herschel's first catalog of a thousand nebulae and clusters as shown here:
#DateComparison *Δ RAΔ DecObs.Notes
238
239
240
241
242
243
Oct 6
7
8

11
26 (β) Persei
27 (κ) Persei


48 (μ) Pegasi
  —      —  
p
p


p
f
28 34
8 27


39 50
6 27
f
n


f
f
0
0


0
0
10
2


54
54
2
1
1
1
2
2
pB. mE. near par. mbM. 4' l 1' b.
The 1st of 2. pB. pS. r.
pF. pL. iR. er.
pS. C.
F. S. iR. near and p. 2 or 3 st.
F. S. iR.
     The dash in the date column for #241 and 243 means they were observed on the same date as the previous entry (all the dates being for 1784). The double dash in the line for the comparison star for #243 means it used the same comparison star as the previous entry. A "p" in the offset for right ascension (Δ RA) means that the object was to the west of the comparison star, while an "f" means it was to the east; the following numbers indicate the minutes and seconds of time for that offset. An "f" in the offset for declination (Δ Dec) means that the object was to the south of the comparison star (the letter "f" usually being used in place of "s" in ancient English texts), while an "n" means it was to the north; the following numbers indicate the degrees and arcminutes for that offset. "Obs." indicates how many times Herschel observed the object, and the notes at the end are in the style used by Herschel and later observers to describe the object's appearance in an abbreviated form. For instance, the note for #238 means "pretty bright, much extended near parallel (that is, along the declination line), much brighter middle, 4 arcmin long and 1 arcmin broad".
     The problem with these entries is that no comparison star or offset is listed for #240 and 241, which makes it impossible to know where they are, and what celestial objects they correspond to. Those are the "errata" mentioned by John Herschel in Dreyer's NGC Note.
Examining John Herschel's Catalog (Philosophical Transactions 1864, pp. 44-45): On page 45 of Herschel's Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, almost always called the "General Catalog" or GC, he states "The following nebulae are declared in MS. notes to be identical", presumably referring to unpublished handwritten notes by William Herschel, among which we find "II. 243 = II. 241". This is the source of the equality listed in the GC for entry #29, and by Dreyer for NGC 57. However, Herschel also makes the following corrections to his father's catalog (on page 44 of the GC):
WH II GC Error and Correction
239
240
241
242
243
 634
5046
29
4973
29
  for 27 (κ) Persei p. 8m 20s, n. 0° 2' read 30 Persei p. 14m 41s, n. 0° 51'
for ....................... read 39 Pisc. p. 2m 24s, n. 1° 0'
for ....................... read 39 Pisc. p. 14m 24s, s. 0° 11'
for 48 (μ) Pegasi read 87 (υ) Pegasi
(not listed, but supposed to be the same comparison star as #242)
A Perplexing Analysis: Since the question here is whether WH II 243 = WH II 241 = NGC 57, I will only consider the Errors and Corrections in John Herschel's table that affect those objects. The simpler calculation involves WH II 243, which (per WH's catalog) is 6m 27s of time to the east and 54' to the south of its comparison star, which (per JH's catalog) was 87 Pegasi (the same star as the one used for WH II 242). The modern (J2000) position of that star is RA 00 09 02.4, Dec +18 12 43. The star has a moderately large proper motion (+0.140"/year in right ascension and -0.0256"/year in declination), so in the 216 years between 1784 and 2000 it has moved 2.0s of time to the east and 6" to the south, meaning that in modern coordinates its position in 1784 was RA 00 09 00.4, Dec +18 12 49. Precessing that to the equinox of 1784, when William Herschel used it as a comparison star, its position was (1784) RA 23 57 55.3, Dec +17 00 39. Applying the offsets for WH II 243, that object should have been somewhere near (1784) RA 00 04 22.3, Dec +16 06 39. This precesses to J2000 RA 00 15 29.7, Dec +17 18 45, less than an arcmin south southwest of NGC 57 and within its southwestern outline, so WH II 243 must be NGC 57.
     Now let's do the same thing for WH II 241. The modern position of its comparison star (39 Piscium) is J2000 RA 00 17 50.0, Dec +16 19 52. It also has a moderately high proper motion (+0.220"/year in right ascension and -0.0282"/year in declination), so in the 216 years between 1784 and 2000 it has moved 3.2s of time to the east and 3" to the south, meaning that in modern coordinates its position in 1784 was RA 00 17 46.8, Dec +16 19 55. Precessing that to the equinox of 1784, when William Herschel used it as a comparison star, its position was (1784) RA 00 06 38.8, Dec +15 07 51. Applying the offsets for WH II 242 given in JH's Errors and Corrections, that object should have been somewhere near (1784) RA 23 52 14.8, Dec +14 56 51. This precesses to J2000 RA 00 03 17.7, Dec +16 09 01, which lies on the eastern rim of NGC 7814(!?!). But if that were true, WH II 241 would lie 12 minutes of time and more than a degree south of WH II 243, and if so, how could William Herschel have possibly thought the two observations were of the same object?
(Finally!) A Simple Solution: There is a simple way to explain the strange result above. Namely, John Herschel must have mixed up the corrections for WH II 240 and WH II 241. Doing that would mean that WH II 240 is NGC 7814 (which is how it is listed in the GC and NGC), and given the difference in the position listed for WH II 240 and WH II 241 in the GC's Errors and Corrections, the 1784 position of WH II 241 would be 12m of time to the east and 1° 11' to the north of the one calculated in the last paragraph (namely, somewhere near (1784) RA 00 04 14.8, Dec +16 07 51). That would give WH II 241 a modern position near J2000 RA 00 15 22.2, Dec +17 19 57, about 2 arcmin west northwest of NGC 57, and since there is nothing else nearby, make WH II 241 = WH II 243 = GC 29 = NGC 57, as stated in one way or another by the Herschels and Dreyer. So WH's statement that WH II 241 = II 243 was correct, and JH's corrections to his father's catalog were correct except that he inadvertently switched the corrections for WH II 240 and 241. And since NGC 257 was observed as WH II 241 on Oct 8, 1784, that is the correct discovery date.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5440 km/sec, NGC 57 is about 255 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 230 to 275 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.9 by 1.6 arcmin, it is about 140 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 57
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 57
Below, a 2.7 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 57

NGC 58 (=
NGC 47 = PGC 967)
Discovered (1886) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 47)
Discovered (Oct 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 58)
Looked for (late September to the end of 1897) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 58)
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 00 14 30.6, Dec -07 10 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 58 (Swift list V (#3), 1860 RA 00 08 28, NPD 97 56.8) is "very faint, pretty small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 15 37.0, Dec -07 10 05, but there is nothing there. However, Herbert Howe, unable to find the object in two tries, suggested that Swift had recorded a right ascension a minute of time too far east (a not uncommon transcription error), and Dreyer accepted the suggestion, stating in the IC2 "Not found twice by Howe. Probably = (NGC) 47". Applying Howe's suggested correction, the position precesses to RA 00 14 37.1, Dec -07 10 05, less than 7 seconds of time to the east of NGC 47. Given the fact that this is Swift's "3rd of 3" observed on Oct 21, 1886, and with Howe's correction all of Swift's positions for that night fall a reasonably similar distance to the east of the actual objects, the equality of NGC 58 with NGC 47 is considered certain.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 47 for anything else.
SDSS image of region between NGC 47 (also known as NGC 58), NGC 50 and NGC 54
Above, an 18 arcmin wide SDSS image showing the galaxies (NGC 47, 50 and 54) observed by Swift
Below, a similar image also showing numerous PGC objects:
(PGC 971, 972, 996, 1020898, 1021293, 1021824, 1022508, 1023173, 1023515 & 1024587)
SDSS image of region between NGC 47 (also known as NGC 58), NGC 50 and NGC 54; also shown are numerous PGC objects

