Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Oct 7, 2016
Checked all Corwin positions, original Dreyer NGC entries, updated to current formatting standards
WORKING 122+: Updating Dreyer+/Steinicke discovery data

NGC 100 (= PGC 1525)
Discovered (Nov 10, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Jul 1, 1899 to Jun 30, 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Pisces (RA 00 24 02.9, Dec +16 29 11)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 100 (Swift list III (#1), 1860 RA 00 16 48, NPD 74 17.7) is "very faint, pretty small, much extended". The second Index Catalog adds (per Howe) "is 2 arcmin long". The position precesses to RA 00 24 03.1, Dec +16 28 54, only 0.3 arcmin southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 840 km/sec, NGC 100 is about 40 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distances of 40 to 70 million light years, especially since peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities can be a significant factor for such low redshifts. Given that and its apparent size of 6.1 by 0.5 arcmin (Howe's comment corresponds to only the brighter central region), the galaxy is about 70 thousand light years across. NGC 100 is an exceptionally elongated galaxy, with a very small nucleus in comparison to its overall size. Such galaxies are sometimes called "superthin" galaxies.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 100
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 100
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing PGC 1509358
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 100, also showing PGC 1509358

NGC 101 (= PGC 1518)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Sculptor (RA 00 23 54.6, Dec -32 32 10)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 101 (= GC 50 = JH 2321, 1860 RA 00 16 56, NPD 123 19.4) is "pretty bright, pretty large, a little extended, 14th magnitude star to east". The position precesses to RA 00 23 55.5, Dec -32 32 48, about 0.6 arcmin southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its outline, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3385 km/sec, NGC 101 is about 160 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.4 by 2.3 arcmin, it is about 110 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 101
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 101
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 101
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 101, also showing PGC 689229, 689358,
690514, 691107, 691799, 3171263, 3171264, 3171265, 3171266, 3171270, 3171277 and 3171280
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 101, also showing numerous PGC objects

NGC 102 (= PGC 1542)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(r)a?) in Cetus (RA 00 24 36.5, Dec -13 57 23)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 102 (Leavenworth list I (#3), 1860 RA 00 17 30, NPD 104 45) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 24 35.9, Dec -13 58 25, only about an arcmin south of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7330 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 102 is about 340 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 330 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 335 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.6 arcmin, the bright central portion of the galaxy is about 85 thousand light years across, while the much fainter outer ring's apparent size of 1.6 by 0.9 arcmin corresponds to about 155 thousand light years.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 102
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 102
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 102
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 102; among other galaxies shown is PGC 929748
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 102, also showing several PGC galaxies

NGC 103 (= OCL 291)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1829) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 9.8 open cluster (type II2p) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 25 15, Dec +61 19 24)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 103 (= GC 51 = JH 20, 1860 RA 00 17 38, NPD 29 26.7) is "a cluster, pretty small, pretty compressed, stars from 11th to 18th magnitude". The position precesses to RA 00 25 19.8, Dec +61 19 52, well within the boundary of the cluster listed above and only three quarters of an arcmin northeast of its listed position, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: NGC 103 consists of several dozen stars scattered across a region a little over 5 arcmin across, and is well within the reach of a small telescope. George Alter's 1941 study of about three dozen stars yielded a distance of about 1500 parsecs, or about 5 thousand light years; but Johannes Hadorp's 1960 study of more than a hundred cluster members yielded a distance of nearly 3000 parsecs, or about 10 thousand light years. Depending upon which (if either) of the distance estimates is correct, the 5+ arcmin size of the cluster corresponds to 8 to 16 light years' mean diameter.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 103
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 103, also showing PGC 2614819 (which is just a star)

NGC 104 (= 47 Tucanae = GCL 1 = PGC 2802612)
Discovered (1751) by
Nicolas Lacaille
Probably also observed (Aug 1, 1826) by James Dunlop
Also observed (Apr 11, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 4.0 globular cluster in Tucana (RA 00 24 05.7, Dec - 72 04 53)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 104 (= GC 52 = JH 2322, Lacaille list I #1, Dunlop 18, 1860 RA 00 17 47, NPD 162 51.6) is "a globular cluster, very remarkable, very bright, very large, very much compressed middle". The position precesses to RA 00 24 03.4, Dec -72 05 01, only 0.5 arcmin west of the center of the cluster listed above , so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Because of its brightness NGC 104 is visible without optical aid in a dark sky, and was therefore first labeled as a starlike object, 47 Tucanae. It is the second brightest globular cluster in our galaxy, exceeded only by Omega Centauri (NGC 5139). Even at a distance of 16 to 18 thousand light years, its 120 light-year diameter is as large as the full moon and contains several million stars. If the Sun were in the center of the cluster, our sky would be filled with brilliant stars, with more than ten thousand stars lying within the 4 light year distance to our current nearest neighbor (this ignores the fact that with so many stars packed so closely together, the passage of nearby stars would tear any planets away from the Sun and leave those bodies wandering freely between the stars, with temperatures close to absolute zero save for when they passed near one of those stars). Based on studies of the Main Sequence turnoff point, the age of 47 Tucanae is estimated at 10 billion years, more than twice the age of the Solar System, but two to three billion years younger than the oldest globulars in our galaxy; so despite its great age, it is actually "young" for such an object.
     NGC 104 was recently used to prove a theory of stellar mass sorting by globular clusters. More massive stars tend to settle to the center of the cluster, while less massive ones spread out over a larger region. To prove that, 130 thousand stars within the central 12 light years of the cluster were studied for seven years, using techniques that allowed movements as small as 1/100th of an HST image pixel to be detected. "Blue stragglers", Main Sequence stars located well above the cluster's turnoff point, were shown to be moving more slowly than stars of more normal mass. (The "stragglers" are believed to be produced by stellar collisions, which are virtually impossible in normal regions of stellar space, but are fairly common in the densely packed cores of globular clusters.) Aside from showing that the heavier stars were moving more slowly, the study ruled out the possibility of a supermassive black hole in the region (which would have required faster speeds for all the stars).
DSS image of region centered on globular cluster NGC 104, also called 47 Tucanae
Above, a 36 arcmin square DSS image centered on NGC 104 (North is at the top in this image)
Hidden behind the multitude of stars are some galaxies, such as the insignificant speck, J0022335-715527
Below, a 7 arcmin wide image of the cluster core (North is about 30° to the right of up in this image; Credit ESO)
ESO image of the core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)
Below, the region studied in detail with the HST to measure stellar motions in the cluster's core
(North is about 30° to the right of up in this image; Credits: Ground-based image at top, VLT, R. Kotak & H. Boffin, ESO;
2/3 arcmin wide HST closeup at bottom, ESA, G. Meylan (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne), NASA)

HST image of the central core of globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)
Below, a 25 by 37 arcmin wide view of nearly the entire cluster (North is nearly at the top in this image)
(Credit & © Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission)

Observatorio Antilhue image of globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)
Below, a 4 degree wide DSS image of the region near NGC 220 and NGC 222,
showing the relative position of NGC 104 and the Small Magellanic Cloud
DSS image of 4 degree wide region near NGC 220 and NGC 222, showing the relative position of the Small Magellanic Cloud and globular cluster 47 Tucanae (NGC 104)

