Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Nov 7, 2016
Added Historical/Physical tags, checked Corwin positions, added/checked original NGC entries
Updated formatting, basic pix/tags, checked Steinicke historical/physical database, PGC IDs

NGC 1200 (= PGC 11545)
Discovered (Nov 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 lenticular galaxy (type SA0/a?) in Eridanus (RA 03 03 54.5, Dec -11 59 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1200 (= GC 644 = JH 2506 = WH II 475, 1860 RA 02 57 15, NPD 102 32.5) is "pretty faint, considerably large, irregularly round, brighter middle, northeastern of 2", the other being 1196.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4050 km/sec, NGC 1200 is about 180 million light years away (using H = 73 km/sec/Mpc). Given that and its apparent size of about 3.6 by 2.4 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 190 thousand light years across. Although their recessional velocity distances round off to somewhat different values, the radial velocities of NGC 1200 and 1195 are sufficiently close (only differing by 140 km/sec) that they may actually be physical companions, with a separation as small as a few tens or hundreds of thousands of light years. However, no one else seems to have suggested the idea, and in the absence of obvious physical interaction it is just as possible that they are several million light years apart.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1200, also showing NGC 1195 and NGC 1196, and IC 285
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1200; also shown are NGC 1195 and 1196 and IC 285
Below, a 4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1200

NGC 1201 (= PGC 11559 = PGC 771919)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.7 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Fornax (RA 03 04 08.0, Dec -26 04 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1201 (= GC 645 = JH 283 = WH I 109, 1860 RA 02 58 04, NPD 116 35.8) is "considerably bright, pretty small, very little extended, mottled but not resolved, small (faint) star near".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 3.4 by 1.9 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1201
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1201
Below, a 4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1201

NGC 1202 (= PGC 11593)
Discovered (1886) by
Ormond Stone
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Eridanus (RA 03 05 02.5, Dec -06 29 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1202 (Ormond Stone list II (#354), 1860 RA 02 58 32, NPD 97 02.1) is "extremely faint, small, two stars 4 arcmin northeast". The position precesses to RA 03 05 26.4, Dec -06 29 19, about 6 arcmin east of the most likely candidate for what Stone observed; but as noted by Corwin, the double star to the northeast of PGC 11593 makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1202
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1202
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1202

NGC 1203 (= PGC 11603)
Discovered (Jan 1, 1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 13.8 elliptical galaxy (type E2? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 05 14.1, Dec -14 22 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1203 (Leavenworth list I (#85), 1860 RA 02 58 35, NPD 104 55.1) is "very faint, small, round, brighter middle and nucleus (nebulous?)". As noted in the entry below, PGC 11599 is usually listed as part of NGC 1203, but it is too faint for Leavenworth to have noticed, and his description of NGC 1203 would have stated that it was extended north-south instead of round, if he had noticed the fainter galaxy. Therefore, as suggested by Corwin, the northern galaxy, though probably a physical companion of NGC 1203, is not actually part of the NGC object.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below). Given their distorted shapes, NGC 1203 is probably interacting with PGC 11599, which undoubtedly encourages the misidentification of the pair as the NGC object.
SDSS/DSS composite image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1203 and its probable physical companion, elliptical galaxy PGC 11599
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1203, also showing PGC 11599
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair
SDSS image of elliptical galaxies NGC 1203 and PGC 11599, which are probably a physical pair

PGC 11599 (= "NGC 1203B", and not part of the original
NGC 1203)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 1203B
A magnitude 15.0 elliptical galaxy (type E2? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 05 14.3, Dec -14 22 39)
Historical Misidentification: As noted in the entry for NGC 1203 (which see for images), PGC 11599 cannot have been seen by Leavenworth, so its inclusion as part of NGC 1203 in most catalogs is an error.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.25 by 0.2 arcmin (based on the images of NGC 1203). Given their distorted shapes, NGC 1203 is probably interacting with PGC 11599.

NGC 1204 (= PGC 11583)
Discovered (Dec 26, 1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 04 39.9, Dec -12 20 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1204 (Leavenworth list I (#86), 1860 RA 02 58 35, NPD 102 53.1) is "extremely faint, extended 45°, mottled but not resolved, several stars involved". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 02 58 00. The position precesses to RA 03 04 40.5, Dec -12 20 13, on the northern edge of the galaxy listed above and the description fits perfectly, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below). A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1204
Above, a 12 arcmin DSS image centered on NGC 1204
Below, a 1.8 arcmin DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1204

NGC 1205 (=
NGC 1182 = PGC 11511)
Discovered (1886) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 1182)
Discovered (1886) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 1205)
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe (equating the two entries)
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Eridanus (RA 03 03 28.4, Dec -09 40 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1205 (Ormond Stone list I (#87), 1860 RA 02 58 35, NPD 100 14.1) is "extremely faint, pretty small, extended 25°, 9.5 magnitude star 3 arcmin southwest". The position precesses to RA 03 05 21.8, Dec -09 41 18, but there is nothing there. As stated in the entry for NGC 1182, Stone apparently made two observations of the same object, with one (NGC 1182) being recorded to the west of the actual galaxy, and the other (NGC 1205) to the east; but the descriptions are nearly identical (most tellingly, concerning the star to the southwest), presuming that "extended 25°" in the description of NGC 1205 is a typographical error for "extended 125°", and the second Index Catalog stated (per Howe, based on 2 observations) "1205 is the same as 1182"; so their equivalence has been known for more than a century.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 1182 for anything else.