NGC 59 (= PGC 1034)
Discovered (Nov 10, 1885) by
Ormond Stone
A magnitude 12.4 lenticular galaxy (type SA(rs)0?) in Cetus (RA 00 15 25.1, Dec -21 26 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 59 (Ormond Stone list I (#1), 1860 RA 00 08 30, NPD 112 13) is "very faint, pretty small, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 15 36.3, Dec -21 26 17, nearly 3 arcmin east of the galaxy listed above, but (per Corwin) Stone made a sketch of the area which matches the surrounding stars, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The recessional velocity of NGC 59 is only 362 km/sec, too small in comparison to peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities to guarantee a reasonable estimate of its distance. But as it happens, the 17 million light year distance derived from the recessional velocity turns out to be in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 14 to 17 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.4 by 1.3 arcmin, NGC 59 is about 12 thousand light years across, making it a dwarf galaxy. It is probably a member of the Sculptor Group of galaxies, a loosely bound cluster near the south galactic pole.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 59, also showing a PGC object
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 59, also showing PGC 827977
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 59

NGC 60 (= PGC 1058)
Discovered (Nov 2, 1882) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SA(r)cd? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 15 58.2, Dec -00 18 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 60 (Stephan list XII (#4), 1860 RA 00 08 48, NPD 91 04.9) is "extremely faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 15 58.2, Dec -00 18 11, dead center on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11825 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 60 is about 550 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 510 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 530 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 1.0 arcmin, it is about 180 thousand light years across. The distorted shape of NGC 60 is typical of galaxies gravitationally interacting with other galaxies. The most likely culprit is PGC 3111352, the small elliptical galaxy near the eastern edge of the NGC 60, as it has a nearly identical recessional velocity.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 60
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 60
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 60
Below, a version of the image above also showing PGC 3111352 and 4676913
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 60
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 1060, 212494,
1145124, 1147628, 2822104, 3111347, 3111396 and 3111611, two of which are quasars
Q0016026-002035 refers to SDSSJ001602.63-002035.4, a 20th magnitude quasar with z = 2.249
PGC 1060 is an 18th magnitude quasar with z = 2.087, and PGC 2822104 is a 20th magnitude quasar with z = 1.575

SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 60

NGC 61 (= PGC 1083 + PGC 1085)
Discovered (Sep 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 9, 1828) by John Herschel
A pair of galaxies in Cetus
PGC 1083 = A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0? pec) at RA 00 16 24.4, Dec -06 19 19
PGC 1085 = A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) at RA 00 16 24.1, Dec -06 19 03
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 61 (= GC 30 = JH 14 = WH III 428, 1860 RA 00 09 15, NPD 97 05.8) is "very faint, small, irregularly round, pretty suddenly a very little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 16 24.0, Dec -06 19 06, right on the northern member of the pair of galaxies listed above, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Since the Herschels would have more easily seen the brighter galaxy, the southern member of the pair (PGC 1083) is often considered to be what they actually observed. But the elder Herschel's description was actually "irregular figure", so odds are that his observation was influenced by the fainter galaxy as well, hence my decision to list the pair as the NGC object, instead of only the brighter galaxy.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7945 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 1083 is about 370 million light years away, while PGC's recessional velocity of 8150 km/sec corresponds to 380 million light years' distance. Their distorted shapes suggest that the pair is gravitationally interacting, so the difference in their radial velocities is probably due to their motion relative to each other (that is, their "peculiar velocities"). In any event, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that using the average of their recessional velocities shows that the pair was about 365 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 370 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that, PGC 1083's apparent size of 1.0 by 0.4 arcmin corresponds to about 105 thousand light years, while PGC 1085's apparent size of 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin corresponds to about 75 thousand light years. Note: Each galaxy is sometimes misidentified as the other, and even when correctly identified it is not unusual for the brighter southeastern galaxy to be listed as being the fainter one.
SDSS image of region near PGC 1083 and PGC 1085, the pair of lenticular galaxies that comprise NGC 61
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 61
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair
SDSS image of the pair of lenticular galaxies that comprise NGC 61
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the pair, also showing PGC 1034411 and 1034445
SDSS image of region near PGC 1083 and PGC 1085, the pair of lenticular galaxies that comprise NGC 61, also showing some PGC objects

NGC 62 (= PGC 1125)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
Also observed by Otto Struve
Also observed (1886) by Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(r)ab?) in Cetus (RA 00 17 05.4, Dec -13 29 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 62 (Stephan list XIII (#2), Otto Struve list I, 1860 RA 00 09 57, NPD 104 15.9) is "faint, very small, round, gradually a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 17 04.5, Dec -13 29 12, only 0.2 arcmin west of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its outline, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Steinicke lists this object as also observed by Leavenworth on the basis of an entry in Ormond Stone's list I (#2). The date of observation is not given, but Stone's paper was written Oct 12, 1886, so sometime earlier that year is a reasonable estimate. Leavenworth's (equinox of 1890) position precesses to RA 00 15 36.1, Dec -13 30 18, only a minute and a half of time west southwest of the correct position (an error not at all unusual for observations at the Leander McCormick Observatory), and the description (magnitude 14.0, apparent size 0.7 arcmin) is appropriate, so it is essentially certain that the observation in question was of the galaxy listed above.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6465 km/sec, NGC 62 is about 300 million light years distant. Given that and its apparent size of 0.6 by 0.4 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 62
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 62
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 62

NGC 63 (= PGC 1160)
Discovered (Aug 27, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
Independently discovered (Sep 30, 1867) by Truman Safford
Also observed (Aug 16, 1868) by Hermann Vogel
A magnitude 11.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)a? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 17 45.5, Dec +11 27 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 63 (= GC 5093, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 10 33, NPD 79 19.7) is "pretty faint, small, round, suddenly brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 17 45.5, Dec +11 26 59, dead center on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Safford's observations were not published until 1887, at which time it was too late to include them in the NGC. Dreyer did add a selection of his observations in an appendix to the NGC, but it was impractical to change the individual entries. Vogel's observation was listed in an 1876 paper as a reobservation of a "d'Arrest Nova", so there was no reason for Dreyer to credit Vogel as a co-discoverer.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1160 km/sec, NGC 63 is about 55 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 60 to 62 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.5 by 0.8 arcmin, it is about 25 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 63
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 63
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 63
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 63, also showing PGC 138155, 138157 and 1394994
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 63, also showing several PGC objects

NGC 64 (= PGC 1149)
Discovered (Oct 21, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Jul 1, 1899 to Jun 30, 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)bc?) in Cetus (RA 00 17 30.4, Dec -06 49 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 64 (Swift list V (#4), 1860 RA 00 10 38, NPD 97 34.6) is "most extremely faint, very small, round, very difficult". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 10 22; using that and the original NPD, the position precesses to RA 00 17 30.8, Dec -06 47 54, about 1.6 arcmin north of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7310 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 64 is about 340 million light years distant, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 275 to 340 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 330 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 335 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.7 by 0.8 arcmin, it is about 160 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 64
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing PGC 1028361
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 64, also showing PGC 1028361
Below, a 12 arcmin SDSS image centered on NGC 64
Also shown are PGC 1027063, 1028429, 1028632 and 1029004
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 64, also showing numerous PGC objects

NGC 65 (= PGC 1229)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Jul 1, 1899 to Jun 30, 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type SAB(r)0? pec?) in Cetus (RA 00 18 58.7, Dec -22 52 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 65 (Muller list II (#278), 1860 RA 00 10 53, NPD 113 40.0) is "extremely faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle, preceding of 2", the other being NGC 66. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 11 54; using that and the original NPD the position precesses to RA 00 18 58.9, Dec -22 53 20, about 0.5 arcmin south of the center of the galaxy and close to its southern border; and since it is the western (preceding) of two, the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7295 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 65 is about 340 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 330 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 335 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.85 by 0.65 arcmin, it is about 80 thousand light years across.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 65, also showing NGC 66
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 65, also showing NGC 66
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 65
Below, a 12 arcmin DSS image centered on NGC 65, also showing NGC 66, PGC 1246, 807393 and 808383
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 65, also showing NGC 66 and several PGC objects

