Celestial Atlas
(NGC 1000 - 1049) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 1050 - 1099 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 1100 - 1149)
Click here for Introductory Material
QuickLinks:
1050, 1051, 1052, 1053, 1054, 1055, 1056, 1057, 1058, 1059, 1060, 1061, 1062, 1063, 1064, 1065, 1066,
1067, 1068, 1069, 1070, 1071, 1072, 1073, 1074, 1075, 1076, 1077, 1078, 1079, 1080, 1081, 1082, 1083,
1084, 1085, 1086, 1087, 1088, 1089, 1090, 1091, 1092, 1093, 1094, 1095, 1096, 1097, 1098, 1099

Page last updated Jul 5, 2016
Checked Corwin positions, original NGC entries, updated formatting, added many pix, tags
WORKING: Update Steinicke historical & physical databases

NGC 1050 (= PGC 10257)
Discovered (Sep 17, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Perseus (RA 02 42 35.6, Dec +34 45 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1050 (= GC 5272, d'Arrest, Stephan list III (#??), 1860 RA 02 34 03, NPD 55 50.3) is "faint, small, 18th magnitude star involved on north".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.1 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1050
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1050
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1050

NGC 1051 (=
NGC 961 = IC 249 = PGC 10172)
Discovered (Nov 27, 1880) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 1051)
Discovered (1886) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 961)
Discovered (Jan 28, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later recorded as IC 249)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)m? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 41 02.5, Dec -06 56 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1051 (Stephan list IX (#??) [per Steinicke, actually list XI (#5)], 1860 RA 02 34 08, NPD 97 32.2) is "extremely faint, a little extended northwest - southeast, attached star on northwest" (the star is actually to the northeast, and the galaxy is extended northeast - southwest, but since telescopes usually reverse images in one way or another, this confusion of direction is a common error). The position precesses to RA 02 41 03.2, Dec -06 56 03, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 961 for anything else.

NGC 1052 (= PGC 10175)
Discovered (Jan 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Cetus (RA 02 41 04.8, Dec -08 15 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1052 (= GC 589 = JH 254 = JH 2493 = WH I 63, 1860 RA 02 34 12, NPD 98 51.1) is "bright, pretty large, round, much brighter middle equivalent to 12th magnitude star".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.8 by 2.0 arcmin? Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E4.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1052
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1052
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 1052

NGC 1053 (=
NGC 1040 = PGC 10298)
Discovered (Dec 9, 1871) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 1040)
Discovered (Oct 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 1053)
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Perseus (RA 02 43 12.4, Dec +41 30 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1053 (Swift list V (#37), 1860 RA 02 34 15, NPD 49 05.9) is "very faint, very small, a little extended, 3 or 4 stars in a line near". The position precesses to RA 02 43 09.8, Dec +41 30 06, right on a galaxy with a line of 3 stars just to its southwest, so the identification is certain. This object was initially known only as NGC 1053, because NGC 1040 (which see for a discussion of the double listing) appeared to be "lost"; but since Reinmuth noted the equivalence of the two entries nearly a century ago, it is now referred to as NGC 1040 almost as often as NGC 1053.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 1040 for anything else.

PGC 213068 (= "NGC 1040-2" = "NGC 1053-2")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 1053-2
and since
NGC 1040 = NGC 1053, sometimes called NGC 1040-2
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Perseus (RA 02 43 12.1, Dec +41 30 54)
Physical Information: Given the duplicate non-standard NGC name, see "NGC 1040-2" for anything else.

NGC 1054 (= PGC 10242)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1864) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Aries (RA 02 42 15.8, Dec +18 13 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1054 (= GC 5273, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 02 34 25, NPD 72 23.2) is "very faint, very small, a little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.5 arcmin (from images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1054
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1054
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1054