J0022335-715527
Not an NGC object but listed here since seen through
NGC 104
A magnitude B=18 (lenticular?) galaxy (type E/S0??) in Tucana (RA 00 22 33.5, Dec -71 55 27)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 36375 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that J0022335-715527 is about 1695 million light years away; but for objects at such distances the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us has to be taken into account. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 1400 million light years away when the light by which we see it was emitted, about 1500 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.11 by 0.08 arcmin, the galaxy is about 45 thousand light years across.
Observatorio Antilhue image of region near (lenticular?) galaxy J0022335-715527, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on the galaxy (DSS image used to fill in missing areas)
(Image Credit & © above and below Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide image of J0022335-715527 (the smudge at the center of the box)
Observatorio Antilhue image of (lenticular?) galaxy J0022335-715527

NGC 105 (= PGC 1583)
Discovered (Oct 15, 1884) by
Édouard Stephan
Also observed (Oct 31, 1886) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Pisces (RA 00 25 16.8, Dec +12 53 02)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 105 (Stephan list XIII (#4), Swift list V (#7), 1860 RA 00 18 03, NPD 77 53.4) is "very faint, small, round, very little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 25 17.2, Dec +12 53 10, within 0.2 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5290 km/sec, NGC 105 is about 245 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 155 to 250 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across. Although usually listed as a multiple galaxy because of the presence of its apparent companion, PGC 212515, absolutely nothing is known about the fainter galaxy, and their appearance provides no reason to think they are in any way connected; if anything, it appears that PGC 212515 is simply a much more distant background object.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 105
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 105
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 105 and PGC 212515
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 105, also showing its apparent companion, PGC 212515, which in reality is almost certainly a much more distant background galaxy
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 105
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 105
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 105, also showing PGC 212515, 1416677 & 1419706
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 105, also showing various PGC objects

NGC 106 (= PGC 1551)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (Nov 6, 1890) by N. M. Parrish
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a? pec?) in Pisces (RA 00 24 43.8, Dec -05 08 55)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 106 (Leavenworth list I (#4), 1860 RA 00 18 30, NPD 95 56) is "pretty faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle". The first Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Ormond Stone) of 00 17 35; using that and the original NPD, the position precesses to RA 00 24 43.6, Dec -05 09 25, only about 0.5 arcmin south of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: The IC note crediting Stone is based on a list of Southern Galaxies for which Stone was the author, but the entry for this object lists Parrish as the actual observer.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6060 km/sec, NGC 106 is about 280 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 106, also showing PGC 171993
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 106, also showing PGC 171993
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 106

NGC 107 (= PGC 1606)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1866) by
Otto Struve
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type SBbc? pec?) in Cetus (RA 00 25 42.2, Dec -08 16 57)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 107 (= GC 5099, O Struve, 1860 RA 00 18 40, NPD 99 03) is "faint, pretty large, 7th magnitude star 5 arcmin southeast". The position precesses to RA 00 25 47.5, Dec -08 16 26, over an arcmin northeast of the galaxy listed above, but there is nothing else nearby and 7th magnitude HD 2195, located exactly where stated, confirms the identification.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6290 km/sec, NGC is about 295 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.7 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 60 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 107
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 107
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image spiral galaxy of NGC 107
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 107, also showing PGC 1602 and 143534
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 107, also showing some PGC objects

NGC 108 (= PGC 1619)
Discovered (Sep 11, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 23, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(r)a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 25 59.7, Dec +29 12 43)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 108 (= GC 53 = JH 21 = WH III 148, 1860 RA 00 18 40, NPD 61 33.8) is "pretty faint, pretty large, round, pretty suddenly a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 26 00.3, Dec +29 12 45, within 0.2 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4735 km/sec, NGC 108 is about 220 million light years away. Given that and the 1.15 by 1.05 arcmin wide apparent size of its brighter central region, it is about 75 thousand light years across, while the 2.7 by 1.9 arcmin wide apparent size of the fainter outer ring corresponds to about 170 thousand light years.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 108
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy of NGC 108

NGC 109 (= PGC 1633)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1861) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(r)a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 26 14.7, Dec +21 48 27)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 109 (= GC 54, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 18 51, NPD 68 58.3), is "very faint, small, 3 stars near". The position precesses to RA 00 26 08.5, Dec +21 48 15, approximately midway between the galaxy listed above and PGC 1622, but there is no way that d'Arrest would have seen the fainter galaxy and not seen the brighter one, so the identification with the brighter galaxy is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5460 km/sec, NGC 109 is about 255 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 195 to 240 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.05 by 0.85 arcmin, it is about 80 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 109, also showing PGC 1622
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 109, also showing PGC 1622
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 109
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 109, also showing PGC 1622, 1639, 1656871 & 1657075
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 109, also showing numerous PGC objects

NGC 110 (= OCL 300)
Discovered (Oct 29, 1831) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 9 open cluster (type IV1p) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 27 22.0, Dec +71 23 24)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 110 (= GC 55 = JH 22, 1860 RA 00 19 19, NPD 19 23.0) is "a cluster, pretty round, a little compressed, stars from 9th to 12th magnitude". The position precesses to RA 00 27 24.6, Dec +71 23 32, within 0.2 arcmin of the central star of the cluster listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The cluster consists of less than two dozen moderately bright stars scattered across a 20 arcmin wide region centered on a 10th magnitude star (which is mistakenly listed in the Principal Galaxy Catalog as PGC 2742876, though the current version of the Catalog does acknowledge that it is a star). In the "normal" DSS image below, the cluster seems lost in the multitude of Milky Way stars surrounding it; however, per Corwin, a visual examination of the region with a small telescope shows that the brighter stars in the group do stand out against the fainter background of the Milky Way, as shown in the simulation of what the field looks like to a visual observer. So although not an obvious or perhaps even a real cluster, it was reasonable for Herschel to list it in the General Catalog, and as a result necessary for Dreyer to list it in the NGC.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 110
Above, a half-degree wide DSS image of NGC 110 centered on its brightest member, "PGC 2742876"
Below, a simulation of what the region above might look like to a visual observer
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 110, altered to simulate what the region might look like to a visual observer

NGC 111 (? perhaps =
NGC 758 = PGC 7198?)
Recorded (1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 111)
Perhaps also observed (1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 758)
Almost certainly a lost or nonexistent object in Cetus (RA 00 26 37.3, Dec -02 37 27)
or perhaps a 14th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 55 42.1, Dec -03 03 59)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 111 (Leavenworth list II (#281), 1860 RA 00 19 30±, NPD 93 24.0) is "very faint, small, round, a little brighter middle, 8.5 magnitude star 36 sec west and 2 arcmin north (? = 5100)". The position precesses to RA 00 26 39.3, Dec -02 37 28, but there is nothing there, no star in the appropriate position, and no one has found anything matching the observation. The note "(? = 5100)" suggests that Dreyer wondered whether the object was GC 5100 (= NGC 113), but that also has no star in the appropriate position, and is not believed to be the object supposedly observed by Leavenworth. In such a situation it sometimes helps to use the original observation, even though Leavenworth's statement that the right ascension is doubtful doesn't inspire much confidence in his original position. Precessing Leavenworth's 1890 position yields a modern position RA 00 26 37.3, Dec -02 37 27 (whence the position listed above), which is essentially the same as Dreyer's "rounded-off" value, so there is still no way to identify what Leavenworth observed. Per Corwin, it is possible that a search along the declination circle may lead to a rediscovery, but since he was unable to find anything suitable within 5 degrees of Leavenworth's position, NGC 111 will probably always be listed as lost or nonexistent.
Additional Note of July 5, 2016: John Ponting has suggested that perhaps NGC 111 is NGC 758, which perfectly fits the description of Leavenworth's #281, but is "off" by an hour and a half in right ascension and 20 arcmin in declination. Such a huge error makes any identification of NGC 111 as a misrecorded observation of NGC 758 highly unlikely, but as noted by Corwin, if NGC 111 really exists, it must have an unusually large error in its position. So we are left with the possibility (presumably the most likely one) that NGC 111 is irretrievably lost, or (a very uncertain possibility, but the only currently existing one that makes any sense) that Ponting is right, in which case it deserves more discussion than time allows at this moment, or (almost certainly the least likely of all) that some future discovery will reveal a better candidate.
SDSS image of region centered on the position of the apparently nonexistent NGC 111
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image with a box centered on Leavenworth's position for NGC 111
Also shown are PGC 1086333 and 3307945