NGC 66 (= PGC 1236)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Jul 1, 1899 to Jun 30, 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)b? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 19 05.0, Dec -22 56 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 66 (Muller list II (#279), 1860 RA 00 10 59, NPD 113 44.0) is "extremely faint, pretty small, extended 225°, 9th magnitude star 1 arcmin north, following of 2", the other being NGC 65. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 12 00; using that and the original NPD the position precesses to RA 00 19 04.8, Dec -22 57 20, about an arcmin south of the galaxy (a little further "off" than Muller's position for NGC 65, but not that different), there is a 9th magnitude star just over an arcmin to the north and it is the eastern (following) of two, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7605 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 66 is about 355 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 280 to 325 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 345 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 350 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 0.75 arcmin, it is about 120 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 66, also showing NGC 65
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 66, also showing NGC 65
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 66
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 66
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 66, also showing NGC 65, PGC 806274 and 807393
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 66, also showing NGC 65 and some PGC objects

NGC 67 (= PGC 138159, and part of
Arp 113)
(Arp 113 = NGC 67, "67A", 68, 69, 70, 71 and 72)

Discovered (Oct 7, 1855) by R. J. Mitchell
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 18 12.2, Dec +30 03 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 67 (= GC 32, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 10 59, NPD 60 43.0) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 18 16.1, Dec +30 03 41, just over an arcmin northeast of the galaxy listed above, and only 0.4 arcmin southeast of "NGC 67A", and therefore less than half as far from that galaxy as from NGC 67. Perhaps that is why most catalogs list "NGC 67A" as NGC 67, and vice-versa; but (per Corwin) Lord Rosse published a sketch of the region which clearly shows that NGC 67 is the westernmost of the galaxies in the area, while the galaxy to its east (PGC 1185) was recorded as a star, and is therefore not an NGC object. All the galaxies in the Group seem to have a similar error in position, so their relative positions are correct; but the sketch alone would be enough to make the identification of NGC 67 with PGC 138159 certain. However, since NGC 67 and "67A" have been so thoroughly confused, the only way to be certain of observing the correct one is to use the galaxies' PGC numbers or coordinates.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6215 km/sec, NGC 67 is about 290 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.35 by 0.15 arcmin, it is about 30 thousand light years across. It is a member of the NGC 68 Group of galaxies. (A substantial portion of that group is listed as Arp 113, as an example of elliptical galaxies close to and perturbing spiral galaxies.)
SDSS image showing lenticular galaxy NGC 67 (= PGC 138159), elliptical galaxy PGC 1185 (also known as NGC 67A and often misidentified as NGC 67), and NGC 68
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 67, "67A", and 68 (which see for more images)
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 67
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 138159, which is the correct NGC 67

PGC 1185 (= PGC 138160 = "NGC 67A", and part of
Arp 113; but not = NGC 67)
(Arp 113 = NGC 67, "67A", 68, 69, 70, 71 and 72)

Not an NGC object, but sometimes called "NGC 67A", and often misidentified as NGC 67
Recorded as a star (Oct 7, 1855) by R. J. Mitchell
A magnitude 14.7 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Andromeda (RA 00 18 14.8, Dec +30 03 48)
Discovery Notes: Between NGC 67 and NGC 68 is a galaxy (PGC 1185) recorded by Mitchell as a star. As discussed in the entry for NGC 67, Mitchell's "star" is often misidentified as NGC 67, and the actual NGC 67 as NGC 67A. Given that confusion, the galaxies' PGC numbers or coordinates should be used in searching databases to ensure reliable results.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6645 km/sec, PGC 1185 is about 310 million light years away, indicating that it is almost certainly a member of the NGC 68 Group of galaxies. (A substantial portion of the group is listed as Arp 113, as an example of elliptical galaxies close to and perturbing spiral galaxies.) Given that and an apparent size of 0.25 by 0.2 arcmin, it is about 25 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 1185, which is sometimes called NGC 67A, and often misidentified as NGC 67
Above, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 1185; for more images see NGC 67 and 68

NGC 68 (= PGC 1187, and part of
Arp 113)
(Arp 113 = NGC 67, "67A", 68, 69, 70, 71 and 72)

Discovered (Sep 11, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 16, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 18 18.5, Dec +30 04 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 68 (= GC 31 = JH 15 = WH V 16, 1860 RA 00 11 05, NPD 60 42.2) is "extremely faint, large, 3 or 4 stars plus nebulosity". The position precesses to RA 00 18 22.1, Dec +30 04 29, an arcmin east of the galaxy listed above, and closer to PGC 1194 (= NGC 70) than any other object. If only Herschel's measurements were used, PGC 1194 might be considered the appropriate object for this entry, because (per Corwin) Herschel probably saw the merged light from NGC 68, 70 and 71, and his position corresponds to the middle of the three nebulae, which is closest to the object now listed as NGC 70. However, the 3rd Lord Rosse published a sketch of seven of the galaxies in this region over 30 years before Dreyer prepared the NGC, and since all the positions measured for those galaxies are about an arcmin east of their correct position, between their positions and Rosse's sketch the identification of NGC 68 as PGC 1187 is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5735 km/sec, NGC 68 is about 265 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.1 by 1.1 arcmin, it is about 85 thousand light years across. The galaxy is the namesake of the 265 to 330 million light year distant NGC 68 Group, which includes NGC 67, "67A", 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 72A and 74. (A substantial portion of the group is listed as Arp 113, as an example of elliptical galaxies close to and perturbing spiral galaxies.)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 68, also showing NGC 67, NGC 69, NGC 70, NGC 71, and NGC 72; several other galaxies are also shown, but not labeled in this image
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 68, also showing NGC 67, 69, 70, 71 and 72
Below, the image above also showing PGC 1185 (= "NGC 67A") and PGC 1208 (= "NGC 72A")
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 68, also showing NGC 67, NGC 69, NGC 70, NGC 71, and NGC 72; also shown are PGC 1185 (= 'NGC 67A') and PGC 1208 (= 'NGC 72A')
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 68, also showing part of NGC 70 at upper left
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 68, also showing part of NGC 70 at upper left
Below, a 3.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 68, also showing 67, PGC 1185 (= "67A"), NGC 70 and 71
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 68, also showing NGC 67, NGC 70, NGC 71, and PGC 1185 (also known as NGC 67A and often misidentified as NGC 67)
Below, a 6 arcmin wide region showing those galaxies and NGC 69 and 72, and PGC 1889390
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 68, also showing NGC 67, NGC 69, NGC 70, NGC 71, NGC 72 and  PGC 1185 (also known as NGC 67A and often misidentified as NGC 67); said grouping also being known as Arp 113
Below, an unlabeled closeup of the galaxies that comprise Arp 113
Unlabeled SDSS image of the galaxies comprising Arp 113
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 68, showing the above-mentioned galaxies,
and PGC 1208 (= "NGC 72A"), PGC 1886234, 1887599, 1887687, 1889183 and 1891312
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 68, also showing NGC 67, NGC 69, NGC 70, NGC 71, NGC 72, PGC 1185 (also known as NGC 67A and often misidentified as NGC 67) and PGC 1208 (also known as NGC 72A), and numerous other PGC objects
Below, a 9 arcmin wide region showing the NGC 68 group, from
NGC 67 to NGC 74 (PGC 1185 is shown as NGC 67A and PGC 1208 is shown as NGC 72A, since they are listed that way in the table below)
SDSS image of the NGC 68 group, consisting of NGC 67, NGC 68, NGC 69, NGC 70, NGC 71, NGC 72, NGC 74, PGC 1185 (also known as NGC 67A and often misidentified as NGC 67) and PGC 1208 (also known as NGC 72A)
The NGC 68 Group of Galaxies (shown immediately above)
(Whether any of the PGC galaxies in the image are members of the Group is unknown)
NGC # Position Radial velocity Hubble distance
67
"67A"
68
69
70
71
72
"72A"
74
RA 00 18 12.2, Dec +30 03 20
RA 00 18 14.8, Dec +30 03 48
RA 00 18 18.5, Dec +30 04 18
RA 00 18 20.5, Dec +30 02 24
RA 00 18 22.6, Dec +30 04 46
RA 00 18 23.6, Dec +30 03 48
RA 00 18 28.3, Dec +30 02 26
RA 00 18 34.3, Dec +30 02 11
RA 00 18 49.4, Dec +30 03 42
6215 km/sec
6645 km/sec
5735 km/sec
6680 km/sec
7165 km/sec
6695 km/sec
7260 km/sec
6715 km/sec
7090 km/sec
290 Mly
310 Mly
265 Mly
310 Mly
325 Mly
310 Mly
330 Mly
315 Mly
320 Mly
Note: A portion of the radial velocities of group members is undoubtedly "peculiar velocities" of the galaxies relative to each other. Galaxies with apparently larger distances are probably closer than indicated, but moving away from us relative to the others; while galaxies with apparently smaller distances are probably further away than indicated, but moving toward us relative to the others. The overall apparent size of the Group (about 9 arcmin) corresponds to less than a million light years, so the Group should be no larger than a million light years in any dimension. (Of course, some of the "members" may actually be background or foreground galaxies, but that cannot be determined from currently available data.)