NGC 1055 (= PGC 10208)
Discovered (Dec 18, 1783) by
William Herschel (as WH II 6)
Also observed (Dec 19, 1783) by William Herschel (as WH I 1)
Also observed (Nov 24, 1827) by John Herschel
Also observed (Sep 27, 1861) by Eduard Schönfeld
Also observed (Dec 26, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 10.6 spiral galaxy (type Sab? pec?) in Cetus (RA 02 41 45.2, Dec +00 26 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1055 (= GC 591 = JH 258 = WH I 1 = WH II 6 (= GC 573), 1860 RA 02 34 33, NPD 90 09.5) is "pretty faint, considerably large, irregularly extended 80°, brighter middle, 11th magnitude star 1 arcmin north". The position precesses to RA 02 41 43.6, Dec +00 26 34, right on the galaxy listed above, the description is a good fit and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain. However, there were some historical problems caused by William Herschel's misidentification of this as two separate objects (I 1 and II 6), so the following is a discussion of the decades-long effort to reconcile things. Those who do not want to wade through such details can skip to Physical Information, just before the images of NGC 1055.
Discovery Notes For WH I 1 = GC 591 = JH 258: This is the first object in William Herschel's first list of 1000 nebulae and clusters, published in 1786 (hence its designation as WH I 1). His observation (recorded on Dec 19, 1783) places it 2m 17s east and 8 arcmin north of δ Ceti (which is close to the correct position), and describes it as "considerably bright, considerably large, irregular figure, brighter middle". In John Herschel's 1864 GC, a note reads "591 (JH) 258 = (WH) I 1. M. D'Arrest found this nebula, when examined with the Leipzig refractor, not entitled to rank above the 2nd class. With this our present Catalogue agrees, it being set down from a mean of 8 observations as 'pretty faint.'" The entry for GC 591 gives its position as (1860) RA 02 34 35.1, NPD 90 09 14.0 (close to that adopted by Dreyer for the NGC entry), equates it with (JH) 258 and (WH) I 1, and describes it as "pretty faint, considerably large, irregularly extended 80°, brighter middle, pretty bright star near".
Discovery Notes For WH II 6 = GC 573: William Herschel's observation (recorded on Dec 18, 1783) places II 6 very roughly 1m west and 1/2 degree north of δ Ceti (which is well off the mark), and describes it as "small, compact, between 2 large (bright) and 1 small (faint) star(s)". In John Herschel's 1864 GC, a note reads "573 (WH) II 6. This was probably really a comet, as indicated by its description, having been subsequently looked for and not found," but another note states that per manuscript notes (presumably from his father's records) II 6 = I 1. A note by Dreyer at the end of the NGC summarizes this by stating "NGC 1055: (WH) II 6 is on page 17 of the GC supposed to have been a comet, but further on (page 45) it is stated ("from MS notes") that it is = (WH) I 1. The place of (WH) II 6 was very rough." So although the position of II 6 was poor and the main entry for NGC 1055 ignored its GC designation, its description is a good fit to the galaxy, and its equality with I 1 is made clear in both the GC and NGC by appropriate notes.
Observational Notes for d'Arrest and Schönfeld: As noted by John Herschel in the GC, d'Arrest's paper stated that GC 591 was not above Class II. d'Arrest also noted that the nearby star was slightly west and an arcmin to the north of the nebula, and in a note following the one for his own observation quoted Schönfeld's opinion that the nebula was not above Class II, his confirmation of the position of the nearby star, and the date of Schönfeld's observation.
Physical Information: Based on a radio-wave recessional velocity of 995 km/sec, NGC 1055 is 45 to 50 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 40 to 75 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 8.6 by 3.8 arcmin, it is about 115 thousand light years across. (There is also an older optical measurement of the recessional velocity of 1060 km/sec that would put the galaxy about 50 million light years away, and make it about 120 to 125 thousand light years across.) NGC 1055 may be a starburst galaxy similar to M82. It is listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2). It is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type Sab sp.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1055
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1055
Below, an 8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1055

NGC 1056 (= PGC 10272)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Aries (RA 02 42 48.3, Dec +28 34 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1056 (= GC 590 = JH 256 = WH III 584, 1860 RA 02 34 34, NPD 62 01.5) is "faint, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.1 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1056
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1056
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1056

NGC 1057 (= PGC 10287)
Discovered (December 1849) by
George Stoney
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SAB0?) in Triangulum (RA 02 43 02.9, Dec +32 29 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1057 (= GC 595-6, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 02 34 36, NPD 58 06.4) is "very faint, double". The position precesses to RA 02 43 01.5, Dec +32 29 35, on a double star on the northwestern side of the galaxy listed above which undoubtedly caused its "double" appearance in the visual observations of the mid 1800's, so the identification is certain — that is, NGC 1057 as originally observed was the double star plus the galaxy to its southeast. However, since the point of the NGC was to list nebulae and clusters, modern usage is to ignore the double star and treat only the galaxy as the NGC object.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case George Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1057 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas, also showing NGC 1060, NGC 1061, and the star listed as NGC 1062
Above, a SDSS image laid over a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1057
Also shown are NGC 1060, 1061 and 1062
Above, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1057 and the double star that was part of its discovery

NGC 1058 (= PGC 10314)
Discovered (Jan 17, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Perseus (RA 02 43 30.0, Dec +37 20 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1058 (= GC 592 = JH 255 = WH II 633, 1860 RA 02 34 40, NPD 53 16.4) is "pretty faint, considerably large, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.5 by 2.2 arcmin (from images below)
NOAO image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1058 superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a NOAO image superimposed on a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1058
(Image Credit above and below Bob Ferguson and Richard Desruisseau/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide NOAO image of the galaxy
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1058