NGC 1206 (= PGC 11644)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 14.5 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Eridanus (RA 03 06 09.7, Dec -08 49 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1206 (Leavenworth list II (#355), 1860 RA 02 59 14, NPD 99 23.1) is "extremely faint, very small, very little extended 0°".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1206
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1206
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 1206

NGC 1207 (= PGC 11737)
Discovered (Oct 18, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Perseus (RA 03 08 15.5, Dec +38 22 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1207 (= GC 646 = JH 284 = WH III 578, 1860 RA 02 59 20, NPD 52 09.4) is "considerably faint, very small, round, pretty suddenly brighter in west-northwestern end". (Since all the Herschels could have seen was the bright core, the "suddenly brighter" end must have been the faint star superimposed on that end of the nucleus.)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1207
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1207
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1207

NGC 1208 (= PGC 11647)
Discovered (Jan 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 lenticular galaxy (type SA0(r)a?) in Eridanus (RA 03 06 11.9, Dec -09 32 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1208 (= GC 647 = JH 285 = JH 2507 = WH II 285, 1860 RA 02 59 25, NPD 100 05.1) is "pretty bright, small, a little extended 80°±, a little brighter middle". (Note: The galaxy lies less than a minute of time directly west of NGC 1214, one of the members of Hickson Compact Group 23.)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.1 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1208
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1208
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1208

NGC 1209 (= PGC 11638)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 06 03.0, Dec -15 36 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1209 (= GC 648 = JH 286 = WH II 504, 1860 RA 02 59 30, NPD 106 08.7) is "bright, small, considerably extended, pretty suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 by 1.8 arcmin? In the images below the galaxy appears to have a slightly X-shaped profile, hence my classification of it as a peculiar lenticular galaxy. Despite that, it is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E+6.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1209, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1209
Below, a 5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1209

NGC 1210 (= PGC 11666 = PGC 11667 = PGC 775815)
Discovered (Nov 13, 1885) by
Ormond Stone
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(rs)a? pec?) in Fornax (RA 03 06 45.3, Dec -25 42 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1210 (Ormond Stone list I (#88), 1860 RA 02 59 40, NPD 116 17.1) is "extremely faint, very small, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 1.25 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1210
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1210
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1210

NGC 1211 (= PGC 11670)
Discovered (Oct 31, 1867) by
Truman Safford
Also observed (Nov 27, 1880) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.3 lenticular galaxy (type (RR)SB0(r)a?) in Cetus (RA 03 06 52.4, Dec -00 47 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1211 (Stephan list IX (#??), (Safford 102), 1860 RA 02 59 45, NPD 91 20.3) is "pretty bright, very small, round, much brighter middle and nucleus equivalent to a 9th or 10th magnitude star".
Discovery Notes: As discussed elsewhere, Safford's observations were not published (and then only in an obscure paper) until Dreyer had essentially completed the NGC, and was merely editing it; as a result his discoveries were only noted in an appendix at the end of the paper, and not added to the individual NGC entries.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 1.9 arcmin? Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (R1R2')SB(rl)0/a.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1211
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1211
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1211

NGC 1212 (=
IC 1883 = PGC 11815)
Discovered (Oct 18, 1884) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 1212)
Discovered (1890's?) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 1883)
A magnitude 14.6 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0/a? pec) in Perseus (RA 03 09 42.2, Dec +40 53 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1212 (Swift list I (#5), 1860 RA 02 59 54, NPD 49 38.9) is "extremely faint, small, round, Algol near". The position precesses to RA 03 08 59.9, Dec +40 53 32, about 8 arcmin to the west of the galaxy now identified as NGC 1212. Per Corwin, this identification is based on Swift's original note (not stated in the NGC) that the nebula was "Right angled with 2 stars", which is a reasonable fit to PGC 11815 (which has exactly the right declination) and the stars to its east and northeast; so despite the error in right ascension, the identification with PGC 11815 seems reasonably certain. Some references list PGC 11761 as NGC 1212 (usually while giving the position and physical data for PGC 11815!), so that galaxy is discussed in the entry immediately following this one. But as shown in the wide-field image below, Swift could not possibly have seen that much fainter galaxy against the glare from Algol. (As discussed at the entry for IC 1883, Swift's large error in right ascension made the later "discovery" and double listing almost inevitable.)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1212, also showing spiral galaxy IC 290
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1212, also showing IC 290
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1212
Below, a 21 arcmin wide region centered on the NGC position for NGC 1212
Also shown are NGC 1212, the stars that identify it, and galaxies IC 290 and PGC 11761
DSS image of region centered on the NGC position for NGC 1212, also showing the stars to its east and northeast that verify its identity, spiral galaxy IC 290, and spiral galaxy PGC 11761, which is sometimes mistakenly identified as NGC 1212