NGC 112 (= PGC 1654)
Discovered (Sep 17, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Andromeda (RA 00 26 48.7, Dec +31 42 12)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 112 (Swift list II (#9), RA 00 19 32, NPD +59 04.1) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 26 53.8, Dec +31 42 26, about 1.3 arcmin northeast of the galaxy listed above, but there is nothing else near, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6285 km/sec, NGC 112 is about 295 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 250 to 340 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.35 arcmin (not counting a slight extension on its western side), it is about 75 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 112
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 112, also showing PGC 212520
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 112

NGC 113 (= PGC 1656)
Discovered (Aug 27, 1876) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.1 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Cetus (RA 00 26 54.6, Dec -02 30 03)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 113 (= GC 5100, Tempel list I (#1 = list IV #1), 1860 RA 00 19 46, NPD 93 16.6) is "very faint, small, suddenly brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 26 55.3, Dec -02 30 04, within 0.2 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4460 km/sec, NGC 113 is about 210 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.3 by 1.3 arcmin, it is about 80 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 113
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 113
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 113
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 113
Also shown are PGC 1088684, 1091698, 1091872, 3307936 and 3307945
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 113, also showing a number of PGC objects

NGC 114 (= PGC 1660)
Discovered (Sep 23, 1867) by
Truman Safford
Discovered (Sep 27, 1880) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(rs)?) in Cetus (RA 00 26 58.2, Dec -01 47 10)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 114 (Tempel list IV (#2), (Safford #90), 1860 RA 00 19 49, NPD 92 33.8) is "very faint, small star in centre, western of 2", the other being NGC 118. The position precesses to RA 00 26 58.5, Dec -01 47 16, barely southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above, well within its outline, and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Dreyer was not aware of Safford's observations at the time he compiled the NGC, as they were published as an appendix to an obscure paper at the time Dreyer was editing his paper for publication, and although he did list a number of Safford's observations in an appendix to the NGC, it was not practical to alter the individual entries; so Safford #90 was not actually shown in the entry for NGC 114 (which is why it is in parentheses).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4160 km/sec, NGC is about 195 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.7 arcmin (from image below), it is about 55 thousand light years across. It is listed as a possible group member with NGC 124 in NED, and if at the same distance from us, is separated from that galaxy by less than a million light years.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 114, also showing NGC 118
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 114, also showing NGC 118
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 114
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 114, and to its east, NGC 118
Also shown are PGC 1107669, 1109199, 1111262, 1112419 and 1112422
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 114, also showing NGC 118 and a large number of PGC objects
Below, a 15 arcmin wide SDSS image centered between NGC 114 and NGC 124, also showing NGC 118
SDSS image of the region between NGC 114 and its possible companion, NGC 124, also showing NGC 118

NGC 115 (= PGC 1651)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)bc?) in Sculptor (RA 00 26 46.3, Dec -33 40 38)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 115 (= GC 56 = JH 2323, 1860 RA 00 19 51, NPD 124 27.4) is "very faint, pretty large, a little extended, double star 2 arcmin northwest". The position precesses to RA 00 26 48.4, Dec -33 40 52, only 0.7 arcmin southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its outline, and there is a double star in the specified position, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1825 km/sec, NGC 115 is about 85 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 75 to 130 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.05 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 50 thousand light years across. NGC 115 is listed as a member of the NGC 134 Group of galaxies, which includes NGC 131, 148 and 150, PGC 2000 (erroneously identified as IC 1554) and IC 1555, and PGC 2044. Several of these are also listed as members of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group, with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all NGC 134 group members are presumably members of the larger group.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 115
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 115
Below, a 2.1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 115
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 115
Also shown are PGC 673047, 3171126, 3171130, 3171134, 3171142, 3171143, 3171163 and 3172103
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 115, also showing numerous PGC objects

PGC 1671 (perhaps = NGC 116)
Discovered (1865) by
Gaspare Ferrari
A magnitude 14(?) lenticular galaxy (type SB0(r)a?) in Cetus (RA 00 27 05.2, Dec -07 40 06)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 116 (= GC 5101 = Secchi (#14), 1860 RA 00 19 59, NPD 98 43.2) is "very faint". (Dreyer's listing credits Father Angelo Secchi with the discovery, but in this and more than a dozen other cases Secchi was reporting a discovery actually made by Brother Ferrari.) The position precesses to RA 00 27 06.5, Dec -07 56 40, but there is nothing near that position, so the object could be listed as lost or nonexistent. However, Corwin has noted two galaxies in the region that are reasonable candidates for what Ferrari observed, and acknowledged my suggestion for a third candidate. The brightest one, PGC 1671, about a quarter degree due north of Ferrari's position, is generally listed as NGC 116 (for example, in LEDA, Wikisky and NED), though with considerable uncertainty, and is covered in this entry; while the next brightest, PGC 1677, about half that far slightly west of north, is not usually listed as NGC 116, but is shown as a possible candidate in the next entry; and a similarly bright one, PGC 169989, about 6 arcmin due west of Ferrari's position, is discussed in the final entry of the three. There are reasonable arguments that could be made for any of the three, but which if any of them is what Ferrari observed cannot be known with any certainty, so "perhaps = NGC 116" is the most that can really be said about any of them.
Argument For PGC 1671 Being NGC 116: As noted above, PGC 1671 is the brightest galaxy "near" Ferrari's position, and being nearly due north of his position makes the error in position relatively simple. However, without any description save for "very faint" and the large error in its position, whether its identification as NGC 116 is even reasonable, let alone likely, is very uncertain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7575 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 1671 is about 355 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 340 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 345 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.35 arcmin, it is about 95 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy PGC 1671, which is usually assumed to be NGC 116
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 1671, which is usually assumed to be NGC 116
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 1671, which is usually assumed to be NGC 116
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image near the galaxy, also showing PGC 1013823, 1015126 and 1015137
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy PGC 1671, which is usually assumed to be NGC 116, also showing numerous PGC objects
Below, a 20 arcmin SDSS image of Ferrari's position (box at bottom), PGC 1677 and 1671 ("NGC 116")
Also shown are PGC 169989, 1013013, 1013123, 1013823, 1015126 and 1015137
SDSS image of region between Ferrari's position and PGC 1671, the lenticular galaxy usually presumed to be NGC 116

PGC 1677 (perhaps = NGC 116)
A magnitude 14.5(?) spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)ab?) in
Cetus (RA 00 27 14.6, Dec -07 47 13)
Historical Information: As discussed above, PGC 1671 is generally considered to be Gaspare Ferrari's NGC 116; but either PGC 1677 or PGC 169989 are almost equally good candidates for that title. The main argument against one of the fainter galaxies being Ferrari's object is that if he saw one of them he ought to have seen the brighter PGC 1671, as well; but observing objects at the limit of telescopic and sky conditions is an iffy thing, so there is no guarantee that the brighter galaxy is the correct one. It therefore seems appropriate to give the fainter galaxies a similar discussion, hence this entry and the following one.
Argument For PGC 1677 Being NGC 116: Although a little fainter than PGC 1671, PGC 1677 is much closer to Ferrari's position, and although being closer to a poor position is often a poor indicator of whether an object is the correct one, there is at least a remote possibility that PGC 1677 is actually what Ferrari observed; however, there is no way that we can be certain whether this is the object in question.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7715 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 1677 is about 360 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 350 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 355 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.35 arcmin, PGC 1677 is about 90 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 1677, a candidate for NGC 116
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 1677; also see the widest-field image of NGC 116