NGC 1059
Recorded (Jan 25, 1832) by
John Herschel
Not found (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Not found (September 1891) by Sherburne Burnham
A nonexistent object or a pair of stars in Aries (RA 02 42 35.6, Dec +17 59 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1059 (= GC 593 = JH 259, 1860 RA 02 34 45, NPD 72 35.5) is "extremely faint, hardly sure (d'Arrest not found)". The first Index Catalog adds "Not found by Burnham, who has a very faint nebula 68 seconds west and 12 arcmin south". The position precesses to RA 02 42 33.4, Dec +18 00 31, but given the uncertainty in the NGC/IC notes, it is hardly surprising that there is nothing there. Per Corwin, Reinmuth suggested that the double star an arcmin to the southeast of Herschel's position might be what Herschel observed, hence the identification and position listed above; but given Herschel's uncertainty about whether he actually observed anything at all, it is at least as likely that NGC 1059 should be treated as nonexistent.
Discovery Notes: The nebula noted by Burnham is IC 248, and it was presumably discovered on the same night that Burnham failed to find NGC 1059, whence the date shown above.
Physical Information: Per Corwin the northern star is at RA 02 42 35.8, Dec +17 59 53, and the southern star is at RA 02 42 35.5, Dec +17 59 43.
DSS image of region centered on the pair of stars that may or may not be NGC 1059
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the pair of stars that may or may not be NGC 1059

NGC 1060 (= PGC 10302)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Triangulum (RA 02 43 15.1, Dec +32 25 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1060 (= GC 594 = JH 257 = WH III 162, 1860 RA 02 34 49, NPD 58 10.4) is "faint, pretty large, round, a little brighter middle, 7.5 magnitude star 46 seconds of time to east, 3 arcmin south".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.45 by 1.75 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1060, also showing NGC 1057, NGC 1061 and NGC 1062
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1060, also showing NGC 1057, 1061 and 1062
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1060

NGC 1061 (= PGC 10303)
Discovered (December 1849) by
George Stoney
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S(rs)ab? pec) in Triangulum (RA 02 43 15.8, Dec +32 28 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1061 (= GC 597, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 02 34 49, NPD 58 07.9) is "very faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case George Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1061, also showing NGC 1057, NGC 1060, the star listed as NGC 1062, and part of PGC 10331, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 1062
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1061, also showing NGC 1057, 1060 and 1062
Also shown is part of PGC 10331, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 1062
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 1061
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1061

NGC 1062
Recorded (Oct 11, 1873) by
Ralph Copeland
A magnitude 15.8 star in Triangulum (RA 02 43 24.1, Dec +32 27 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1062 (Copeland using Lord Rosse's 72-inch telescope, 1860 RA 02 34 58, NPD 58 08.1) is "most extremely faint". The position precesses to RA 02 43 23.6, Dec +32 27 50, almost on a star to the southeast of NGC 1061 (which see for a wide-field image showing "NGC 1062"). In fact per Corwin, Copeland's offsets from NGC 1961 point exactly at that star, and the only reason that the NGC position is a bit "off" is that Dreyer made an error in the position of a comparison star in doing his own reduction for the NGC; so there should be no doubt that the star is what Copeland mistook for an extremly faint nebulous object. However, as also noted by Corwin, some catalogs, undoubtedly trying to connect a nebulous object with the NGC entry, mistakenly assigned that listing to PGC 10331, so that galaxy, even though not NGC 1062, is discussed immediately following this entry.

PGC 10331 (not =
NGC 1062)
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes misidentified as NGC 1062
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) in Triangulum (RA 02 43 44.1, Dec +32 29 45)
Historical Identification: As discussed at the entry for NGC 1062, overzealous efforts to find a nebular object to assign to NGC 1062 (which is actually a star) led to PGC 10331 being mistakenly listed as that object in some catalogs, and the error still persists in places. Hence this entry, serving as a warning about the misidentification.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4130 km/sec, PGC 10331 is about 190 million light years away, in good agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of 155 to 250 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.7 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 165 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 10331, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 1062; also shown is the star actually listed as NGC 1062, NGC 1066 and NGC 1067, and parts of NGC 1060 and NGC 1061
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 10331
Also shown are NGC 1062, 1066 and 1067, and parts of NGC 1060 and 1061
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 10331, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 1062

NGC 1063 (= PGC 10232)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1881) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 42 10.1, Dec -05 34 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1063 (Stephan list XII (#23), 1860 RA 02 35 13, NPD 96 10.0) is "very faint, pretty small, irregularly round, mottled but not resolved?".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1063
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1063
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1063

NGC 1064 (= PGC 10249)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 02 42 23.5, Dec -09 21 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1064 (Leavenworth list II (#345), 1860 RA 02 35 20, NPD 99 57.8) is "extremely faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1064 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a SDSS image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide DSS background centered on NGC 1064
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1064