PGC 11761 (not
NGC 1212)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 1212
A magnitude 16(?) spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b? pec) in Perseus (RA 03 08 43.5, Dec +40 51 42)
Historical Misdentification: As noted in the entry for NGC 1212 and shown in the wide-field image below, PGC 11761 is far too faint and too close to Algol for Lewis Swift to have had any chance of seeing it; so its identification as his NGC object is certainly wrong. However, LEDA still lists NGC 1212 as PGC 11761, and such errors are certain to persist for a long time (and perhaps forever), hence this warning.
Physical Information: The galaxy appears to have a double nucleus and considerably distorted arms, suggesting that it is actually two galaxies in collision. Apparent size of about 0.45 by 0.35 arcmin for the central galaxy. If the northern extension of the western arm is real and not merely an artifact created by the image of the nearby star (and several mosaic artifacts in the northeastern portion of the original image), then the extended arm is about 0.7 arcmin long (from the images below). Nothing else currently available.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 11761, sometimes incorrectly listed as NGC 1212
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 11761
Below, a 0.7 by 0.85 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 11761 (considerably adjusted to reduce glare)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 11761, sometimes misidentified as NGC 1212. Considerable digital optimization of the original images has been used to show detail that would otherwise be lost in the glare from Algol

NGC 1213 (=
IC 1881 = PGC 11789)
Discovered (Oct 14, 1884) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 1213)
Discovered (Jan 10, 1891) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 1881)
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)dm?) in Perseus (RA 03 09 17.3, Dec +38 38 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1213 (Swift list I (#6), 1860 RA 02 59 57, NPD 51 54.5) is "extremely faint, a little extended, star close to north, difficult". The position precesses to RA 03 08 54.0, Dec +38 37 56, about 4 1/2 arcmin west southwest of PGC 11789, a very faint galaxy involved with several stars that nicely fits the description. Given Swift's perennial problems with right ascension, the identity with that galaxy seems reasonably certain. (As discussed at the entry for IC 1881, Swift's error in right ascension made the later "discovery" and double listing almost inevitable.)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.5 by 1.8 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1213
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1213
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1213

PGC 11673 (=
HCG 23D)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 23)

Not an NGC object, but listed here as a member of Hickson Compact Group 23
A magnitude 16(?) spiral galaxy (type (R)SBcd? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 06 55.3, Dec -09 37 43)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below). A member of Hickson Compact Group 23.
NOAO image of spiral galaxy PGC 11673, a member of Hickson Compact Group 23. Also shown are NGC 1214, NGC 1215 and NGC 1216, which are the other members of the Group
Above, a 12 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image centered on PGC 11673
Allso shown are NGC 1214, 1215 and 1216 (Image Credit above and below Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image of PGC 11673
NOAO/DSS composite image of spiral galaxy PGC 11673, a member of Hickson Compact Group 23
Below, an 8 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 23 (Image credit as above)
NOAO image of Hickson Compact Group 23 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas. The group consists of NGC 1214, NGC 1215, NGC 1216 and PGC 11673.

NGC 1214 (= PGC 11675 = PGC 175878 =
HCG 23A)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 23)

Discovered (prior to Oct 12, 1886) by Ormond Stone
Discovered (Oct 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Eridanus (RA 03 06 56.0, Dec -09 32 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1214 (Swift list V (#49), Ormond Stone list I (#??), 1860 RA 03 00 08, NPD 100 05.1) is "faint, pretty small, irregularly round, h 285 to west", (JH) 285 being NGC 1208.
Discovery Information: Stone's paper was sent to the Astronomical Journal on October 12, 1886, so all the observations listed there must have been completed before that date; but since the paper wasn't actually in print at the time of Swift's observation, he did make an independent discovery of the object.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below). A member of Hickson Compact Group 23.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1214, a member of Hickson Compact Group 23, also showing the other members of the Group, NGC 1215, NGC 1216 and PGC 11673
Above, a 12 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1214
Also shown are NGC 1215 and 1216 and PGC 11673 (Image Credit Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1214, a member of Hickson Compact Group 23
Below, an 8 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 23
(Image Credit as for first image)
NOAO/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 23. The group consists of NGC 1214, NGC 1215, NGC 1216 and PGC 11673.