PGC 169989 (perhaps = NGC 116)
A magnitude 14.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in
Cetus (RA 00 26 42.2, Dec -07 56 48)
Historical Information: As discussed above, PGC 1671 is generally considered to be Gaspare Ferrari's NGC 116; but either PGC 1677 or PGC 169989 are almost equally good candidates for that title. The main argument against one of the fainter galaxies being Ferrari's object is that if he saw one of them, he ought to have seen the brighter PGC 1671, as well; but observing objects at the limit of telescopic and sky conditions is an iffy thing, so there is no guarantee that the brighter galaxy is the correct one. It therefore seems appropriate to give the fainter galaxies a similar discussion, hence this entry and the preceding one.
Argument For PGC 169989 Being NGC 116: Of the three galaxies in question, PGC 169989 is the closest to Ferrari's position, and if it were what he saw, the error would be only in right ascension, which is the most common type of error in historical NGC observations. In fact if we were dealing with almost any other observer, the nearly perfect declination for PGC 169989 would make its identification as NGC 116 nearly certain; but since Ferrari's errors for other objects are all over the place, we cannot place any certainty in such an identification. So although it is tempting to say this might be the best candidate for NGC 116, all we can correctly say is that it is no worse a candidate than either of the others.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7435 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 169989 is about 345 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 335 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 340 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.2 arcmin, it is about 90 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 169989, a candidate for NGC 116
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 169989; also see the widest-field image of NGC 116
(Ferrari's position for NGC 116 is due east of PGC 169989, almost directly below 8th magnitude HD 2333)
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 169989, a candidate for NGC 116

NGC 117 (= PGC 1674)
Discovered (Sep 13, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0(r)a?) in Cetus (RA 00 27 11.1, Dec +01 20 02)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 117 (= GC 5102, Marth #8, 1860 RA 00 20 00, NPD 89 27) is "faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 00 27 10.6, Dec +01 19 32, only 0.5 arcmin south of the galaxy listed above and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5365 km/sec, NGC 117 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.8 by 0.25 arcmin, it is about 60 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 117
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 117
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 117
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 117;
also shown are PGC 212522, 1189318 and 1190562
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 117, also showing numerous PGC objects

NGC 118 (= PGC 1678)
Discovered (Sep 23, 1867) by
Truman Safford
Discovered (Sep 27, 1880) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)a? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 27 16.2, Dec -01 46 49)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 118 (Tempel list IV (#3), (Safford #91), 1860 RA 00 20 07, NPD 92 33.3) is "very faint, small star in centre, eastern of 2 (the other being NGC 114)". The position precesses to RA 00 27 16.5, Dec -01 46 46, within 0.1 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Dreyer was not aware of Safford's observations at the time he compiled the NGC, as they were published as an appendix to an obscure paper at the time Dreyer was editing his paper for publication, and although he did list a number of Safford's observations in an appendix to the NGC, it was not practical to alter the individual entries; so Safford #91 was not actually shown in the entry for NGC 118 (which is why it is in parentheses).
Physical Information: The "small star in centre" is the galaxy's exceptionally bright nucleus, which makes it a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy2). Based on a recessional velocity of 11250 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 118 is about 525 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 500 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 510 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.15 by 0.75 arcmin, it is about 170 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 118, also showing NGC 114
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 118, also showing NGC 114
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 118
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 118, also showing NGC 114
Also shown are PGC 1107907, 1109199, 1109763, 1110030, 1111262, 1112034, 1112422, 1112748 & 3307951
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 118, also showing NGC 114 and numerous PGC objects

NGC 119 (= PGC 1659)
Discovered (Oct 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0? pec) in Phoenix (RA 00 26 57.6, Dec -56 58 41)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 119 (= GC 57 = JH 2324, 1860 RA 00 20 17, NPD 147 45.4) is "pretty bright, small, round, much brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 26 57.3, Dec -56 58 52, within 0.2 arcmin of the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7430 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 119 is about 345 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 335 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 340 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.9 arcmin, it is about 90 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 119
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 119
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 119
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 119
Also shown are PGC 394477, 394878, 395310 and 396201
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 119, also showing numerous PGC objects

NGC 120 (= PGC 1693)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1880) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Also observed (Nov 16, 1890) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB0? pec?) in Cetus (RA 00 27 30.1, Dec -01 30 49)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 120 (Tempel list IV (#4a), 1860 RA 00 20 20, NPD 92 12) is "a nebulous star". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected NPD (per Bigourdan) of 92 17; using that and the original right ascension, the position precesses to RA 00 27 29.6, Dec -01 30 28, only 0.4 arcmin northwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: On the evening of Sep 27, 1880 Tempel observed half a dozen nebulae in the region near "Santini 28", a star in Giovanni Santini's catalog of Equatorial stars now known as HD 2413, and on the following night accurately measured the positions of three of them, which were published in his list IV as the second, third and fourth entries, and were later entered in the NGC as NGC 114, 118 and 124. However, he did not measure the position of the other three nebulae, merely stating in a note inserted between the fourth and fifth entries in his published list (for which reason I have designated them as list IV #4a, 4b and 4c) that there was a pair about 3 or 4 arcmin north of Santini 28, and a third about 10 arcmin north of the same star. Those three nebulae became NGC 120, 122 and 123, with (per Corwin) positions presumably sent to Dreyer by private communication from Tempel, as there is no record of their positions save in Dreyer's NGC entries. (Whether Tempel's later communication placed NGC 120 fifteen arcmin north of HD 2413 or Dreyer made a transcription error is unknown, but Tempel's original estimate of 10 arcmin was correct, as shown by Bigourdan's observation.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3985 km/sec, NGC 120 is about 185 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.55 by 0.5 arcmin, it is about 85 thousand light years across. In the slightly overexposed image showing numerous PGC objects there appear to be faint extensions to the northeast, west and southwest of NGC 120, which if real might indicate a major episode of disturbance, and could justify a multi-wavelength study of the galaxy.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 120
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 120
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 120
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 120
Also shown are PGC 1699, 172078, 3307967, 3307984 and 3308000
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 120, also showing numerous PGC objects

NGC 121 (= PGC 2802613, a globular cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Sep 20, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.2 globular cluster in Tucana (RA 00 26 48.5, Dec -71 32 07)
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 121 (= GC 58 = JH 2325, 1860 RA 00 20 25, NPD 162 18.4) is "pretty bright, pretty small, a little extended, very gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 26 36.7, Dec -71 31 52, about an arcmin west northwest of the center of the globular cluster listed above but within its western outline, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The globular cluster is about 200 thousand light years away, or about the same distance as the Small Magellanic Cloud, and is almost certainly associated with that galaxy. It is about 3 by 2 arcmin in diameter, which corresponds to about 175 light years. Based on the turnoff point for its Main Sequence it is the oldest globular cluster in the SMC, with an estimated age of about 10 billion years, around 2 billion years older than other SMC globulars, but over 2 billion years younger than Milky Way globulars of similar composition.
HST image of Small Magellanic Cloud globular cluster NGC 121, overlaid on a DSS background of the region near the cluster
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 121, with an HST overlay of the cluster itself
(HST Image Credit above and below ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowlegement: Stefano Campani)
Below, a 2 arcmin wide HST image of the globular cluster
HST image of Small Magellanic Cloud globular cluster NGC 121
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the cluster;
also shown are PGC 268046, 268053 and 268528
DSS image of region near Small Magellanic Cloud globular cluster NGC 121, showing numerous PGC objects