NGC 1065 (= PGC 10228)
Discovered (Sep 29, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 02 42 06.2, Dec -15 05 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1065 (Swift list V (#38), 1860 RA 02 35 24, NPD 105 41.5) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, star near to south, 7.5 magnitude star to west".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7395 km/sec, NGC 1065 is about 345 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.65 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 60 thousand light years across. (Note: LEDA and Wikisky misidentify this object as also being IC 254, the fainter galaxy southwest of NGC 1065. The objects are correctly labeled in the images below.)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1065, also showing IC 253 and IC 254
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1065, also showing IC 253 and 254
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1065

NGC 1066 (= PGC 10338)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0(r)?) in Triangulum (RA 02 43 49.9, Dec +32 28 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1066 (= GC 598 = JH 260 = WH III 163, 1860 RA 02 35 24, NPD 58 07.2) is "very faint, pretty large, round, a little brighter middle, southern of 2", the other being NGC 1067.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.65 by 1.4 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1066, also showing NGC 1062 and NGC 1067
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1066, also showing NGC 1062 and 1067
Below, a 2.1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1066

NGC 1067 (= PGC 10339)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1827) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Triangulum (RA 02 43 50.5, Dec +32 30 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1067 (= GC 599 = JH 261, 1860 RA 02 35 24, NPD 58 05.2) is "extremely faint, small, northern of 2", the other being NGC 1066.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.1 by 1.0 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1067, also showing NGC 1066, the star listed as NGC 1062, and PGC 10331, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 1062
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1067
Also shown are NGC 1062 and 1066 and PGC 10331
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1067

NGC 1068 (=
M77 = PGC 10266 = Arp 37)
Discovered (Oct 29, 1780) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/recorded (Dec 17, 1780) by Charles Messier as M77
Also observed (Nov 24, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.9 spiral galaxy (type (R)SA(rs)b?) in Cetus (RA 02 42 40.7, Dec -00 00 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1068 (= GC 600 = JH 262, Méchain, M77, 1860 RA 02 35 31, NPD 90 36.7) is "very bright, pretty large, irregularly round, suddenly brighter middle, partially resolved nucleus (some stars seen)".
Physical Information: M77 is notable for having a bright central core which appears to be a typical spiral galaxy, surrounded by a much larger fainter outer region which, like our galaxy's halo, probably contains as much or more mass than the more obvious portion of the galaxy. Its Arp 37 classification as a spiral galaxy with faint companions appears to be a misinterpretation of bright star clouds which are part of the galaxy, as if they were separate galaxies. As seen in the images below, there are a number of faint outlying galaxies near M77, but they have no obvious relationship to it, and are probably background or foreground objects. Based on a recessional velocity of 1135 km/sec, the galaxy is about 55 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 35 to 45 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 7 by 6 arcmin, it is about 110 thousand light years across. Also known to be a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2). Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (R)SA(rs)b.
 SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1068, also known as M77
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1068 (= M77)
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit Francois/Shelley Pelletier/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1068, also known as M77
Below, the image above adjusted to enhance the fainter outer regions
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1068, also known as M77, digitally adjusted to enhance the fainter outer regions
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the central core (Image Credits Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons)
Partially processed HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 1068, also known as M77

NGC 1069 (= PGC 10285)
Discovered (Sep 29, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 42 59.8, Dec -08 17 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1069 (Swift list V (#39), 1860 RA 02 36 02, NPD 98 53.1) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, round, 8.5 magnitude star near to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.55 by 0.9 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1069
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1069
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1069

NGC 1070 (= PGC 10309)
Discovered (Dec 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Cetus (RA 02 43 22.2, Dec +04 58 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1070 (= GC 601 = JH 263 = WH II 273, 1860 RA 02 36 02, NPD 85 37.7) is "pretty faint, small, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.5 by 2.2 arcmin and with faint outer extensions, about 3.2 by 2.8 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1070
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1070
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1070

NGC 1071 (= PGC 10290)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Cetus (RA 02 43 07.8, Dec -08 46 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1071 (Leavenworth list II (#346), 1860 RA 02 36 14, NPD 99 22.7) is "extremely faint, very small, extended 0°, between 2 stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.4 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1071
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1071
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1071

NGC 1072 (=
IC 1837 = PGC 10315)
Discovered (Dec 20, 1881) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 1072)
Discovered (Jan 24, 1898) by Stephane Javelle (and later recorded as IC 1837)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 43 31.3, Dec +00 18 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1072 (Stephan list XII (#24), 1860 RA 02 36 21, NPD 90 17.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round, several very faint stars involved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.45 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below) (The double listing, being due to an error by Javelle, will be discussed at IC 1837.)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1072
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1072
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1072