NGC 1215 (= PGC 11687 =
HCG 23B)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 23)

Discovered (prior to Oct 12, 1886) by Ormond Stone
Discovered (Oct 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)ab?) in Eridanus (RA 03 07 09.5, Dec -09 35 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1215 (Swift list V (#50), Ormond Stone list I (#??), 1860 RA 03 00 18, NPD 100 07.8) is "extremely faint, very small, round".
Discovery Information: Stone's paper was sent to the Astronomical Journal on October 12, 1886, so all the observations listed there must have been completed before that date; but since the paper wasn't actually in print at the time of Swift's observation, he did make an independent discovery of the object.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below). A member of Hickson Compact Group 23.
NOAO/DSS composite image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1215. Also shown are NGC 1214 and NGC 1216 and PGC 11673. The quartet comprises Hickson Compact Group 23.
Below, a 12 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1215
Also shown are NGC 1214 and 1216, and PGC 11673 (Image Credit above and below Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide NOAO image of the galaxy
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1215, a member of Hickson Compact Group 23
Below, an 8 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 23 (Image Credit as above)
NOAO image of Hickson Compact Group 23 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas. The group consists of NGC 1214, NGC 1215, NGC 1216 and PGC 11673.

NGC 1216 (= PGC 11693 =
HCG 23C)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 23)

Discovered (1886) by Ormond Stone
A magnitude 14.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Eridanus (RA 03 07 18.4, Dec -09 36 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1216 (Ormond Stone list I (#96), 1860 RA 03 00 30, NPD 100 09) is "extremely faint, small, stellar, 3rd of 3", the others presumably being NGC 1214 and 1215.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.15 arcmin (from the images below). A member of Hickson Compact Group 23.
NOAO/DSS composite image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1216. Also shown are NGC 1215 and NGC 1216 and PGC 11673. The quartet comprises Hickson Compact Group 23.
Below, a 12 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1216
Also shown are NGC 1215 and 1216, and PGC 11673 (Image Credit above and below Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 1 arcmin wide NOAO image of the galaxy
NOAO image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1216, a member of Hickson Compact Group 23
Below, an 8 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image of Hickson Compact Group 23 (Image credit as above)
NOAO image of Hickson Compact Group 23 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas. The group consists of NGC 1214, NGC 1215, NGC 1216 and PGC 11673.

NGC 1217 (= PGC 11641)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 spiral galaxy (type (R)SA(r)a?) in Fornax (RA 03 06 06.0, Dec -39 02 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1217 (= GC 649 = JH 2508, 1860 RA 03 00 48, NPD 129 34.4) is "pretty faint, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.3 arcmin? Vr 6290 km/sec. Close to and probably interacting with PGC 11642.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1217 and its probable companion, spiral galaxy PGC 11642
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1217, also showing PGC 11642
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the probable pair
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1217 and its probable companion, spiral galaxy PGC 11642

PGC 11642 (not part of
NGC 1217)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes listed as part of NGC 1217
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(s)ab?) in Fornax (RA 03 06 05.8, Dec -39 01 14)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin? Vr 6490 km/sec. Close to and probably interacting with NGC 1217, which see for images.

NGC 1218 (= PGC 11749)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 12.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Cetus (RA 03 08 26.2, Dec +04 06 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1218 (Swift list IV (#12), 1860 RA 03 01 02, NPD 86 26.1) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 1.0 arcmin? HST images show a 6 or 7 arcsec long jet extending northeastward from the center of the nucleus (per HLA).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1218
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1218
Below, a 2.4 arcmn wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1218
*Need to add an image showing the central jet*

NGC 1219 (= PGC 11752)
Discovered (Sep 9, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)bc?) in Cetus (RA 03 08 28.0, Dec +02 06 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1219 (= GC 5298, Marth #87, 1860 RA 03 01 12, NPD 88 26) is "faint, pretty large, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below). A Seyfert galaxy?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1219
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1219
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1219

NGC 1220 (= OCL 380 = "PGC 3517882")
Discovered (Nov 28, 1831) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.8 open cluster (type II2p) in Perseus (RA 03 11 41.2, Dec +53 20 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1220 (= GC 650 = JH 287, 1860 RA 03 01 29, NPD 37 11.9) is a "cluster, very small, stars very faint". The position precesses to RA 03 11 40.2, Dec +53 20 12, only 0.6 arcmin south southwest of the center of the cluster listed above, and depending on how large the cluster is considered to be, either within or near its border. LEDA lists NGC 1220 as PGC 3517882 (and as a cluster), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 arcmin if only the centrally compressed group of stars, but about 1.9 arcmin if the stars to the west, northwest and south are included (if they are, the RA is 03 11 39.0, as listed in Corwin's database).
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 1220
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1220
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of open cluster NGC 1220

NGC 1221 (= PGC 11739)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(rs)a? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 08 15.6, Dec -04 15 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1221 (Leavenworth list II (#356), 1860 RA 03 01 36, NPD 94 48.0) is "extremely faint, very small, extended 170°, star to south". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA of 03 01 16, and adds "= Bigourdan 255". The corrected position precesses to RA 03 08 15.5, Dec -04 15 37, right on a galaxy that exactly matches the description, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.35 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1221
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1221
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1221

