Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Oct 31, 2016 (checked PGC IDs)
Next iteration: check historical IDs, physical information

NGC 1500 (= PGC 14187)
Probably not observed (date?) by
James Dunlop
Discovered (Dec 24, 1837) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0(r)?) in Dorado (RA 03 58 14.0, Dec -52 19 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1500 (= GC 800 = JH 2603, Dunlop 369?, 1860 RA 03 54 34, NPD 142 43.6) is "faint, very small, round, pretty much brighter middle, 8th magnitude star to northwest".
Discovery Notes: Although Herschel and therefore Dreyer tentatively identified this object with Dunlop's #369, even the most thorough modern compilation of Dunlop's observations fails to identify Dunlop 369 with any celestial object; so whatever that observation represented, it appears it was not NGC 1500.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.2 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1500
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1500
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1500

NGC 1501 (= "PGC 3441330")
Discovered (Nov 3, 1787) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 planetary nebula in Camelopardalis (RA 04 06 59.4, Dec +60 55 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1501 (= GC 801 = WH IV 53, 1860 RA 03 54 59, NPD 29 27.9) is "a planetary, pretty bright, pretty small, very little extended, 1 arcmin diameter".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.9 arcmin? Listed in LEDA as PGC 3441330 (and as a planetary nebula), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near planetary nebula NGC 1501
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 1501
(Image Credit & © above Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Below, a 1.1 arcmin wide image of the planetary nebula (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons)
HST image of planetary nebula NGC 1501

NGC 1502 (= OCL 383 = "PGC 3518639")
Discovered (Nov 3, 1787) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 6.9 open cluster (type II3p) in Camelopardalis (RA 04 07 50.3, Dec +62 19 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1502 (= GC 802 = WH VII 47, 1860 RA 03 55 10, NPD 28 03.9) is "a cluster, pretty rich, considerably compressed, irregular figure".
Physical Information: Apparent size 15 to 20 arcmin? Listed in LEDA as PGC 3518639 (and as a cluster), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 1502
Above, a 24 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1502

NGC 1503 (= PGC 14137)
Discovered (Nov 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(rs)a?) in Reticulum (RA 03 56 33.3, Dec -66 02 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1503 (= GC 803 = JH 2604, 1860 RA 03 55 25, NPD 156 25.7) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round, 10th magnitude star to northwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1503
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1503
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1503

NGC 1504 (= PGC 14336)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1885) by
Ormond Stone
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0?) in Eridanus (RA 04 02 29.7, Dec -09 20 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1504 (Ormond Stone list I (#120), 1860 RA 03 55 35, NPD 99 43.2) is "extremely faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: The 9750 km/sec recessional velocity of NGC 1504 is nearly identical to that for NGC 1505, so the two galaxies are probably a physical pair about 440 million light years away from us (as discussed in the entry for NGC 1505), and depending upon their radial separation, should be only a few hundred thousand to a few million light years apart. Given that and its apparent size of 0.75 by 0.7 arcmin(?), NGC 1504 is about 95 thousand light years across.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1504
Above, a 1.0 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 1504; for a wider view, see NGC 1505

NGC 1505 (= PGC 14339)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1885) by
Ormond Stone
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Eridanus (RA 04 02 36.4, Dec -09 19 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1505 (Ormond Stone list I (#121), 1860 RA 03 55 35, NPD 99 42.2) is "extremely faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 9765 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 1505 is about 455 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 440 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 455 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 0.95 arcmin(?), the galaxy is about 155 thousand light years across. As noted in the entry for NGC 1504, the nearly identical recessional velocities of the two galaxies probably means that they are a physical pair, and depending upon their radial separation, shoud be only a few hundred thousand to a few million light years apart.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxies NGC 1504 and 1505
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1504 and 1505
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 1505
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1505

NGC 1506 (= PGC 14256)
Discovered (Dec 23, 1837) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Dorado (RA 04 00 21.6, Dec -52 34 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1506 (= GC 804 = JH 2605, 1860 RA 03 56 45, NPD 142 58.1) is "very most extremely faint, small, round, between 2 stars of magnitude 12 and 13".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.1 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1506
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1506
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1506

NGC 1507 (= PGC 14409)
Discovered (Jan 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)m pec?) in Eridanus (RA 04 04 27.1, Dec -02 11 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1507 (= GC 805 = WH II 279, 1860 RA 03 57 20, NPD 92 35.0) is "very faint, pretty large, much extended, a very little brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 865 km/sec, NGC 1507 is about 40 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 33 to 43 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 3.9 by 1.0 arcmin(?), it is about 45 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1507
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1507
Below, a 4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 1507

NGC 1508 (= PGC 14454)
Discovered (Dec 15, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Taurus (RA 04 05 47.7, Dec +25 24 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1508 (= GC 5333, Stephan list VIII (#14), 1860 RA 03 57 21, NPD 64 58.6) is "very faint, very small, round, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7160 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 1508 is about 330 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 325 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, just under 330 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 0.8 arcmin(?)(, it is about 115 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1508
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1508
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1508