NGC 1073 (= PGC 10329)
Discovered (Oct 9, 1785) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)cd?) in Cetus (RA 02 43 40.5, Dec +01 22 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1073 (= GC 602 = WH III 455, 1860 RA 02 36 33, NPD 89 13.4) is "very faint, large, a little brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.9 by 4.5 arcmin? Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SB(rs)cd.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1073
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1073
Below, a 5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1073
Above, a 5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 1073
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy's central regions (Image Credit NASA/ESA)
HST image of part of the central regions in spiral galaxy NGC 1073

NGC 1074 (= PGC 10324)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R?)SAB(rs)ab? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 43 36.1, Dec -16 17 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1074 (Leavenworth list I (#63), 1860 RA 02 36 35, NPD 106 53.8) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 02 37 01. The corrected position precesses to RA 02 43 35.3, Dec -16 18 00, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.1 arcmin (from images below), including the outer fragments. A strange galaxy, consisting of a nearly normal core surrounded by a broken ring-like structure.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1074 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas, also showing NGC 1075
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1074, also showing NGC 1075
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1074

NGC 1075 (= PGC 10320)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a?) in Cetus (RA 02 43 33.6, Dec -16 12 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1075 (Leavenworth list I (#64), 1860 RA 02 36 35, NPD 106 48.8) is "very faint, very small, brighter middle and nucleus". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 02 36 59. The corrected position precesses to RA 02 43 33.5, Dec -16 13 00, less than an arcmin south of the galaxy, and there is nothing else near, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.45 arcmin (from images below)
Combination of DSS and SDSS images of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1075, also showing part of NGC 1074
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite centered on NGC 1075, also showing NGC 1074
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1075

NGC 1076 (= PGC 10313)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Cetus (RA 02 43 29.2, Dec -14 45 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1076 (Swift list III (#20), 1860 RA 02 36 59, NPD 105 21.3) is "very faint, pretty small, round, bright star 22 seconds of time to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.9 by 1.05 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1076
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1076
Below, a 2.1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1076

NGC 1077 (= PGC 10468)
Discovered (Aug 16, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b? pec?) in Perseus (RA 02 46 00.6, Dec +40 05 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1077 (Swift list II (#23), 1860 RA 02 37 16, NPD 50 29.8) is "very faint, pretty large, extended".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8965 km/sec, NGC 1077 is about 415 million light years away. It is probably physically associated with PGC 10465 (often referred to as NGC 1077B), and if so would be at the same distance (of perhaps 405 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below), it is about ?? thousand light years across. Note: Mislabeled as NGC 1077B in Wikisky due to an error in the MCG and LEDA.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1077 and PGC 10465, also known as NGC 1077B, which are probably a physically interacting pair
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1077, also showing PGC 10465
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the pair
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1077 and PGC 10465, also known as NGC 1077B, which are probably a physically interacting pair

PGC 10465 (= "NGC 1077B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since often called NGC 1077B
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb? pec) in
Perseus (RA 02 46 02.9, Dec +40 05 35)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8530 km/sec, PGC 10465 is about 395 million light years away. It is probably physically associated with NGC 1077 (which see for images), and if so would be at the same distance (of perhaps 405 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images above), it is about 60 thousand light years across. Note: Labeled as NGC 1077A in Wikisky due to an error in the MCG and LEDA, but that is not an unusual problem with non-standard designations..

NGC 1078 (= PGC 10362)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 02 44 08.0, Dec -09 27 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1078 (Muller list II (#347), 1860 RA 02 37 38, NPD 100 01.7) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round (= (NGC) 1064?)". Despite Dreyer's query, not = NGC 1064.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.55 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1078
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1078
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1078

NGC 1079 (= PGC 10330)
Discovered (Nov 14, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(rs)a? pec) in Fornax (RA 02 43 44.3, Dec -29 00 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1079 (= GC 603 = JH 2494, 1860 RA 02 37 44, NPD 119 35.8) is "bright, pretty large, pretty much extended, suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.5 by 3.1 arcmin? Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (R1R2')SAB(rs)a.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1079
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1079
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1079
*Note to self: better images available, so add in next iteration of this entry*

NGC 1080 (= PGC 10416)
Discovered (Oct 21, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Cetus (RA 02 45 10.0, Dec -04 42 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1080 (Swift list V (#40), 1860 RA 02 38 15, NPD 95 18.0) is "very faint, pretty small, irregular round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1080
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1080
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1080

NGC 1081 (= PGC 10411)
Discovered (Sep 29, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Eridanus (RA 02 45 05.5, Dec -15 35 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1081 (Swift list V (#41), 1860 RA 02 38 24, NPD 106 10.5) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1081
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1081
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1081