NGC 69 (= PGC 1191, and part of
Arp 113)
(Arp 113 = NGC 67, "67A", 68, 69, 70, 71 and 72)

Discovered (Oct 7, 1855) by R. J. Mitchell
A magnitude 14.7 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(rs)?) in Andromeda (RA 00 18 20.5, Dec +30 02 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 69 (= GC 33, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 11 07, NPD 60 44.1) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 18 24.1, Dec +30 02 35, almost an arcmin east of the galaxy listed above, but this is a shared error for all seven objects observed by Lord Rosse and his assistants, and as in the case of all the others the sketch published by Lord Rosse makes the identity certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6680 km/sec, NGC 69 is about 310 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.5 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 45 thousand light years across. It is also a member of the NGC 68 Group of galaxies. (A substantial portion of the group is listed as Arp 113, as an example of elliptical galaxies close to and perturbing spiral galaxies.)
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 69, also showing part of NGC 71
Above, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 69; see NGC 68 for more images

NGC 70 (=
IC 1539 = PGC 1194, and part of Arp 113)
(Arp 113 = NGC 67, "67A", 68, 69, 70, 71 and 72)

Discovered (Oct 7, 1855) by R. J. Mitchell (and later listed as NGC 70)
Recorded (Dec 19, 1897) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 1539)
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)c?) in Andromeda (RA 00 18 22.6, Dec +30 04 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 70 (= GC 34, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 11 10, NPD 60 41.8) is "extremely faint, very small, round, between 2 faint stars". The position precesses to RA 00 18 27.2, Dec +30 04 53, just over an arcmin east of the galaxy listed above, which in such a crowded field could be a problem. But as in the case of NGC 67 through 74, the sketch published by Lord Rosse (and in this case the two stars above and below the galaxy) makes the identity certain. For a discussion of the duplicate entry see IC 1539.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7165 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 70 is about 335 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 325 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 330 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 2.1 by 1.4 arcmin, it is about 200 thousand light years across. A member of the NGC 68 Group of galaxies. (A substantial portion of the group is listed as Arp 113, as an example of elliptical galaxies close to and perturbing spiral galaxies.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 70, also showing NGC 68 and NGC 71
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 70, also showing NGC 68 & 71 (which see for more images)

NGC 71 (= PGC 1197, and part of
Arp 113)
(Arp 113 = NGC 67, "67A", 68, 69, 70, 71 and 72)

Discovered (Oct 7, 1855) by R. J. Mitchell
Also observed (Sep 23, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0? pec) in Andromeda (RA 00 18 23.6, Dec +30 03 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 71 (= GC 35, 3rd Lord Rosse, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 11 11, NPD 60 42.7) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 18 28.2, Dec +30 03 59, just over an arcmin east of the galaxy listed above, which in such a crowded field could be a problem. But as in the case of NGC 67 through 74, the sketch published by Lord Rosse makes the identity certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6695 km/sec, NGC 71 is about 310 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.25 by 0.8 arcmin, it is about 110 thousand light years across. It is a member of the NGC 68 Group of galaxies. (A substantial portion of the group is listed as Arp 113, as an example of elliptical galaxies close to and perturbing spiral galaxies.) NGC 71 is listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 71, also showing part of NGC 70
Above, a 1.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 71, also showing (at top) part of NGC 70
(For more images, see NGC 68)

NGC 72 (= PGC 1204, and part of
Arp 113)
(Arp 113 = NGC 67, "67A", 68, 69, 70, 71 and 72)

Discovered (Oct 7, 1855) by R. J. Mitchell
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab?) in Andromeda (RA 00 18 28.3, Dec +30 02 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 72 (= GC 36, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 11 16, NPD 60 44.1) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 18 33.2, Dec +30 02 35, just over an arcmin east of the galaxy listed above, which in such a crowded field could be a problem. But as in the case of NGC 67 through 74, the error in the position is consistent, and the sketch published by Lord Rosse makes the identification certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7260 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 72 is about 340 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 330 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 335 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.9 arcmin, it is about 95 thousand light years across. It is a member of the NGC 68 Group of galaxies. (A substantial portion of the group is listed as Arp 113, as an example of elliptical galaxies close to and perturbing spiral galaxies.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 72
Above, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 72; see NGC 68 for more images

PGC 1208 (= "NGC 72A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since often called NGC 72A
A magnitude 14.7 elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in
Andromeda (RA 00 18 34.3, Dec +30 02 11)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6715 km/sec, PGC 1208 is about 310 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.35 by 0.2 arcmin, it is about 30 thousand light years across. It is a member of the NGC 68 Group of galaxies.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 1208 (often called NGC 72A), also showing PGC 1887599 and PGC 1887687
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 1208, also showing PGC 1887599 and 1887687
(See NGC 68 for more images)

NGC 73 (= PGC 1211)
Discovered (Oct 21, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 18 39.0, Dec -15 19 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 73 (Swift list V (#5), 1860 RA 00 11 36, NPD 106 05.5) is "very faint, small, round, extremely faint double star close to east". The position precesses to RA 00 18 42.8, Dec -15 18 49, more than an arcmin to the northeast of the center of the galaxy listed above but near its northeastern outline, and the stars to its east make the identification certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7760 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 73 is about 360 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 350 to 365 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 350 million light years away (also in good agreement with the redshift-independent distance estimates) at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 355 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its 1.9 by 1.1 arcmin apparent size, NGC 73 is about 195 thousand light years across. An interesting feature of the galaxy is a faint extended arm sweeping around its western side (on the right in the images below, which have been digitally enhanced to try to more clearly show the arm, at the cost of making them more grainy and mottled); the arm's apparent size of more than 3 arcmin corresponds to more than 300 thousand light years.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 73, also showing PGC 913731
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 73, also showing PGC 913731
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 73