WORKING HERE: Editing 122/123 for typos, clarity, etc

NGC 122
Recorded (Sep 27, 1880) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Also recorded (Nov 16, 1890) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A nonexistent object in Cetus (RA 00 27 42.6, Dec -01 37 29)
or traditionally per Bigourdan a magnitude 15.4 star at RA 00 27 40.0, Dec -01 37 40
or perhaps per Corwin a magnitude 15.0 double star at RA 00 27 38.3, Dec -01 38 26
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 122 (Tempel list IV (#4b), 1860 RA 00 20 33, NPD 92 24) is one of "2 very faint nebulae 4 to 5 arcmin northwest of 8.5 magnitude star", the other being NGC 123. The position precesses to RA 00 27 42.6, Dec -01 37 29 (whence the first position above), but there is nothing nearby, hence its description as "nonexistent".
Discovery Notes: On the evening of Sep 27, 1880 Tempel observed half a dozen nebulae in the region near "Santini 28", a star in Giovanni Santini's catalog of Equatorial stars now known as HD 2413, and the following night accurately measured the positions of three of them, which were published in his list IV as the second, third and fourth entries, and were later entered in the NGC as NGC 114, 118 and 124. However, he did not measure the position of the other three nebulae, merely stating in a note inserted between the fourth and fifth entries in his published list (for which reason I have designated them as 4a, 4b and 4c) that there was a pair about 3 or 4 arcmin northward from Santini 28, and a third about 10 arcmin northward from the same star. Those three nebulae became NGC 120, 122 and 123, with (per Corwin) positions presumably sent to Dreyer by private communication from Tempel, as there is no record of their positions save in Dreyer's NGC entries.
     The fact that Tempel's original note states that the pair of nebulae now listed as NGC 122 and NGC 123 were 3 to 4 arcmin northward from Santini 28, while Dreyer's NGC entries state that they were 4 to 5 arcmin northwest of that star suggests that the positions provided to Dreyer by Tempel were a little further to the northwest than his original estimate. The images below are centered on the NGC position for NGC 122, while the red square's northwest and southeast corners represent positions 5 and 3 arcmin northwest of HD 2413. The positions presumably sent to Dreyer by Tempel are shown by smaller white squares, marked "Dreyer NGC 122" and Dreyer NGC 123", respectively.
     As noted in the discovery information for the two objects, Bigourdan looked for them on Nov 16, 1890 (he also looked for them on Dec 17, 1897, but usually only the original date of observation is shown in discussions of NGC/IC objects). In both cases he used HD 2413 as his comparison star, so its position is needed for a reduction of his results. The J2000 position of the star is RA 00 27 55.3, Dec -01 40 54, with proper motions of only +0.01567"/year in right ascension and -0.00086"/year in declination. That means that in 1890 the star was only 0.1 second of time to the west of its modern position, and converting to 1900 coordinates, lay at RA 00 22 48.3, Dec -02 14 06, less than 4 arcsec due north of the position used by Bigourdan. Applying the average offsets measured by Bigourdan, NGC 122 should have been at (1900) RA 00 22 32.6, Dec -02 10 53, which precesses to J2000 RA 00 27 39.5, Dec -01 37 41, just west of the star listed above as "traditionally (per Bigourdan)". The offsets for what Bigourdan presumed to be NGC 123 place it at (1900) RA 00 22 36.9, Dec -02 11 17, which precesses to J2000 RA 00 27 43.8, Dec -01 38 05, just east of the star listed for NGC 123 as "traditionally (per Bigourdan)". However, there is no way that Bigourdan could have seen the nearly 17th magnitude star near his position for NGC 123, and its position (southeast of his position for NGC 122) is completely at odds with Tempel's relative positions for the two objects, which place NGC well to the northeast of NGC 122. As a result, it is often said that there is nothing at Bigourdan's position for NGC 123, more accurately meaning nothing he could have seen. (In the first image below, the stars nearest Bigourdan's positions are marked "B122" and "B123"; note that this is shorthand for "Bigourdan's position for NGC 122/123", and is not the same as B122 and B123, which are completely separate "novae" observed by Bigourdan.)
     Given the problems with Tempel's positions (which do not correspond to anything) and Bigourdan's (which are in the wrong position relative to each other), Corwin has suggested that Bigourdan's NGC 122 is actually Tempel's NGC 123, and the double star to its southwest is Tempel's NGC 122 (whence the positions shown in the two entries). Presuming Tempel actually saw anything, this seems a reasonable suggestion; but it is equally possible that NGC 122 and 123 were simply the result of looking too hard for things that weren't really there.
In Conclusion: Whether NGC 122 or NGC 123 represent real objects is not at all certain. If real, the stars suggested by Corwin are probably the best candidates for what Tempel saw; but it seems equally likely that they are simply nonexistent objects. In any event, they are certainly not clusters or nebulae, so as far as the original purpose of the NGC is concerned, it hardly makes any difference what they are (or not).
SDSS image of region near the NGC position for NGC 122, also showing the NGC position for NGC 123, Bigourdan's positions for NGC 122 and 123, and a region 3 to 5 arcmin northwest of HD 2413
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the NGC position for NGC 122
Also shown are the NGC position for NGC 123, and a region 3 to 5 arcmin northwest of HD 2413
Also shown are the stars nearest Bigourdan's positions for NGC 122 and NGC 123
Below, the same SDSS image, labeling only the stars suggested by Corwin as NGC 122 and NGC 123
SDSS image of region near Corwin's suggestions for the stars that might be NGC 122 and NGC 123

NGC 123
Recorded (Sep 27, 1880) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Also recorded (Nov 16, 1890) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A nonexistent object in Cetus (RA 00 27 45.6, Dec -01 35 29)
or very unlikely per Bigourdan a magnitude 16.7 star at RA 00 27 42.9, Dec -01 38 09
or perhaps per Corwin a magnitude 15.4 star at RA 00 27 40.0, Dec -01 37 39
or possibly but unlikely per Corwin a magniude ? star at RA 00 27 36.2, Dec -01 35 58
Historical Information: Per Dreyer, NGC 123 (= Tempel's list IV (#4c), 1860 RA 00 20 36, NPD 92 22) is one of "2 very faint nebulae 4 to 5 arcmin northwest of 8.5 magnitude star", the other being NGC 122. The position precesses to RA 00 27 45.6, Dec -01 35 29 (whence the first position above), but there is nothing nearby, hence its description as "nonexistent".
Discovery Notes: A discussion of what NGC 123 might be is in the Discovery Notes for NGC 122.