NGC 1082 (= PGC 10447)
Discovered (Sep 29, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Eridanus (RA 02 45 41.2, Dec -08 10 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1082 (Swift list V (#42), 1860 RA 02 38 47, NPD 98 46.6) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, a little extended".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8880 km/sec, NGC 1082 is about 415 million light years away. It is probably associated with SDSSJ024542.50-081059.0, in which case they would be at the same distance (of about 410 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 105 to 110 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1082
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1082
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy and SDSSJ024542.50-081059.0
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1082 and its probable companion, SDSSJ024542.50-081059.0

SDSSJ024542.50-081059.0
Not an NGC object but listed here since possibly associated with
NGC 1082
A 16th-magnitude galaxy lenticular (type S0?) in Eridanus (RA 02 45 42.5, Dec -08 10 59)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8590 km/sec, SDSSJ024542.50-081059.0 is about 400 million light years away. It is probably associated with NGC 1082 (which see for images), in which case they would be at the same distance (of about 410 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.15 by 0.15 arcmin (from the images above), the galaxy is about 15 to 20 thousand light years across.

NGC 1083 (= PGC 10445)
Discovered (Sep 29, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb? pec) in Eridanus (RA 02 45 40.6, Dec -15 21 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1083 (Swift list V (#43), 1860 RA 02 38 59, NPD 105 57.2) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, much extended, northwestern of 2" (with an erratum correcting that to the southwestern of 2), the other being NGC 1089. The position precesses to RA 02 45 35.1, Dec -15 21 40, about 1.5 arcmin west of the galaxy, but there is nothing else nearby and the galaxy is "much extended", so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.5 by 0.55 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1083
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1083
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1083

NGC 1084 (= PGC 10464)
Discovered (Jan 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c? pec) in Eridanus (RA 02 45 59.9, Dec -07 34 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1084 (= GC 604 = JH 264 = WH I 64, 1860 RA 02 39 07, NPD 98 10.2) is "very bright, pretty large, extended, gradually pretty much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of the central galaxy about 3.1 by 1.5 arcmin, per images below (With faint outer extensions, about 4.3 by 4.1 arcmin) Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SA(s)c.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1084, digitally enhanced to show its extensive outer regions
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1084, showing its faint outer regions
Below, a 5 arcmin wide SDSS image showing the galaxy and its faint outer regions
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1084 and its faint outer extensions
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the central galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1084
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of part of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
Partially processed HST image of brighter portions of spiral galaxy NGC 1084

NGC 1085 (= PGC 10498)
Discovered (Sep 26, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S(rs)bc? pec) in Cetus (RA 02 46 25.23, Dec +03 36 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1085 (= GC 5274, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 02 39 09, NPD 86 58.7) is "faint, small, round, a little brighter middle, between 2 stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.2 by 1.5 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1085
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1085
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1085

NGC 1086 (= PGC 10587)
Discovered (Aug 20, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Perseus (RA 02 47 56.4, Dec +41 14 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1086 (Swift list II (#24), 1860 RA 02 39 13, NPD 49 20.4) is "very faint, pretty small, double star near".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1086
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1086
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1086

NGC 1087 (= PGC 10496)
Discovered (Oct 9, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Cetus (RA 02 46 25.2, Dec -00 29 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1087 (= GC 605 = JH 265 = WH II 466, 1860 RA 02 39 17, NPD 91 05.3) is "pretty bright, considerably large, a little extended, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.9 by 2.3 arcmin? Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SAB(rs)c.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1087
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1087
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1087

NGC 1088 (= PGC 10536)
Discovered (Oct 25, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Aries (RA 02 47 04.0, Dec +16 12 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1088 (= GC 607 = WH III 582, 1860 RA 02 39 23, NPD 74 25.5) is "very faint, small, irregular figure".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below). Corwin notes a roughly 16.5 magnitude companion (PGC 1503207) at RA 02 47 04.9, Dec +16 12 07, which seems to be generally assumed to be a physical companion; but nothing is known about that object, so whether the two galaxies are actually related is unknown.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1088, also showing spiral galaxy IC 255
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1088, also showing IC 255
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy and its possible companion
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1088 and its possible companion, PGC 1503207

NGC 1089 (= PGC 10481)
Discovered (Sep 29, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Eridanus (RA 02 46 10.1, Dec -15 04 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1089 (Swift list V (#44), 1860 RA 02 39 24, NPD 105 39.4) is "most extremely faint, small, round, southeastern of 2" (with an erratum correcting that to the northeastern of 2), the other being NGC 1083.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1089
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1089
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1089

NGC 1090 (= PGC 10507)
Discovered (Oct 9, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 02 46 33.9, Dec -00 14 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1090 (= GC 606 = JH 266 = WH II 465, 1860 RA 02 39 26, NPD 90 50.0) is "very faint, pretty large, irregularly round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.9 by 1.8 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1090
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1090
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1090

NGC 1091 (= PGC 10424 =
HCG 21E)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 21)