NGC 1222 (= PGC 11774)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 08 56.7, Dec -02 57 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1222 (Stephan list XIII (#23), 1860 RA 03 01 55, NPD 93 29.6) is "very faint star in pretty faint, small, round nebula".
Physical Information: The apparent size of the central galaxy is about 1.0 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below); with its northern and southeastern extensions it spans about 2.6 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below). A HST image released on Nov 7, 2016 shows that the main galaxy is absorbing two dwarf galaxies, creating "starburst" activity in all three galaxies.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1222
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1222
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1222
Below, a 1.1 by 1.6 arcmin wide image of the galaxy and its companions (Image Credit ESA/Hubble/NASA)
HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1222 and its dwarf companions

NGC 1223 (= PGC 11742)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.4 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Eridanus (RA 03 08 19.9, Dec -04 08 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1223 (Leavenworth list II (#357), 1860 RA 03 02 06, NPD 94 41.0) is "extremely faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle and nucleus, preceding (western) of 2", the other being NGC 1225. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA of 03 01 20, and adds "= Bigourdan 256". The corrected position precesses to RA 03 08 19.8, Dec -04 08 38, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1223
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1223
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 1223

NGC 1224 (= PGC 11886)
Discovered (Aug 20, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0(r)? pec?) in Perseus (RA 03 11 13.5, Dec +41 21 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1224 (Swift list II (#28), 1860 RA 03 02 06, NPD 49 09.8) is "extremely faint, very small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.95 arcmin (from images below). Suggestion of classification as peculiar is based on the arc of dusty material around the nucleus.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1224
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1224
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1224

NGC 1225 (= PGC 11766)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(rs)a?) in Eridanus (RA 03 08 47.2, Dec -04 06 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1225 (Leavenworth list II (#358), 1860 RA 03 02 18, NPD 94 38.0) is "extremely faint, very small, round, following (eastern) of 2", the other being NGC 1223. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA of 03 01 48, and adds "= Bigourdan 257". The corrected position precesses to RA 03 08 47.8, Dec -04 08 42, nearly three arcmin south of the galaxy, but the stated relationship to NGC 1223 makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 0.6 arcmin (from images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1225
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1225
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1225
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region showing the relative position of NGC 1225 and NGC 1223
DSS image of region between NGC 1225 and NGC 1223

NGC 1226 (= PGC 11879, and probably =
NGC 832)
Misrecorded (Sep 17, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 832)
Discovered (Dec 6, 1879) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 1226)
A magnitude 12.9 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Perseus (RA 03 11 05.4, Dec +35 23 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1226 (Stephan list X (#16), 1860 RA 03 02 19, NPD 55 09.0) is "faint, very small, round, brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: See NGC 832 for that entry's recent identification as a misrecording of d'Arrest's observation of NGC 1226.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1226, also showing NGC 1227
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1226, also showing NGC 1227
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 1226

NGC 1227 (= PGC 11880)
Discovered (Jan 10, 1880) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(r)a?) in Perseus (RA 03 11 07.7, Dec +35 19 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1227 (Stephan list X (#17), 1860 RA 03 02 22, NPD 55 13.3) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1227, also showing NGC 1226
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1227, also showing NGC 1226
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1227

NGC 1228 (= PGC 11735 = PGC 198413)
and with
NGC 1229 and 1230 and IC 1892 = Arp 332
Discovered (1886) by Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 08 11.7, Dec -22 55 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1228 (Leavenworth list II (#359), 1860 RA 03 02 58, NPD 113 28.0) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, gradually brighter middle, preceding (western) of 2", the other being NGC 1229. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 03 01 59. The corrected position precesses to RA 03 08 11.3, Dec -22 55 40, on the southern edge of the appropriate galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 0.8 arcmin for the main galaxy (from the images below), and 2.4 by 0.8 arcmin, including the southwestern extension. Part of Arp 332, an example of a galaxy chain supposedly centered near NGC 1230; though only the three NGC objects are part of a physical grouping.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1228, part of galaxy chain Arp 332; also shown are NGC 1229 and NGC 1230, other members of Arp 332
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1228, also showing NGC 1229 and 1230
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1228, part of galaxy chain Arp 332

NGC 1229 (= PGC 11734)
and with
NGC 1228 and 1230 and IC 1892 = Arp 332
Discovered (1886) by Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SBb? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 08 10.8, Dec -22 57 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1229 (Leavenworth list II (#360), 1860 RA 03 02 58, NPD 113 31.0) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, gradually brighter middle, following (eastern) of 2", the other being NGC 1228. The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 03 01 59. The corrected position precesses to RA 03 08 11.2, Dec -22 58 40, an arcmin south of the appropriate galaxy, but the relative positions of NGC 1229 and 1230 and their precessed NGC positions makes their identification certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below). A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2). Part of Arp 332, an example of a galaxy chain supposedly centered near NGC 1230; though only the three NGC objects are part of a physical grouping.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1229, part of galaxy chain Arp 332; also shown are NGC 1229, NGC 1230 and IC 1892, the other members of Arp 332
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1229, also showing NGC 1228 and 1230 and IC 1892
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1229, part of galaxy chain Arp 332