NGC 74 (= PGC 1219)
Discovered (Oct 7, 1855) by
R. J. Mitchell
A magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB0(rs)a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 18 49.4, Dec +30 03 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 74 (= GC 37, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 11 42, NPD 60 43.7) is "extremely faint, small, extended, last of 6". The position precesses to RA 00 18 59.4, Dec +30 02 58, about 2.3 arcmin east southeast of the galaxy listed above; but there is nothing comparable nearby, and as in the case of NGC 67 through 72, the sketch published by Lord Rosse confirms the identification.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7090 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 74 is about 330 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 320 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 325 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.8 by 0.25 arcmin, it is about 75 thousand light years across. It is a member of the NGC 68 Group of galaxies.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 74, also showing NGC 70, NGC 71 and NGC 72
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 74, also showing NGC 70, 71 and 72
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 74
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 74, also showing NGC 70, 71, 72 and "72A"
Additional galaxies shown here but not on the NGC 68 images are PGC 1885526 and 1886792
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 74, also showing NGC 70, NGC 71, NGC 72 and PGC 1208 (usually called NGC 72A), and numerous other PGC objects

NGC 75 (= PGC 1255)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 00 19 26.3, Dec +06 26 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 75 (Swift list V (#6), 1860 RA 00 12 08, NPD 84 18.9) is "very faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 19 19.6, Dec +06 27 46, almost 2 arcmin west northwest of the galaxy, but there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is considered certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5800 km/sec, NGC 75 is about 270 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.9 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 75
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 75
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 75
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 75
Also shown are PGC 212500, 1299078, 1300090, 1301720 and 3091777
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 75, also showing several PGC objects

NGC 76 (= PGC 1267)
Discovered (Sep 22, 1884) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.1 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 19 37.8, Dec +29 56 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 76 (Bigourdan (list I #1), 1860 RA 00 12 27, NPD 60 51) is "very faint, small, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 19 44.7, Dec +29 55 40, nearly 2 arcmin east of the galaxy listed above but there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is considered certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7325 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 76 is about 340 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 330 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 335 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 105 thousand light years across. Its apparent companion (PGC 1266) has a radial velocity of only 6695 km/sec, so it is probably about 30 million light years closer to us, in which case they are merely an optical double.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 76
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 76
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and PGC 1266
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 76, also showing PGC 1266, which may be a distant companion
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 76 and PGC 1266
Also shown are PGC 1880257, 1883375, 1885526 and 1886792
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 76

NGC 77 (= PGC 1290 = PGC 198147)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Jul 1, 1899 to Jun 30, 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.8 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Cetus (RA 00 20 01.7, Dec -22 31 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 77 (Muller list II (#280), 1860 RA 00 12 30, NPD 113 18.0) is "extremely faint, very small, irregular figure (due to a foreground star?), 9th magnitude star 3 arcmin to the west". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 12 57; using that and the original NPD the position precesses to RA 00 20 02.0, Dec -22 31 20, only 0.6 arcmin north of the galaxy listed above, and the 11th magnitude star 3 arcmin to the west makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 18900 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 77 is about 880 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 820 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 845 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.45 by 0.4 arcmin, it is about 105 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 77
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 77
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 77
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 77, also showing PGC 811764 and 812965
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 77, also showing some PGC objects

NGC 78 (= PGC 1309)
Discovered (1876) by
Frederick Pechüle
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 00 20 27.5, Dec +00 50 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 78 (= GC 5094, Pechüle, 1860 RA 00 13 17, NPD 89 55.3) is "very faint, small, round". Its position precesses to RA 00 20 27.4, Dec +00 51 21, about 1.4 arcmin north of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing nearby save its southwestern apparent companion, so the identification of one or both members of the pair as NGC 78 is certain. The question is, should NGC 78 be thought of as only one member of the apparent pair of galaxies, or should both galaxies be considered part of the NGC entry? That depends on what Pechüle saw. In modern photographs the southwestern galaxy (PGC 1306) seems just as large and almost as bright as the northeastern galaxy; but for visual observers of the 1800's only the bright cores of the galaxies were observable, and the larger brighter core of PGC 1309 would have far outshone the smaller fainter core of PGC 1306. Also, if Pechüle had been able to see the light of both objects, instead of describing the nebula as "round", he would probably have stated that it had an "irregular figure", or was "extended northeast-southwest". Given these considerations, the (per Corwin) general assumption that only PGC 1309 should be listed as NGC 78 is certainly the best choice. However, the galaxies are often referred to by the non-standard designations NGC 78A and 78B, so it is necessary to discuss PGC 1306 as well (in the next entry).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5525 km/sec, PGC 1309 is about 255 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.55 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across. Since PGC 1306 is about 20 million light years closer to us and there is no obvious sign of distortion due to any interaction between it and NGC 78, the pair is probably only an optical double.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 78 and its apparent companion, PGC 1306
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 78, also showing PGC 1306
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 78 and PGC 1306
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 78 and its apparent companion, lenticular galaxy PGC 1306
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the apparent pair
Other galaxies include PGC 1176170, 1176995, 1177393, 1178564 and 1178830, and a quasar:
Q0020329+005521 refers toSDSSJ002032.92+005521.3, a 19th magnitude quasar with z = 1.830
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 78, also showing PGC 1309 and numerous other objects

Corwin list "NGC 78A" at RA 00 20 25.8, Dec +00 49 35(??)

PGC 1306 (= "NGC 78A", but probably not part of
NGC 78)
Probably not an NGC object but listed here since often called NGC 78A
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a?) in Pisces (RA 00 20 27.5, Dec +00 50 01)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry for NGC 78 (which see for images), PGC 1306 is probably not part of that NGC object, but it is often referred to as NGC 78A, so it seems appropriate to discuss it.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5080 km/sec, PGC 1306 is about 235 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.55 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across. Since NGC 78 is about 20 million light years further away and there is no obvious sign of distortion due to any interaction between it and PGC 1306, the pair is almost probably only an optical double. (Note: Some references list the magnitude of this galaxy as 12.8, which would make it considerably brighter than PGC 1309; but even though PGC 1306 appears slightly larger, its lower surface brightness means that references that list the magnitude as 13.8 must be more nearly correct, and "12.8" is probably due to a typo in some earlier reference.)

NGC 79 (= PGC 1340)
Discovered (Nov 14, 1884) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 14.0 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 02.9, Dec +22 34 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 79 (Bigourdan (list I #2), 1860 RA 00 13 45, NPD 68 12.5) is "very faint, small, very little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 21 01.1, Dec +22 34 09, only 0.4 arcmin west of the center of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5485 km/sec, NGC 79 is about 255 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.65 by 0.65 arcmin, it is about 50 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 79, also showing NGC 84, NGC 85, NGC 86, IC 1542 and IC 1546
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 79
Also shown are NGC 84, 85 and 86, IC 1542 and 1546
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 79
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 79
Also shown are NGC 84, 85 and 86, IC 1542 and 1546, and PGC 1672554
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 79, also showing NGC 84, NGC 85, NGC 86, IC 1542 and IC 1546

NGC 80 (= PGC 1351)
Discovered (Aug 17, 1828) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 10.8, Dec +22 21 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 80 (= GC 38 = JH 16, 1860 RA 00 13 55, NPD 68 25.2) is "faint, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 21 11.1, Dec +22 21 26, dead center on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5700 km/sec, NGC 80 is about 265 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 260 to 330 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.9 by 1.8 arcmin, it is about 145 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 80, also showing NGC 81 and NGC 83
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 80, also showing NGC 81 and 83
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing part of PGC 1668790
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 80, also showing part of PGC 1668790
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
Also shown are NGC 81 and 83, and PGC 1666503, 1667822, 1668596 and 1668790
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 80, also showing NGC 81 and NGC 83, also showing several PGC objects

NGC 81 (= PGC 1352)
Discovered (Nov 15, 1873) by
Ralph Copeland
A magnitude 15.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 13.3, Dec +22 22 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 81 (Copeland using Lord Rosse's 6-foot telescope, 1860 RA 00 13 57, NPD 68 23.7) is "most extremely faint, southwest of h17 (= NGC 83)". The position precesses to RA 00 21 13.1, Dec +22 22 56, within 0.1 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above, and it is southwest of NGC 83, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6130 km/sec, NGC 81 is about 285 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.3 by 0.15 arcmin, it is about 25 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 81
Above, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 81; for a wider view, see NGC 80

NGC 82
Recorded (Oct 23, 1884) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 14.6 star in Andromeda (RA 00 21 17.5, Dec +22 27 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 82 (Bigourdan (list I #3), 1860 RA 00 14 02, NPD 68 18.9) is "extremely faint, stellar". The position precesses to RA 00 21 18.1, Dec +22 27 44, within 0.1 arcmin of the truly stellar object listed above, so the identification is certain. The star is northwest of NGC 83, which see for an image.