Discovered (Oct 17, 1885) by Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab? pec?) in Eridanus (RA 02 45 22.4, Dec -17 31 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1091 (Leavenworth list I (#65), 1860 RA 02 39 35±, NPD 108 08.7) is "very faint, very small, round, suddenly brighter middle and nucleus". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 02 38 51.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.75 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1091, a member of Hickson Compact Group 21, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas; also shown is another member of the Compact Group, NGC 1092
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1091, also showing NGC 1092
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1091, a member of Hickson Compact Group 21
Below, a 15 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 21
SDSS image of Hickson Compact Group 21, consisting of NGC 1091, NGC 1092, NGC 1098, NGC 1099 and NGC 1100, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas

NGC 1092 (= PGC 10432=
HCG 21D)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 21)

Discovered (Oct 17, 1885) by Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Eridanus (RA 02 45 29.6, Dec -17 32 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1092 (Leavenworth list I (#66), 1860 RA 02 39 35±, NPD 108 08.7) is "very faint, very small, round, suddenly brighter middle and nucleus." The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 02 38 58 and adds "(the brighter)".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.9 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 1092, a member of Hickson Compact Group 21
Above, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 1092; for a 12 arcmin wide view, see NGC 1091
Below, a 15 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 21
SDSS image of Hickson Compact Group 21, consisting of NGC 1091, NGC 1092, NGC 1098, NGC 1099 and NGC 1100, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas

NGC 1093 (= PGC 10606)
Discovered (Dec 6, 1879) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab?) in Triangulum (RA 02 48 16.1, Dec +34 25 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1093 (Stephan list IX (per Steinicke, list X #14), 1860 RA 02 39 43, NPD 56 10.1) is "extremely faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1093
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1093
Below, a ? arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1093

PGC 10592
Not an NGC object but listed here since in Corwin's
ngcnot notes
Observed (Oct 26, 1786) by William Herschel
A magnitude 13.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Aries (RA 02 48 04.5, Dec +27 06 10)
Historical Identification: PGC 10592 (= WH sweep 626, 1860 RA 02 39 48, NPD 63 27.9) is "An extremely faint nebulosity about 1 arcmin north of a star of 8th or 9th magnitude; but it is so faint that there is a doubt whether it may not consist of 2 or 3 (faint) stars only". The position precesses to RA 02 48 00.3, Dec +27 07 25, about 1.5 arcmin northwest of the galaxy listed above, which is about 2 arcmin north northwest of 8th magnitude HD 17382, making the identification certain.
Discovery Notes: Since Herschel was so unsure whether the nebulosity was real he did not include it in any of his catalogs, so it was also left out of the GC and NGC. But when Steve Gottlieb noticed that it was a nebular object, Corwin added it to his "notngc" list. Its position on this page is based on the 1860 position shown above, calculated from Herschel's recorded position as described below.
Positional Calculation: Herschel's comparison star was 41 Arietis, which has a modern position of RA 02 49 59.0, Dec +27 15 38. Its proper motion is +0.067"/yr in right ascension and -0.1165"/yr in declination, so in the 214 years after Herschel's observation it moved 1.0 seconds east and 25 arcsec south, making its position at the time of his observation J2000 RA 02 49 58.0, Dec +27 16 03, which equals (1786) RA 02 37 25.8, Dec +26 22 02. Adding Herschel's offsets of 1m 56s west and 9 arcmin south of 41 Arietis, the position of his "extremely faint nebulosity" was (1786) RA 02 35 29.8, Dec +26 13 02, which equals the 1860 position listed in the pseudo-NGC entry above.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5650 km/sec, PGC 10592 is 260 to 265 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 215 to 290 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.95 by 0.35 arcmin, it is 150 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 10592
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 10592
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 10592

NGC 1094 (= PGC 10559)
Discovered (Nov 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 24, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)ab?) in Cetus (RA 02 47 27.8, Dec -00 17 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1094 (= GC 608 = JH 267 = WH III 462, 1860 RA 02 40 18, NPD 90 51.0) is "very faint, small, round, 2 small (faint) stars to west".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.8 by 1.0 arcmin (from images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1094
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1094
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1094

NGC 1095 (= PGC 10566)
Discovered (Dec 11, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Cetus (RA 02 47 37.8, Dec +04 38 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1095 (= GC 5275, Stephan list VIII (#8), 1860 RA 02 40 18, NPD 85 56.9) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.45 by 0.75 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1095
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1095
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1095

NGC 1096 (= PGC 10336)
Discovered (Oct 3, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Horologium (RA 02 43 49.3, Dec -59 54 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1096 (= GC 609 = JH 2496, 1860 RA 02 40 21, NPD 150 30.2) is "faint, pretty small, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.1 by 1.85 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1096
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1096
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1096