WORKING HERE: Updating Dreyer non-NGC/Steinicke database entries

NGC 124 (= PGC 1715)
Discovered (Sep 23, 1867) by
Truman Safford
Discovered (Sep 27, 1880) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c?) in Cetus (RA 00 27 52.4, Dec -01 48 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 124 (Tempel list IV (#4), (Safford #92), 1860 RA 00 20 43, NPD 92 35.7) is "very faint, large, diffuse, 2 faint stars to northwest". (Note: Dreyer was not aware of Safford's observations at the time he compiled the NGC, as they were published as an appendix to an obscure paper; but he did list a number of Safford's observations in an appendix to the NGC. Unfortunately, he only listed those objects not already in the NGC, so in those cases where Safford was the discoverer of an object already credited to someone else, his prior discovery went unmentioned. Steinicke's book has a complete listing of the objects for which Safford deserves priority, hence his listing as the discoverer of this object, and its number in Safford's list.) Tempel's position precesses to RA 00 27 52.5, Dec -01 49 11, about 0.6 arcmin south of the center of the galaxy, but still within the southern border of the galaxy, and there are two faint stars to the northwest, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on the recessional velocity of 4060 km/sec, about 180 million light years away. Given that and the apparent size of 1.3 by 0.75 arcmin (from closeup image below), about 65 to 70 thousand light years across. It is listed as a possible group member with NGC 114, which see for a view of their relative positions, and if at the same distance from us, is separated from that galaxy by less than a million light years.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 124
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 124 (also see the wider view at NGC 114)
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 124
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS centered on the galaxy, showing numerous PGC objects:
PGC 1107411, 1107664, 1107907, 1109763, 1110030, 1110744 and 1111303
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 124, showing numerous PGC objects

NGC 125 (= PGC 1772)
Discovered (Dec 25, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 12, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SA0/a? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 28 50.2, Dec +02 50 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 125 (= GC 59 = JH 23 = WH III 869, 1860 RA 00 21 41, NPD 87 56.1) is "very faint, small, brighter middle, double star to southwest". The position precesses to RA 00 28 52.2, Dec +02 50 24, about 0.5 arcmin east of the center of the galaxy, but within its eastern border, and there is a double star southwest of the nucleus, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on the recessional velocity of 5305 km/sec, about 235 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.7 by 1.5 arcmin, about 115 thousand light years across. (Note: the approximate size just listed is only for the central galaxy and its bright outer ring; there is a much fainter half-ring extending eastward from its southern rim toward the star due east of it, and westward then northward toward the galaxy at the top of the 4.8 arcmin wide image below, which is faintly visible in that image and in the 12 arcmin wide image at the top.) NED lists it as part of a pair, apparently with NGC 128; but the recessional velocities of the two galaxies differ by more than a thousand km/sec, so NGC 125 is probably around 50 million light years further away, and not connected to the other galaxy.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 125, also showing NGC 126, NGC 127 and part of NGC 128
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 125, also showing NGC 126, 127 and 128
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 125
Below, a 4.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, using exaggerated contrast to show its outer regions
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 125, using exaggerated contrast to show its outer half-ring
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 125
Also shown are NGC 126, 127 and part of NGC 128, and PGC 212532, 212533 and 1241034
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 125, also showing NGC 126, NGC 127 and part of NGC 128, and numerous PGC objects

NGC 126 (= PGC 1784)
Discovered (Nov 4, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
Also observed (Sep 19, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a?) in Pisces (RA 00 29 08.1, Dec +02 48 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 126 (= GC 60, 3rd Lord Rosse, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 21 54, NPD 87 58.1) is "very faint, small, a little extended". The position precesses to RA 00 29 05.2, Dec +02 48 23, about 0.8 arcmin southwest of the galaxy and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is reasonably certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Based on the recessional velocity of 4045 km/sec, about 180 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below), about 30 to 35 thousand light years across. Its direction and recessional velocity indicate that it is a member of the NGC 128 Group of galaxies, which also includes NGC 127 and 130.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 126, also showing NGC 125, NGC 127, NGC 128 and NGC 130
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 126, also showing NGC 125, 127, 128 and 130
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 126
Below, the 12 arcmin wide image at top, also showing PGC 212532
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 126, also showing NGC 125, NGC 127, NGC 128 and NGC 130, and also showing PGC 212532

NGC 127 (= PGC 1787)
Discovered (Nov 4, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
A magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)a? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 29 12.4, Dec +02 52 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 127 (= GC 61, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 22 01, NPD 87 54.1) is "very faint, very small, round, west of h25 (= NGC 128)". The position precesses to RA 00 29 12.2, Dec +02 52 23, right on the galaxy's nucleus, and it is west of "h25", so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Based on the recessional velocity of 4095 km/sec, about 180 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.45 arcmin, about ? thousand light years across. Its direction and recessional velocity indicate that it is a member of the NGC 128 group of galaxies, which also includes NGC 126 and 130.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 127, also showing part of NGC 128
Above, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 127, also showing NGC 128, which see

NGC 128 (= PGC 1791)
Discovered (Dec 25, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 12, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.8 lenticular galaxy (type SB0? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 29 15.0, Dec +02 51 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 128 (= GC 62 = JH 25 = WH II 854, 1860 RA 00 22 05, NPD 87 54.6) is "pretty bright, pretty small, a little extended 2°, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 29 16.2, Dec +02 51 53, only 0.3 arcmin from the center of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on the recessional velocity of 4240 km/sec, about 190 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 3.0 by 0.9 arcmin, about 165 thousand light years across. The largest member and namesake of the NGC 128 Group of galaxies (which also includes NGC 126, 127 and 130, NGC 128 has a strange "peanut"-shaped halo, presumably caused by gravitational effects due to its companions; however, the large nucleus appears relatively normal, and it is possible that more detailed study of the galaxy may considerably change interpretations of its structure.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 128, also showing NGC 126, NGC 127, NGC 130 and part of NGC 125
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 128
Also shown are NGC 126, 127, 130 and part of NGC 125
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing NGC 127 and 130
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 128, also showing NGC 127 and NGC 130
Below, a ? by ? arcmin wide 'raw' HST image of part of NGC 128 (Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Courtney Seligman)
'Raw' HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 128

NGC 129 (= OCL 294)
Discovered (Dec 16, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 29, 1829) by John Herschel
A magnitude 6.5 open cluster (type IV2p) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 29 57, Dec +60 12 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 129 (= GC 63 = JH 24 = WH VIII 79, 1860 RA 00 22 06, NPD 30 33.1) is "a cluster, very large, pretty round, a little compressed, stars from 9th to 13th magnitude". The position precesses to RA 00 29 52.7, Dec +60 13 23, about 1.5 arcmin northwest of the "standard" position for the cluster; but for a loosely scattered collection of stars more than 20 arcmin across, the "position" is a matter of opinion (for that reason, the value listed above has been rounded off to whole arcmin), and the "error" in the position insignificant; so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The cluster appears to consist of approximately three dozen 9th to 11th magnitude stars scattered across a region approximately 30 light years across, 5000 to 5500 light years distant, with an estimated age (based on the luminosity of hot, bright upper Main Sequence stars) of about 75 to 80 million years, making it one of the youngest clusters in our vicinity. Note: Fainter middle and lower Main Sequence stars are difficult to distinguish from the numerous background stars, so the actual number of cluster members is considerably larger than the number of easily observable brighter stars. Which stars are cluster members can be estimated from the radial velocity of the cluster, which is approaching us at about 40 km/sec; stars with very different radial velocities are probably not cluster members. The difficulty of doing the spectroscopic observations required rapidly increases with decreasing brightness, but as of a 1992 study, nearly a hundred stars had been confirmed as cluster members. Despite its relatively young age, a few cluster members have already ended their Main Sequence lives and swelled up to become supergiants. One of those is the Cepheid variable DL Cassiopeiae, a spectroscopic binary with an orbital period of a little less than two years. The presence of a Cepheid variable in such a "close" cluster provides a useful tool for determining the approximate distance of the cluster, and as more accurate determinations become possible, for calibrating the Cepheid variable distance scale; as a result, NGC 129 is one of the four or five clusters most often studied for such purposes (the nearest being the Pleiades).
DSS image of open cluster NGC 129
Above, a 30 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 129; labels are shown for PGC 136980,
6th-magnitude HD 2626 (not a cluster member), and 9th-magnitude DL Cassiopeiae