NGC 83 (= PGC 1371)
Discovered (Aug 17, 1828) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 22.4, Dec +22 26 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 83 (= GC 39 = JH 17, 1860 RA 00 14 05, NPD 68 20.6) is "extended, binuclear, 3 bright stars near". The position precesses to RA 00 21 21.1, Dec +22 26 02, only 0.3 arcmin west of the center of the galaxy listed above and within its outline, and there are three 11th magnitude stars to the east, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6225 km/sec, NGC 83 is about 290 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 285 to 330 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.5 by 1.3 arcmin, it is about 125 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 83, also showing NGC 80, NGC 81, NGC 85, IC 1546, and the star listed as NGC 82
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 83
Also shown are NGC 80, 81, 82 and 85, and IC 1546
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 83
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 83
Also shown are NGC 80, 81, 82 and 85, IC 1546, and PGC 1668790, 1669552 and 1670877
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 83, also showing NGC 80, NGC 81, NGC 85, IC 1546, and the star listed as NGC 82; also shown are several PGC objects

NGC 84 (= PGC 3325897)
Recorded (Nov 14, 1884) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 15.0 star in Andromeda (RA 00 21 21.2, Dec +22 37 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 84 (Bigourdan (list I #4), 1860 RA 00 14 05, NPD 68 09.7) is "extremely faint, star and nebulosity". The position precesses to RA 00 21 21.2, Dec +22 36 56, within 0.2 arcmin of the star listed above, so although the "and nebulosity" was wrong, the identification is certain. (Note: Wikisky misidentifies PGC 1384 as NGC 84; so use the coordinates to see the correct object).
SDSS image of region near the star listed as NGC 84, also showing NGC 79 and NGC 86
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the star listed as NGC 84
Also shown are NGC 79 and 86, and PGC 1384, 1671888, 1672554, 1674202 and 1674356

PGC 1384 (not =
NGC 84)
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes misidentified as NGC 84
A magnitude 15(?) spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 33.5, Dec +22 35 31)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry for NGC 84, there is no doubt of its identity; but there must be some reference that mistakenly identifies it as PGC 1384, as a search for NGC 84 in Wikisky shows PGC 1384 instead of the correct object (the star listed as PGC 3325897). This entry serves as a warning about the possible misidentification.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6630 km/sec, PGC 1384 is about 310 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 320 to 340 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.75 by 0.3 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across. PGC 1384 is listed as a starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 1384, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 84; also shown are the star that is NGC 84, and NGC 85, NGC 86 and IC 1546
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 1384, also showing NGC 84, 85 and 86 and IC 1546
Below, a 1 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of spiral galaxy PGC 1384

NGC 85 (= PGC 1375)
Discovered (Nov 15, 1873) by
Ralph Copeland
A magnitude 14.8 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 25.6, Dec +22 30 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 85 (= GC 5095, Copeland using Lord Rosse's 6-foot telescope, 1860 RA 00 14 08, NPD 68 15.8) is "most extremely faint, considerably large, round". The position precesses to RA 00 21 24.2, Dec +22 30 50, about 0.3 arcmin northwest of the center of the galaxy listed above and within its outline, so the identification is certain. (Due to an error in the MCG, NGC 85 is often referred to as NGC 85A and the galaxy to its east as NGC 85B. The second galaxy is more properly referred to as IC 1546, as shown in the images below.)
Physical Information: Based on conflicting recessional velocity measurements of 5515 and 6205 km/sec, NGC 85 is about 255 or 290 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.65 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 50 or 55 thousand light years across.
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 85, also showing NGC 79, NGC 83, NGC 86 and IC 1546
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 85, also showing NGC 79, 83 & 86 and IC 1546
(Image Credit & © above and below Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 85 and IC 1546
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of lenticular galaxy NGC 85 and IC 1546
Below, a 0.7 arcmin wide image of NGC 85 (Image Credit Mount Lemmon Skycenter, as above)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of lenticular galaxy NGC 85
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 85 (Image Credit Mount Lemmon Skycenter, as above)
Also shown are NGC 79, 83 and 86, IC 1546, and PGC 1384, 1669552, 1670877 and 1671888
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 85, also showing NGC 79, NGC 83, NGC 86, IC 1546 and numerous PGC objects

IC 1546 (= PGC 1382 = "NGC 85B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 85B
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 29.0, Dec +22 30 21)
For wide-field images, see NGC 85; for anything else, see IC 1546.

NGC 86 (= PGC 1383)
Discovered (Nov 14, 1884) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 14.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 28.6, Dec +22 33 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 86 (Bigourdan (list I #5), 1860 RA 00 14 11, NPD 68 13.1) is "extremely faint, very small, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 21 27.2, Dec +22 33 32, only 0.4 arcmin west of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5590 km/sec, NGC 86 is about 260 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 275 to 300 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.75 by 0.25 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy of NGC 86
Above, a 1.0 arcmin wide image of NGC 86; for wide-field views see NGC 84 and 85
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)

NGC 87 (= PGC 1357), part of "Robert's" Quartet (= NGC 87,
88, 89 and 92)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 14.3 irregular galaxy (type IBm? pec) in Phoenix (RA 00 21 14.2, Dec -48 37 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 87 (= GC 43 = JH 2316, 1860 RA 00 14 19, NPD 139 24.7) is "extremely faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, 1st of 4", the others being NGC 88, 89 and 92. The position precesses to RA 00 21 12.6, Dec -48 38 03, only 0.5 arcmin southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above and not far from its outline, and if nothing else, the "1st of 4" would make the identification certain.
A Note About "Robert's" Quartet: It might be presumed that the four galaxies in the Quartet should be named after their discoverer, John Herschel, since he described each as the "nth of 4"; but the name represents an in-joke perpetrated by the authors of a recent catalog of southern galaxies. Various groups of galaxies in the catalog are named after one of the authors, his wife, her brother (the Robert in question), and so on. It just shows that astronomers are people, and as prone to silly jokes as anyone else.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3490 km/sec, NGC 87 is about 165 million light years away. However, it is believed that Robert's Quartet is a compact group spanning not much more than 200 thousand light years, in which case all four galaxies should be at essentially identical distances. If so, the distances calculated from their recessional velocities are "contaminated" with peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities of up to 150 km/sec relative to their average recessional velocity of 3365 km/sec, which corresponds to a Hubble distance of about 155 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.8 by 0.6 arcmin, NGC 87 is probably about 35 thousand light years across.
Overlay of ESO image on DSS background of region near Robert's Quartet, consisting of irregular galaxy NGC 87 and spiral galaxies NGC 88, NGC 89 and NGC 92
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 87, also showing NGC 88, 89 and 92
(Image Credit: An ESO image of the Quartet superimposed on a DSS background)
Below, a 1 arcmin wide image of NGC 87 (part of ESO image)
ESO image of irregular galaxy NGC 87, a member of Robert's Quartet
Below, a 4.8 arcmin wide image of "Robert's" Quartet (part of ESO image)
ESO image of Robert's Quartet, consisting of irregular galaxy NGC 87 and spiral galaxies NGC 88, NGC 89 and NGC 92