NGC 1230 (= PGC 11743)
and with
NGC 1228 and 1229 and IC 1892 = Arp 332
Discovered (1886) by Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB0? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 08 16.4, Dec -22 59 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1230 (Leavenworth list II (#361), 1860 RA 03 03 10, NPD 113 33.0) is "perhaps a faint star". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 03 02 04 and adds "12th magnitude star in extremely faint nebula". The corrected position precesses to RA 03 08 16.1, Dec -23 00 40, about one and a half arcmin south of the appropriate galaxy, but the relative positions of NGC 1229 and 1230 and their precessed NGC positions makes their identification certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.2 arcmin for the main galaxy, but with its faint southern extension, about 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin (from the images below). Part of Arp 332, an example of a galaxy chain supposedly centered near NGC 1230; though only the three NGC objects are part of a physical grouping.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1230; also shown are NGC 1228, NGC 1229 and IC 1892, which with NGC 1230 comprise Arp 332
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered just south of NGC 1230
Also shown are NGC 1228 and 1229 and IC 1892
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1230, part of galaxy chain Arp 332

NGC 1231 (= PGC 11658)
Discovered (Dec 2, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type Sdm?) in Eridanus (RA 03 06 29.3, Dec -15 34 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1231 (Leavenworth list I (#97), 1860 RA 03 03 (00), NPD 106 07.0) is "extremely faint, pretty large, extended (perhaps nebulous)".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1231, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas. Also shown is part of NGC 1209.
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1231, also showing NGC 1209
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1231

NGC 1232 (= PGC 11819, and with
PGC 11834 = Arp 41)
Discovered (Oct 20, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.9 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Eridanus (RA 03 09 45.4, Dec -20 34 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1232 (= GC 651 = JH 2509 = WH II 258, 1860 RA 03 03 27, NPD 111 07.0) is "pretty bright, considerably large, round, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1605 km/sec, NGC 1232 is about 75 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 45 to 75 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 7.4 by 6.5 arcmin, NGC 1232 is about 160 thousand light years across. With its apparent companion, PGC 11834 (often called NGC 1232A), NGC 1232 is Arp 41, an example of a spiral galaxy with a faint companion.
ESO image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1232 and its apparent companion, PGC 11834, also known as NGC 1232A, superimposed on a DSS image to fill in missing areas
Above, an 18 arcmin wide ESO/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1232, also showing PGC 11834
(Image Credit above & below ESO/IDA/Danish 1.5 m/R. Gendler and A. Hornstrup)
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the pair
Another ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1232 and its apparent companion, PGC 11834, also known as NGC 1232A
Below, a 6.8 arcmin wide image of part of the galaxy and its companion (Image Credit ESO)
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1232 and its apparent companion, PGC 11834, also known as NGC 1232A

PGC 11834 (= "NGC 1232A", and with
NGC 1232 = Arp 41)
Not an NGC object but listed here since often called NGC 1232A
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type (R?)SB(rs)m? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 10 02.0, Dec -20 36 00)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6495 km/sec, PGC 11834 is about 300 million light years away; but it has a redshift-independent distance estimate of only 70 million light years, and is thought to be a physical companion of NGC 1232, which is only about 75 million light years away, so there is something wrong somewhere. If the smaller galaxy is a physical companion of NGC 1232 and only about 75 million light years away, its apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.9 arcmin (from the image below) implies a size of only 25 to 30 thousand light years. If it is 300 million light years away, it is about 110 thousand light years across.
ESO image of spiral galaxy PGC 11834, also known as NGC 1232A, and as part of Arp 41
Above, a 1.5 arcmin wide image of PGC 11834 (Image Credit ESO/IDA/Danish 1.5 m/R. Gendler and A. Hornstrup)

NGC 1233 (= PGC 11955 = PGC 11941, and perhaps =
NGC 1235)
Discovered (Dec 10, 1871) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 1233)
Possibly observed (Oct 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 1235)
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Perseus (RA 03 12 33.1, Dec +39 19 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1233 (= GC 5299, Stephan list III (#20), 1860 RA 03 03 31, NPD 51 12.7) is "faint, very small, round, diffuse". The position precesses to RA 03 12 32.3, Dec +39 19 12, only 0.2 arcmin west of the center of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. For a discussion of the possible double listing, see NGC 1235.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4390 km/sec, NGC 1233 is about 205 million light years away. (A second recessional velocity measurement of 4890 km/sec would put the galaxy 20 million light years further away.) Given that and its 1.8 by 0.6 arcmin apparent size, the galaxy is about 110 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1233
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1233
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1233

NGC 1234 (= PGC 11813)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)cd? pec) in Eridanus (RA 03 09 39.1, Dec -07 50 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1234 (Leavenworth list II (#362), 1860 RA 03 03 32, NPD 98 23.0) is "extremely faint, small, irregularly round, star or stars involved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1234
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1234
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1234