NGC 130 (= PGC 1794)
Discovered (Nov 4, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Pisces (RA 00 29 18.5, Dec +02 52 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 130 (= GC 64, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 22 09, NPD 87 54.1) is "very faint, very small, round, east of h25 (= NGC 128)". The position precesses to RA 00 29 20.2, Dec +02 52 23, about 0.4 arcmin northeast of the center of the galaxy, a little beyond its northeastern extension; but even if the position were off a bit more, its position directly to the east of "h25" would make the identification certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Based on the recessional velocity of 4435 km/sec, about 200 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.65 by 0.35 arcmin (from image below), about 40(?) thousand light years across. Despite its slightly greater recessional velocity, there is little doubt that it is a member of the NGC 128 Group of galaxies, which also includes NGC 126 and 127.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 130
Above, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 130; for other images see NGC 128

NGC 131 (= PGC 1813 = PGC 199360)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)b?) in Sculptor (RA 00 29 38.5, Dec -33 15 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 131 (= GC 65 = JH 2326, 1860 RA 00 22 43, NPD 124 02.0) is "faint, pretty large, pretty much extended, very gradually brighter middle, preceding of 2", the other being NGC 134.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.65 by 0.45 arcmin (from images below). NGC 131 is listed as a member of the NGC 134 Group of galaxies, which includes NGC 115, 148 and 150, PGC 2000 (often misidentified as IC 1554) and IC 1555, and PGC 2044. Several of these are also listed as members of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group, with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all NGC 134 group members are presumably members of the larger group.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 131
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 131
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 131

NGC 132 (= PGC 1844)
Discovered (Dec 25, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 12, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc?) in Cetus (RA 00 30 10.7, Dec +02 05 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 132 (= GC 66 = JH 26 = WH II 855, 1860 RA 00 23 00, NPD 88 40.9) is "pretty faint, considerably large, round, very gradually A little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.95 by 1.3 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 132
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 132
Below, a 2.0 by 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 132

NGC 133 (= OCL 296)
Discovered (Feb 4, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 9.4 open cluster (type IV1p) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 31 18.0, Dec +63 20 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 133 (= GC 5103, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 23 21, NPD 27 25.7) is "a cluster, pretty large, stars from 10th magnitude, double star involved".
Physical Information:
DSS image of open cluster NGC 133
Above, a 12 arcmin region centered on NGC 133

NGC 134 (= PGC 1851)
Discovered (Jul 7, 1826) by
James Dunlop (his #590 = his #599)
Also observed (Sep 25, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc) in Sculptor (RA 00 30 21.9, Dec -33 14 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 134 (= GC 67 = JH 2327, 1860 RA 00 23 28, NPD 124 01.8) is "very bright, large, very much extended 47°, pretty suddenly brighter middle, following of 2, 10th magnitude star 45 arcsec to northwest", the "other of 2" being NGC 131.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer failed to credit Dunlop with the discovery, his observations were published before Herschel started his southern hemisphere observations.
Physical Information: NGC 134 is the namesake of the NGC 134 Group of galaxies, which includes NGC 115, 131, 148 and 150, PGC 2000 (often misidentified as IC 1554) and IC 1555, and PGC 2044. Several of these are also listed as members of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group, with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all NGC 134 group members are presumably members of the larger group.
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 134 superimposed on a DSS image of the region near the galaxy
Above, a 12 arcmin wide ESO image centered on NGC 134 (superimposed on a DSS image to fill in missing areas)
(Image Credit above and below ESO)

Below, an approximately 5 arcmin wide ESO image of the galaxy
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 134

NGC 135 (=
IC 26 = PGC 2010 = PGC 138192)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 135)
Rediscovered (Nov 4, 1891) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 26)
Also observed (about 1900) by Herbert Howe (as NGC 135)
A magnitude 15.1 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 00 31 46.0, Dec -13 20 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 135 (Leavenworth list I (#5), 1860 RA 00 23 30, NPD 104 08.0) is "very faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 30 34.9, Dec -13 21 33, but there is nothing there, so when Javelle made an accurate measurement of the position of the galaxy listed above, Dreyer listed it as a separate object (IC 26, which see for a discussion of its discovery) in the first Index Catalog. Around 1900, Howe also observed the object (which he presumed was NGC 135), measuring a position of (1900) RA 00 26 43, Dec -13 53.3, leading Dreyer to add a note to the second Index Catalog stating that the (1860) RA of NGC 135 was 00 24 41 (why he didn't also list Howe's corrected NPD is not obvious). Howe's position precesses to RA 00 31 46.3, Dec -13 20 10, right on the galaxy, making it certain that he observed the same object as Javelle. Whether it was actually the same as the one Leavenworth observed (as presumed by Howe and Dreyer) is another matter, but per Corwin there are very good reasons for believing it was. First, the error in Leavenworth's position is typical of those made at Leander McCormick observatory (well to the west in right ascension, but fairly close in declination), and most tellingly, Leavenworth made a sketch of the region near the object which perfectly fits the field near the galaxy listed above; so despite the confused history of observation and measurement, there is no doubt that what Leavenworth observed was the same object observed by Javelle and Howe, so NGC 135 and IC 26 are the same, and the same as the object listed here.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7190 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 135 is about 335 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 325 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 330 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.4 by 0.35 arcmin, the galaxy is about 40 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 135
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 135
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 135

NGC 136 (= OCL 295)
Discovered (Nov 26, 1788) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11 open cluster (type II2p) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 31 30.0, Dec +61 30 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 136 (= GC 68 = WH VI 35, 1860 RA 00 23 41, NPD 29 15.8) is "a cluster, very faint, small, extremely compressed".
Physical Information:
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 136
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 136
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of open cluster NGC 136

NGC 137 (= PGC 1888)
Discovered (Nov 23, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 3, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 00 30 58.1, Dec +10 12 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 137 (= GC 69 = WH II 471, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 23 43, NPD 80 34.0) is "faint, irregular figure, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 137
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 137
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 137

NGC 138 (= PGC 1889)
Discovered (Aug 29, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a pec?) in Pisces (RA 00 30 59.2, Dec +05 09 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 138 (= GC 5104, Marth #9, 1860 RA 00 23 47, NPD 85 37) is "faint, extremely small, suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.55 by 0.6 arcmin (from images below), including distorted extensions
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 138, also showing NGC 139 and NGC 141
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 138, also showing NGC 139 and 141
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing PGC 212536
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 138, also showing PGC 212536
Below, the 12 arcmin wide SDSS image at the top, also showing PGC 212536 and 212537
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 138, also showing NGC 139 and NGC 141, and PGC 212536 and PGC 212537

NGC 139 (= PGC 1900)
Discovered (Aug 29, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 31 06.4, Dec +05 04 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 139 (= GC 5105, Marth #10, 1860 RA 00 23 54, NPD 85 39) is "extremely faint, small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin (from images below), including outer extensions
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 139, also showing NGC 138 and part of NGC 141
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 139, also showing NGC 138 and 141
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 139