NGC 88 (= PGC 1370), part of "Robert's" Quartet (=
NGC 87, 88, 89 and 92)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type Sd? pec) in Phoenix (RA 00 21 22.1, Dec -48 38 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 88 (= GC 44 = JH 2317, 1860 RA 00 14 28, NPD 139 25.2) is "extremely faint, very small, round, 2nd of 4", the others being NGC 87, 89 and 92. The position precesses to RA 21 21.5, Dec -48 38 33, about 0.2 arcmin southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above and within its outline; and if nothing else, the "2nd of 4" would make the identification certain.
A Note About "Robert's" Quartet: It might be presumed that the four galaxies in the Quartet should be named after their discoverer, John Herschel, since he described each as the "nth of 4"; but the name represents an in-joke perpetrated by the authors of a recent catalog of southern galaxies. Various groups of galaxies in the catalog are named after one of the authors, his wife, her brother (the Robert in question), and so on. It just shows that astronomers are people, and as prone to silly jokes as anyone else.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3435 km/sec, NGC 88 is about 160 million light years away. However, it is believed that Robert's Quartet is a compact group spanning not much more than 200 thousand light years, in which case all four galaxies should be at essentially identical distances. If so, the distances calculated from their recessional velocities are "contaminated" with peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities of up to 150 km/sec relative to their average recessional velocity of 3365 km/sec, which corresponds to a Hubble distance of about 155 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.65 by 0.4 arcmin, NGC 88 is about 30 thousand light years across.
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 88, a member of Robert's Quartet
Above, a 0.8 arcmin wide image of NGC 88 (Image Credit ESO); see NGC 87 and 92 for wider images

NGC 89 (= PGC 1374), part of "Robert's" Quartet (=
NGC 87, 88, 89 and 92)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)0/a? pec) in Phoenix (RA 00 21 24.4, Dec -48 39 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 89 (= GC 45 = JH 2318, 1860 RA 00 14 30, NPD 139 26.6) is "very faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, 3rd of 4", the others being NGC 87, 88 and 92. The position precesses to RA 00 21 23.4, Dec -48 39 57, about 0.2 arcmin west of the center of the galaxy listed above, but well within its outline; and in any event, the "3rd of 4" would make the identification certain.
A Note About "Robert's" Quartet: It might be presumed that the four galaxies in the Quartet should be named after their discoverer, John Herschel, since he described each as the "nth of 4"; but the name represents an in-joke perpetrated by the authors of a recent catalog of southern galaxies. Various groups of galaxies in the catalog are named after one of the authors, his wife, her brother (the Robert in question), and so on. It just shows that astronomers are people, and as prone to silly jokes as anyone else.
Physical Information: Robert's Quartet consists of four galaxies crammed into a not much more than 200 thousand light year wide region. Based on its recessional velocity of 3320 km/sec, NGC 89 is about 155 million light years away, about the same as the average distance calculated for the group (as discussed in the entries for the other members of the group). Given that and its apparent size of 1.15 by 0.55 arcmin, it is about 50 thousand light years across. (A second radial velocity measurement of 3825 km/sec noted in the NED suggests a distance of 170 million light years, but regardless of which of the two radial velocities is correct, NGC 89 must share the same (approximately 155 million light year) distance as the rest of the group, and any difference in its radial velocity must be a "peculiar" (non-Hubble expansion) velocity relative to the average recessional velocity of the Quartet.)
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 89, which is a member of Robert's Quartet
Above, a 1.4 arcmin wide image of NGC 89 (Image Credit ESO); see NGC 87 for more images

S. lists Schultz' observation as NGC 90, and d'Arrest's observation as NGC 91
Also lists Mitchell as discoverer of both objects, on Oct 26, 1854

NGC 90 (= PGC 1405 =
Arp 65)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1854) by R. J. Mitchell
Also observed (Oct 17, 1866) by Herman Schultz
Also observed (Oct 5, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest (but listed by Dreyer & S. as NGC 91)
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)b? pec) in Andromeda (RA 00 21 51.4, Dec +22 24 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 90 (= GC 40 = GC 5096, 3rd Lord Rosse, Schultz, 1860 RA 00 14 35, NPD 68 21.2) is "very faint, little extended." Mitchell's position precesses to RA 00 21 51.3, Dec +22 25 26, nearly 1.5 arcmin north of the galaxy listed above, but far closer to this remarkable object than any other, and (per Corwin) Schultz' measurement is dead on, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell. Corwin notes that d'Arrest also observed this object, with a position that falls on the southwestern arm of the galaxy, so the date of his first observation of NGC 90 is noted above; but Dreyer made a (reasonably understandable) mess of the observations of NGC 90 and 91, so d'Arrest's observation was listed by Dreyer in the entry for NGC 91, instead of NGC 90.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5355 km/sec, NGC 90 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 3.1 by 0.95 arcmin (counting its extended arms), NGC 90 is about 225 thousand light years across. The Arp Atlas listing is for a spiral galaxy with a small high brightness companion (Arp's note states that companions lie off the projected ends of both spiral arms: to the west, that should be PGC 1669552; to the east, it must be J0022007+222222). Note: A Wikisky search for NGC 90 or NGC 91 shows NGC 90, labeled as NGC 91; the wide-field images below show the correct labels.
Mt Lemmon SkyCenter image of spiral galaxy NGC 90, also known as Arp 65; also shown are NGC 93, NGC 94 and the star listed as NGC 91
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 90, also showing NGC 91, 93 and 94
(Image Credit & © above and below Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 90, also known as Arp 65
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 90
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 90, also showing NGC 91, 93 and 94
(Also shown are numerous PGC objects)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 90, also showing NGC 93, NGC 94, and the star listed as NGC 91; also shown are numerous PGC objects

NGC 91 (= PGC 3325956)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1854) by
R. J. Mitchell (per new S. database)
Observed (Oct 5, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest (but listed by Dreyer & S. as NGC 91)
Herman Schultz (not in new S. database)
Also observed (Nov 15, 1884) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 14.4 star in Andromeda (RA 00 21 51.6, Dec +22 22 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 91 (= GC 41 = GC 5097, 3rd Lord Rosse, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 14 36, NPD 68 22.9) is "very faint, very small, 13th magnitude star to southwest." The position precesses to RA 00 21 52.3, Dec +22 23 44, on the southeastern arm of NGC 90, and there is a star southwest of that galaxy, so it is certain that the observations by Mitchell (listed by Dreyer as the discoverer of this object) and d'Arrest (listed by Dreyer as a secondary observer) were actually of NGC 90 (hence my placing their observations with that entry instead of this one). In fact (per Corwin), Mitchell and d'Arrest mention only two objects in this region (NGC 90 and 93), so of Dreyer's three entries (NGC 90, 91 and 93), the only observation of NGC 91 made by any of the observers mentioned by Dreyer was by Schultz, making him the actual "discoverer" of NGC 91 (as shown above). In support of that assignment of credit for the discovery, Bigourdan also listed Schultz' star as NGC 91, and both his and Schultz' positions are (per Corwin) nearly dead center on the star, so the identification of that star as NGC 91 is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell, who is listed as the discoverer in the NGC; though as noted above, since his observation was actually of NGC 90, he is not listed here as the discoverer of NGC 91. Note: A Wikisky search for NGC 91 or 90 shows NGC 90, labeled as NGC 91; see either of NGC 90's wide-field images for the correct labels. (Of course, since Dreyer's entry for NGC 91 was actually based on observations of NGC 90, the Wikisky "error" could be considered a sort of claim that NGC 91 is a duplicate of NGC 90. But if that were true, it should be called NGC 90, not 91; and since Bigourdan agreed with the assignment of NGC 91 to Schultz' star, there is over 130 years of historical precedent attached to NGC 91 being the star listed above.)