NGC 1235 (perhaps =
NGC 1233? = PGC 11955 = PGC 11941)
Recorded (Oct 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift
Probably a lost or nonexistent object in Perseus (RA 03 12 48.9, Dec +38 55 39)
or perhaps a magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Perseus (RA 03 12 33.1, Dec +39 19 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1235 (Swift list V (#51), 1860 RA 03 03 49, NPD 51 36.2) is "very faint, small, a little extended". The position precesses to the one listed above, but there is nothing at or near that location. The nearest nebular object is NGC 1233, which would correspond to the description, but lies almost half a degree to the north. Since similar (and even larger) positional errors do occasionally occur in the NGC, NGC 1235 is often identified as a duplicate listing for NGC 1233; but as noted by Corwin, Swift recorded his observation on a night when he made a dozen other discoveries, almost all of which have excellent positions. So though it is possible that NGC 1235 and 1233 are the same, it is by no means certain, and what Swift actually observed may never be known.
DSS image of region near Swift's position for the apparently nonexistent NGC 1235
Above, a 50 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Swift's position (shown by a cross at center)
NGC 1233, a possible but uncertain candidate for what Swift saw, is at the top

NGC 1236 (= PGC 11898)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.8 elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Aries (RA 03 11 28.0, Dec +10 48 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1236 (= GC 5300, Marth #88, 1860 RA 03 03 52, NPD 79 44) is "extremely faint, very small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1236, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS composite image centered on NGC 1236
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 1236

NGC 1237 (= "PGC 5067669")
Recorded (1886) by
Frank Muller
A pair of 14th-magnitude stars in Eridanus (RA 03 10 09.1, Dec -08 41 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1237 (Muller list II (#363), 1860 RA 03 03 56, NPD 99 12.0) is "very faint, small, extended 170°, perhaps a double star". The position precesses to RA 03 10 44.8, Dec -08 40 00, and although there are no nebulae anywhere nearby, there is a double star 9 arcmin west-southwest that exactly fits the description, so it is presumed to be Muller's object, and its position is the one listed above. LEDA lists NGC 1237 as PGC 5067669 (and as a double star), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near the double star thought to be NGC 1237
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1237

NGC 1238 (= PGC 11868)
Discovered (Nov 1, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.3 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Eridanus (RA 03 10 52.7, Dec -10 44 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1238 (Swift list V (#52), 1860 RA 03 04 18, NPD 101 16.5) is "very faint, pretty small, round, II 900 to northeast", (WH) II 900 being NGC 1247.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.2 arcmin?
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1238, also showing IC 1897
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1238, also showing IC 1897
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 1238

NGC 1239 (= PGC 11869)
Discovered (Jan 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Eridanus (RA 03 10 53.7, Dec -02 33 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1239 (= GC 652 = JH 288 = WH III 262, 1860 RA 03 04 20, NPD 93 05.0) is "extremely faint, stellar (RA +30 seconds of time?)", the last note suggesting that perhaps the object was actually at 1860 RA 03 04 50.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin??
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1239
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1239
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1239

NGC 1240 (= "PGC 5067578")
Recorded (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Probably a 14th- and 15th-magnitude pair of stars in Aries (RA 03 13 26.7, Dec +30 30 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1240 (= GC 653 = WH III 164, 1860 RA 03 04 23, NPD 59 57.7) is "extremely faint, very small, perhaps very small (faint) star?". The position precesses to RA 03 12 53.4, Dec +30 34 06, but there is nothing just like the description near that position. However, per Corwin, Dreyer's 1912 discussion of Herschel's catalogs includes Herschel's more complete record "Suspected, 240 (power) left a doubt; extremely faint and very small, most probably 2 close stars; between 2 stars". Given that, Corwin suggests that the object that best fits the bill is the double star at the position listed above, which is about 7 arcmin southeast of the NGC position. Whether that suggestion is correct or some other object in the region is what Herschel observed is probably irrelevant to those who think of the NGC as a list of clusters and nebulae, so it seems as good a suggestion as any. LEDA lists NGC 1240 as PGC 5067578 (and as a pair of stars), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near the double star thought to be NGC 1240
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the double star thought to be NGC 1240

NGC 1241 (= PGC 11887, and with
NGC 1242 = Arp 304)
Discovered (Jan 10, 1785) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (1877) by John Dreyer
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Eridanus (RA 03 11 14.6, Dec -08 55 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1241 (= GC 654 = JH 289 = JH 2510 = WH II 286, 1860 RA 03 04 27, NPD 99 27.5) is "faint, pretty large, round, very gradually a little brighter middle, 9th magnitude star to north".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.4 by 1.6 arcmin? Probably a physical pair with NGC 1242, with which it comprises Arp 304. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SAB(rs)b.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxies NGC 1241 and 1242, also known as Arp 304; also shown is the pair of stars listed as NGC 1243
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1241, also showing NGC 1242 and 1243
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide DSS image centered between NGC 1241 and 1242
DSS image of spiral galaxies NGC 1241 and 1242, also known as Arp 304
Below, a ? arcmin wide DSS image with an HST overlay (Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons)
'Raw' HST image of spiral galaxies NGC 1241 and 1242, also known as Arp 304, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing regions
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST/DSS image of part of NGC 1241 (Image credit as above)
'Raw' HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 1241 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing regions