NGC 140 (= PGC 1916)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1866) by
Truman Safford (Safford #60)
Discovered (Nov 5, 1882) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)bc?) in Andromeda (RA 00 31 20.5, Dec +30 47 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 140 (= Stephan list XII (#??), 1860 RA 00 23 57, NPD 59 58.9) is "very faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle". (Note: Stephan was not aware of Safford's observations, which were published as an appendix to an obscure paper, nor was Dreyer when he first compiled the NGC, so although Dreyer added a list of some of Safford's observations to an appendix to the NGC, he did not correct the discovery information in the NGC itself. So in those cases where Safford was the discoverer of an object already credited to someone else, his prior discovery went unmentioned. Steinicke's book has a complete listing of the objects for which Safford deserves priority, whence his listing as the discoverer of this object, and its number in Safford's list.) Stephan's position precesses to RA 00 31 20.5, Dec +30 47 32, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.35 by 1.15 arcmin (from image below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 140, also showing the double star listed as IC 24
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 140, also showing the double star listed as IC 24
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 140

NGC 141 (= PGC 1918)
Discovered (Aug 29, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 31 17.5, Dec +05 10 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 141 (= GC 5106, Marth #11, 1860 RA 00 24 06, NPD 85 35) is "very faint, very small, irregularly round". (Northwestern galaxy is at RA 00 31 17.4, Dec +05 10 47; southeastern at RA 00 31 17.7, Dec +05 10 45)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11760 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 141 is about 525 million light years away. However, for such a distant galaxy we must take the expansion of the Universe during its light's half billion light year journey into account. Doing so shows that the galaxy was about 20 million light years closer at the time the light by which we see it was emitted. Given that and its apparent size of 0.6 by 0.6 arcmin (from images below), it is about 100? thousand light years across. The galaxy is probably a collision-in-progress between two separate galaxies, as it has a distorted structure and outline, and a double nucleus.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 141, also showing NGC 138 and part of NGC 139
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 141, also showing NGC 138 and 139
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 141

NGC 142 (= PGC 1901 = PGC 811378 = PGC 811410)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)b? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 31 08.1, Dec -22 37 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 142 (Muller list II (#282), 1860 RA 00 24 30, NPD 113 24.0) is "extremely faint, small, a little extended, 1st of 3", the others being NGC 143 and 144. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 24 08, and adds "the faintest" to the description.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.6 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 142, also showing NGC 143 and NGC 144
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 142, also showing NGC 143 and 144
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 142

NGC 143 (= PGC 1911 = PGC 198145)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)b? edge-on) in Cetus (RA 00 31 15.6, Dec -22 33 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 143 (Muller list II (#283), 1860 RA 00 24 30, NPD 113 21.0) is "extremely faint, small, much extended, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 142 and 144. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 24 16.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.3 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 143, also showing NGC 142 and NGC 144
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 143, also showing NGC 142 and 144
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 143

NGC 144 (= PGC 1917)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type Sbc? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 31 20.6, Dec -22 38 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 144 (Muller list II (#284), 1860 RA 00 24 30, NPD 113 26.0) is "extremely faint, very small, round, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 142 and 143. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 24 20, and the additional note "the brightest, pretty small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.75 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 144, also showing NGC 142 and NGC 143
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 144, also showing NGC 142 and 143
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 144

NGC 145 (=
Arp 19 = PGC 1941)
Discovered (Oct 9, 1828) by John Herschel
Also observed (Oct 5, 1836) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm?) in Cetus (RA 00 31 45.8, Dec -05 09 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 145 (= GC 70 = JH 27 = JH 2328, 1860 RA 00 24 38, NPD 95 55.6) is "faint, pretty large, very little extended, very gradually brighter middle, 8th or 9th magnitude star 5 arcmin east".
Physical Information: Based on recessional velocity of 4140 km/sec, about 185 million light years away. However, redshift-independent distance estimates are only 40 to 50 million light years, so there is a serious error somewhere. If the lower distance is correct, the apparent size of 1.8 by 1.55 arcmin (from the images below) would imply a size of 25 thousand light years, while the larger distance would require a size of nearly 100 thousand light years. Given the generally diffuse nature of the galaxy, the smaller values may be more reasonable, but the prominent arms suggest the larger values may be more accurate; so the issue cannot be settled without further observations. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a three-armed spiral galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 145, also known as Arp 19
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 145
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy (partially removed a serious artifact running across the bottom)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 145, also known as Arp 19

NGC 146 (= OCL 299)
Discovered (Oct 27, 1829) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 9.1 open cluster (type IV3p) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 33 01.0, Dec +63 18 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 146 (= GC 71 = JH 28, 1860 RA 00 25 13, NPD 27 29.3) is "a cluster, pretty large, a little compressed, stars from 11th to 12th magnitude, double star".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 146
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 146

NGC 147 (= PGC 2004)
Discovered (Sep 8, 1829) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 9.5 elliptical galaxy (type E5? pec) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 33 12.2, Dec +48 30 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 147 (= GC 72 = JH 29, 1860 RA 00 25 32, NPD 42 16.5) is "very faint, very large, irregularly round, gradually then suddenly much brighter middle equivalent to 11th magnitude star".
Physical Information: NGC 147 is a dwarf spheroidal member of the Andromeda Galaxy group. As such, its peculiar (non-Hubble-expansion) velocity is too large for its radial velocity to yield any estimate of its distance (in fact, it is approaching us at 195 km/sec, which would yield a negative distance if used without thinking). Redshift-independent distance estimates range from 1.9 to 2.5 million light years, primarily based on the galaxy's Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram (individual stars are easily resolved with current technology). Given its apparent separation from the Andromeda Galaxy (about 7.5 degrees), it is probably about 300 thousand light years from its much larger neighbor (about the same distance as between the Milky Way and the Large Magellanic Cloud). Its apparent size of 13.2 by 7.8 arcmin corresponds to about 8 thousand light years along its largest dimension.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 147
Above, a 20 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 147
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 147
Below, a 1.2 degree wide region centered between NGC 147 and NGC 185, another M31 Group galaxy
DSS image of region between elliptical galaxy NGC 147 and NGC 185, another M31 Group galaxy
Below, a 7.5 degree wide region showing the relative positions of M31 and NGC 147
DSS image of region between elliptical galaxy NGC 147 and M31, also showing NGC 185 and M110

NGC 148 (= PGC 2053)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Sculptor (RA 00 34 15.5, Dec -31 47 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 148 (= GC 73 = JH 2329, 1860 RA 00 26 22, NPD 122 34.0) is "very bright, small, a little extended 90°, suddenly much brighter middle equivalent to 11th magnitude star".
Physical Information: Based on recessional velocity of 1515 km/sec, about 70 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 60 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.0 by 0.8 arcmin, about 40 thousand light years across. NGC 148 is listed as a member of the NGC 134 Group of galaxies, which includes NGC 115, 131 and 150, PGC 2000 (erroneously identified as IC 1554) and IC 1555, and PGC 2044. Several of these are also listed as members of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group, with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all NGC 134 group members are presumably members of the larger group.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 148
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 148
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 148

NGC 149 (= PGC 2028)
Discovered (Oct 4, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 33 50.3, Dec +30 43 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 149 (Stephan list XIII (#5), 1860 RA 00 26 26, NPD 60 02.9) is "very faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle equivalent to 14th magnitude star, 12th magnitude star to southwest".
Physical Information: Based on recessional velocity of 4845 km/sec, about 215 to 220 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.95 by 0.65 arcmin (from images below), about 60 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 149
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 149
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 149
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 50 - 99) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 100 - 149     → (NGC 150 - 199)