NGC 1097 (= PGC 10488, and with
PGC 10479 = Arp 77)
Discovered (Oct 9, 1790) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SBr(s)b? pec) in Fornax (RA 02 46 19.0, Dec -30 16 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1097 (= GC 610 = JH 2495 = WH V 48, 1860 RA 02 40 22, NPD 120 51.5) is "very bright, large, very much extended 151°, very bright middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1270 km/sec, NGC 1097 is about 60 million light years away, well within the range of redshift-independent distance estimates of 45 to 90 million light years. Recent estimates have tended to cluster around values between 45 and 50 million light years, so I have adopted that as the distance for calculations, in which case the galaxy's apparent size of 9.4 by 6.6 arcmin corresponds to about 125 thousand light years.
    NGC 1097 has an exceptionally bright central core, hence its designation as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 1). Particularly in the (false-color) infrared image at the bottom the core shines as brightly as the rest of the galaxy, perhaps due to a beam of radiation from a supermassive black hole, emitted perpendicular to the plane of the clouds of gas and dust in the galaxy's disk, and because of the galaxy's orientation, in our direction. The ESO closeup of the central 5500 light years shows hundreds of star clusters surrounding the central core, 'feeding' its black hole with gas blown outwards as their hot stars form and die. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (R1')SB(rs)b pec. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a spiral galaxy (NGC 1097) with a small high brightness companion (PGC 10479).
Superposition of an ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1097 and its companion, PGC 10479 (which comprise Arp 77) on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide labeled view of NGC 1097 and PGC 10479
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the pair (Image Credit above and below ESO)
ESO closeup of spiral galaxy NGC 1097 and its companion, PGC 10479, which comprise Arp 77
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the central 5500 light years of NGC 1097 (Image Credit ESO)
ESO closeup of central 5500 light years of spiral galaxy NGC 1097, showing several hundred star-forming regions surrounding the bright nucleus
Below, a ? arcmin wide infrared view of NGC 1097 and PGC 10479 (Image Credit NASA, JPL-Caltech, SINGS Team (SSC))
Spitzer infrared image of spiral galaxy NGC 1097 and its companion PGC 10479, collectively known as Arp 77

PGC 10479 (= "NGC 1097A" and with
NGC 1097 = Arp 77)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 1097A
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)E/SB0? pec) in Fornax (RA 02 46 09.9, Dec -30 13 41)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1368 km/sec, PGC 10479 would be a little over 60 million light years away; but it is generally believed to be associated with NGC 1097, and if so must share its approximately 45 to 50 million light years distance. Given that and its apparent size 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin, PGC 10479 is about 12 thousand light years across. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a spiral galaxy (NGC 1097) with a small high brightness companion (PGC 10479).
ESO closeup of lenticular galaxy PGC 10479, also known (with spiral galaxy NGC 1097) as Arp 77
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 10479; for wider-field views see NGC 1097 (Image Credit ESO)

NGC 1098 (= PGC 10403=
HCG 21C)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 21)

Discovered (Oct 17, 1885) by Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Ormond Stone
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Eridanus (RA 02 44 53.6, Dec -17 39 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1098 (Leavenworth list I (#67), 1860 RA 02 40 35, NPD 108 16.7) is "faint, very small, round, brighter middle and nucleus, 1st of 3", the others being NGC 1099 and 1100. The first Index Catalog lists a corrected position (per Ormond Stone) of RA 02 38 23, NPD 108 13.7.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.45 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1098, a member of Hickson Compact Group 21, also showing part of NGC 1099, another member of the group
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1098, also showing part of NGC 1099
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1098, a member of Hickson Compact Group 21
Below, a 15 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 21
SDSS image of Hickson Compact Group 21, consisting of NGC 1091, NGC 1092, NGC 1098, NGC 1099 and NGC 1100, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas

NGC 1099 (= PGC 10422=
HCG 21A)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 21)

Discovered (Oct 17, 1885) by Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Ormond Stone
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Eridanus (RA 02 45 18.0, Dec -17 42 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1099 (Leavenworth list I (#68), 1860 RA 02 40 35, NPD 108 18.7) is "faint, pretty small, a little extended, brighter middle and nucleus, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 1098 and 1100. The first Index Catalog lists a corrected position (per Ormond Stone) of RA 02 38 48, NPD 108 18.1.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.15 by 0.6 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1099, a member of Hickson Compact Group 21, also showing two other members of the Group, NGC 1098 and NGC 1100
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1099, also showing NGC 1098 and 1100
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1099, a member of Hickson Compact Group 21
Below, a 15 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 21
SDSS image of Hickson Compact Group 21, consisting of NGC 1091, NGC 1092, NGC 1098, NGC 1099 and NGC 1100, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 1000 - 1049) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 1050 - 1099     → (NGC 1100 - 1149)