NGC 92 (= PGC 1388), part of "Robert's" Quartet (=
NGC 87, 88, 89 and 92)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SAa? pec) in Phoenix (RA 00 21 31.7, Dec -48 37 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 92 (= GC 46 = JH 2319, 1860 RA 00 14 37, NPD 139 24.4) is "faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, 4th of 4", the others being NGC 87, 88 and 89. The position precesses to RA 00 21 30.3, Dec -48 37 46, only 0.4 arcmin southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, and within its outline; and in any event, the "4th of 4" makes the identification certain.
A Note About "Robert's" Quartet: It might be presumed that the four galaxies in the Quartet should be named after their discoverer, John Herschel, since he described each as the "nth of 4"; but the name represents an in-joke perpetrated by the authors of a recent catalog of southern galaxies. Various groups of galaxies in the catalog are named after one of the authors, his wife, her brother (the Robert in question), and so on. It just shows that astronomers are people, and as prone to silly jokes as anyone else.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3220 km/sec, NGC 92 is about 150 million light years away. However, it is believed that Robert's Quartet is a compact group spanning not much more than 200 thousand light years, in which case all four galaxies should be at essentially identical distances. If so, the distances calculated from their recessional velocities are "contaminated" with peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities of up to 150 km/sec relative to their average recessional velocity of 3365 km/sec, which corresponds to a Hubble distance of about 155 million light years. Given that and NGC 92's apparent size of 3.0 by 0.8 arcmin (counting its extended southern arm), it is about 135 thousand light years across. As in the case of its companions, its distorted appearance is almost certainly due to gravitational interactions with those companions.
Overlay of ESO image on DSS background of region near Robert's Quartet, consisting of irregular galaxy NGC 87 and spiral galaxies NGC 88, NGC 89 and NGC 92
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 92, also showing NGC 87, 88 and 89
(Image Credit: An ESO image of the Quartet superimposed on a DSS background)
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image of NGC 92 (part of ESO image)
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 92, which is a member of Robert's Quartet
Below, a 4.8 arcmin wide image of "Robert's" Quartet (part of ESO image)
ESO image of Robert's Quartet, consisting of irregular galaxy NGC 87 and spiral galaxies NGC 88, NGC 89 and NGC 92

NGC 93 (= PGC 1412)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1854) by
R. J. Mitchell
Also observed (Oct 5, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type Sab? pec) in Andromeda (RA 00 22 03.2, Dec +22 24 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 93 (= GC 42 = GC 5098, 3rd Lord Rosse, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 14 47, NPD 68 22.1) is "very faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 00 22 03.4, Dec +22 24 32, dead on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5380 km/sec, NGC 93 is about 250 million light years away, in good agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of 155 to 360 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.4 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 100 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 93
Above, a 1.5 arcmin wide image of NGC 93; for wide-field views, see NGC 90 or 94
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)

NGC 94 (= PGC 1423)
Discovered (Nov 14, 1884) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 14.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0(s)a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 22 13.5, Dec +22 28 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 94 (Bigourdan (list I #6), 1860 RA 00 14 58, NPD 68 16.9) is "extremely faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 00 22 14.5, Dec +22 29 43, only 0.7 arcmin north of the galaxy listed above, and it is easily the brightest object in the region, so the identification is certain. (Note: A Wikisky search for NGC 94 shows the correct object, but it isn't labeled as either an NGC or PGC object.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5875 km/sec, NGC 94 is about 260 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.6 by 0.25 arcmin, it is about 50 thousand light years across. Barring a very large peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocity relative to PGC 1670567, the two galaxies are probably companions, and perhaps a gravitationally bound pair.
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near NGC 94, also showing NGC 90, NGC 93 and NGC 96
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 94, also showing NGC 90, 93 and 96
(Image Credit & © above and below Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
(overlaid on an SDSS background to show regions not covered by the Mount Lemmon image)

Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide image of NGC 94 and its probable companion, PGC 1670567
(superposition of SDSS and Mount Lemmon Skycenter images)
Superposition of SDSS and Mount Lemmon Skycenter images of lenticular galaxy NGC 94, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 1670567
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide image of NGC 94 (superposition of SDSS and Mount Lemmon Skycenter images)
Superposition of SDSS and Mount Lemmon Skycenter images of lenticular galaxy NGC 94
Below, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 94, also showing NGC 90, 93 and 96
Also shown are several PGC objects (Image Credit Mount Lemmon SkyCenter, as at top)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 94, also showing NGC 90, NGC 93 and NGC 96; also shown are several PGC objects

NGC 95 (= PGC 1426)
Discovered (Oct 18, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 17, 1825) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 22 13.6, Dec +10 29 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 95 (= GC 47 = JH 19 = WH II 257, 1860 RA 00 15 01, NPD 80 17.8) is "faint, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 22 14.0, Dec +10 28 49, about 0.7 arcmin south of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5380 km/sec, NGC 95 is about 250 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 175 to 230 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.7 by 1.1 arcmin, it is about 125 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 95, also showing PGC 1381426
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 95, also showing PGC 1381426
Below, a 2.1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 95

NGC 96 (= PGC 1429)
Discovered (Oct 24, 1884) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 14.6 lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 22 17.7, Dec +22 32 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 96 (Bigourdan (list I #7), 1860 RA 00 15 02, NPD 68 13.0) is "very faint, small, very little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 22 18.5, Dec +22 33 37, only 0.8 arcmin north of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6185 km/sec, NGC 96 is about 290 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 96, also showing NGC 94, superimposed on an SDSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 96, also showing NGC 94
(Image Credit & © above and below Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
(overlaid on an SDSS background to show regions not covered by the Mount Lemmon image)

Below, a 1 arcmin wide image of NGC 96 (superposition of SDSS and Mount Lemmon SkyCenter images)
Superposition of SDSS and Mount Lemmon Skycenter images of lenticular galaxy NGC 96
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 96, also showing NGC 94
Also shown are some PGC objects
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 96, also showing NGC 94 and some PGC objects

NGC 97 (= PGC 1442)
Discovered (Sep 16, 1828) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 22 30.0, Dec +29 44 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 97 (= GC 48 = JH 18, 1860 RA 00 15 11, NPD 61 01.5) is "faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 22 29.9, Dec +29 45 07, only 0.4 arcmin north of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its outline, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4765 km/sec, NGC 97 is about 220 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 220 to 240 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 1.2 arcmin, it is about 75 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 97
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 97
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 97
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy, also showing several PGC objects
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 97, also showing some PGC objects

NGC 98 (= PGC 1463)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Phoenix (RA 00 22 49.5, Dec -45 16 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 98 (= GC 49 = JH 2320, 1860 RA 00 15 56, NPD 136 03.2), "very faint, pretty small, round, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 00 22 50.1, Dec -45 16 35, only 0.5 arcmin south of the center of the galaxy listed above and within its outline, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6175 km/sec, NGC 98 is about 290 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.7 by 1.6 arcmin, it is about 140 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 98
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 98
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 98
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the galaxy, also showing some PGC objects
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 98, also showing some PGC objects

NGC 99 (= PGC 1523)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SABcd?) in Pisces (RA 00 23 59.4, Dec +15 46 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 99 (Stephan list XIII (#3), 1860 RA 00 16 45, NPD 75 00.4) is "very faint, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 23 59.9, Dec +15 46 12, within 0.1 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5310 km/sec, NGC 99 is about 245 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.15 by 1.0 arcmin, it is about 85 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 99
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 99
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 99
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy, also showing some non-NGC objects
Q0023566+154405 refers to SDSSJ002356.61+154404.8, a 19th magnitude quasar with z = 1.333
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 99, also showing some non-NGC objects
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 1 - 49) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 50 - 99     → (NGC 100 - 149)