NGC 1242 (= PGC 11892, and with
NGC 1241 = Arp 304)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1786) by William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 7, 1850) by Bindon Stoney
Also observed (1877) by John Dreyer
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)c?) in Eridanus (RA 03 11 19.3, Dec -08 54 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1242 (= GC 655 = WH III 591, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 03 04 31, NPD 99 26.4) is "very faint, small".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer partially credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin? Probably a physical pair with NGC 1241, with which it comprises Arp 304.
'Raw' HST image of spiral galaxy 1242 overlaid on a DSS background to cover otherwise missing regions; also shown is part of NGC 1241, with which it comprises Arp 304
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 1242 and part of NGC 1241 (which see for other images)
(Image credit above and below Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons)
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST/DSS image of the galaxy
'Raw' HST image of spiral galaxy 1242 overlaid on a DSS background to cover otherwise missing regions

NGC 1243 (= "PGC 5067579")
Discovered (Jan 6, 1831) by
John Herschel
Also observed (1877) by John Dreyer
A pair of 15th-magnitude stars in Eridanus (RA 03 11 25.4, Dec -08 56 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1243 (= GC 656 = JH 291 = JH 2511, 1860 RA 03 04 36, NPD 99 29.2) is "faint, very small, round". The position precesses to RA 03 11 24.0, Dec -08 57 18, about 2/3 of an arcmin southwest of a pair of stars to the southeast of NGC 1241 (which see for an image). The identity of the stars as NGC 1243 is certain, as much from their observational history as from the accuracy of JH's measurement. As noted by Corwin, William Herschel observed both NGC 1241 and 1242, but his son John never saw the fainter galaxy to its northeast; however, he did see the faint pair of stars to NGC 1241's southeast, and measured their position. When Dreyer observed all three objects with Lord Rosse's 72-inch telescope in 1877, their existence and relative positions were confirmed (although as shown by the NGC description, Dreyer also thought NGC 1243 was nebulous). LEDA lists NGC 1243 as PGC 5067579 (and as a pair of stars), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.

NGC 1244 (= PGC 11659 = PGC 302041)
Possibly observed (1826) by
James Dunlop
Discovered (Nov 2, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SA(r)ab? pec?) in Horologium (RA 03 06 31.2, Dec -66 46 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1244 (= GC 657 = JH 2512, Dunlop 205??, 1860 RA 03 04 42, NPD 157 18.8) is "faint, small, pretty much extended, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 0.4 arcmin??
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1244
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1244
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1244

NGC 1245 (= OCL 389 = "PGC 3517883")
Discovered (Dec 11, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (Aug 9, 1894) by Edward Barnard
A magnitude 8.4 open cluster (type III1r) in Perseus (RA 03 14 44.0, Dec +47 13 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1245 (= GC 658 = JH 290 = WH VI 25, 1860 RA 03 05 06, NPD 43 17.4) is a "cluster, pretty large, rich, compressed, irregularly round, stars from 12th to 15th magnitude". LEDA lists NGC 1245 as PGC 3517883 (and as a cluster), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
Physical Information: Apparent size 10 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 1245
Above, a 15 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1245

NGC 1246 (= PGC 11680 = PGC 300657)
Discovered (Nov 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/SB0? pec) in Horologium (RA 03 07 02.1, Dec -66 56 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1246 (= GC 659 = JH 2513, 1860 RA 03 05 18, NPD 157 29.2) is "pretty faint, small, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.7 by 1.0 arcmin (from the image below). The sudden transition from the bright central core to much fainter outer regions suggests that the core may be the site of unusual activity, hence the addition of "peculiar" to its classification.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1246
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1246
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1246

NGC 1247 (= PGC 11931)
Discovered (Dec 10, 1798) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Eridanus (RA 03 12 14.3, Dec -10 28 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1247 (= GC 660 = WH II 900, 1860 RA 03 05 39, NPD 101 00.1) is "faint, pretty large, extended 80°".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.4 by 0.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1247
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1247
Below, a 4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1247

NGC 1248 (= PGC 11970)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 28, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type SA0(s)a?) in Eridanus (RA 03 12 48.6, Dec -05 13 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1248 (= GC 661 = JH 292 = WH III 443, 1860 RA 03 05 50, NPD 95 45.1) is "considerably faint, small, a little extended, brighter middle, 9th magnitude star 5 arcmin to north".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 1.15 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1248
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1248
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1248

NGC 1249 (= PGC 11836)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.8 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)bc?) in Horologium (RA 03 10 01.2, Dec -53 20 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1249 (= GC 662 = JH 2514, 1860 RA 03 05 58, NPD 143 52.3) is "bright, large, very much extended 80°, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.5 by 2.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1249
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1249
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1249
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 1150 - 1199) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 1200 - 1249     → (NGC 1250 - 1299)