NGC 1509 (=
IC 2026 = PGC 14393)
Discovered (prior to Oct 12, 1886) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 1509)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 1509)
Discovered (Dec 16, 1897) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 2026)
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Eridanus (RA 04 03 55.2, Dec -11 10 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1509 (Swift list V (#59), Ormond Stone list I (#122), 1860 RA 03 57 29, NPD 101 33.8) is "very faint, very small, a little extended, faint star near to west".
Discovery Notes: PGC 14389 is shown in the images below because it is sometimes misidentified as IC 2026 (which is actually a duplicate entry for NGC 1509), and given that is mentioned in the discussion of the IC entry. It is also possible that PGC 14389 is a companion of NGC 1509, though whether they are reasonably close companions is even more uncertain.
Discovery Information: Stone's paper was sent to the Astronomical Journal on October 12, 1886, so all the observations listed there must have been completed before that date; but since the paper wasn't actually in print at the time of Swift's observation, he did make an independent discovery of the object.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8595 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 1509 is about 400 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 385 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 390 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.85 by 0.55 arcmin(?), it is about 95 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1509 and lenticular galaxy PGC 14389 (which cannot be IC 2026)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1509, also showing PGC 14389
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 1509 and PGC 14389
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1509 and lenticular galaxy PGC 14389 (which cannot be IC 2026)
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 1509
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1509

NGC 1510 (= PGC 14375)
Discovered (Dec 4, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type SA0(s)a pec?) in Horologium (RA 04 03 32.6, Dec -43 24 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1510 (= GC 806 = JH 2606, 1860 RA 03 59 00, NPD 133 47.6) is "faint, pretty large, round, very gradually much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 915 km/sec, NGC 1510 is about 40 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 34 to 38 million light years. NGC 1512 has similar distance estimates, and the way its outer arms wrap around NGC 1510 strongly suggests that the two are physically interacting, in which case they must be at the same distance from us, and may be less than 70 thousand light years from each other. Assuming a common distance of about 40 million light years for the pair, NGC 1510's apparent size of 1.4 by 1.4 arcmin(?) corresponds to about 15 thousand light years. The dwarf galaxy is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SA(s)0/a pec.
Pingley Australian Observatory image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1510, also showing NGC 1512
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 1510, also showing NGC 1512
(Image Credits & © above and below Teri Smoot, MCG; used by permission)
Below, a 2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
Pingley Australian Observatory image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1510

NGC 1511 (= PGC 14236)
Discovered (Nov 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.3 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm? pec) in Hydrus (RA 03 59 37.0, Dec -67 38 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1511 (= GC 807 = JH 2608, 1860 RA 03 59 03, NPD 158 01.4) is "pretty bright, pretty small, much extended 121.5°, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1340 km/sec, NGC 1511 is about 60 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 50 to 60 million light years. A second recessional velocity measurement of only 1000 km/sec corresponds to a little over 45 million light years, and in the absence of any certainty about a particular measurement's accuracy, all that can be said is that the galaxy is more likely to be between 50 and 60 million light years away than not. Given that and its apparent size of 3.9 by 1.3 arcmin(?), it is about 60 thousand light years across. NGC 1511 shares a similar recessional velocity with two nearby galaxies, PGC 14255 and PGC 14279, and it is thought that the three represent a physical group. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SB(s)dm: pec sp.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1511
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1511
Below, a 4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 1511
Below, a 15 arcmin wide DSS image showing NGC 1511, PGC 14255 and 14279
DSS image showing the relative positions of spiral galaxies NGC 1511, PGC 14255 and 14279 (also known as NGC 1511A and NGC 1511B)

PGC 14255 (= PGC 291513 = "NGC 1511A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 1511A
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in
Hydrus (RA 04 00 19.4, Dec -67 48 26)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1340 km/sec, PGC 14255 is about 60 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 50 to 75 million light years. As for NGC 1511 (which see), there is also a second recessional velocity (of only 985 km/sec) that implies a distance of only 45 million light years, and as for that galaxy the general consensus is that it is in the range of 50 to 60 million light years away, rather than at any smaller distance. Given that and its apparent size of 1.6 by 0.35 arcmin(?), it is about 25 thousand light years across. Because of its nearly edge-on orientation and the low quality of available images, the type is uncertain, being listed as SB0, SBa and SBab in various references. PGC 14255 is thought to be part of a physical group with NGC 1511 as the main component, and PGC 14255 as another minor component.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 14255, also known as NGC 1511A
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 14255
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 14255, also known as NGC 1511A
Below, a 15 arcmin wide DSS image showing NGC 1511, PGC 14255 and 14279
DSS image showing the relative positions of spiral galaxies NGC 1511, PGC 14255 and 14279 (also known as NGC 1511A and NGC 1511B)

PGC 14279 (= PGC 293633 = "NGC 1511B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 1511B
A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type SBd?) in
Hydrus (RA 04 00 54.7, Dec -67 36 42)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1305 km/sec, PGC 14279 is about 60 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.0 by 0.2 arcmin(?), it is about 35 thousand light years across. Because of its nearly edge-on orientation and the low quality of available images, the type is uncertain. As stated in the entries immediately above, PGC 14279 is thought to be part of a physical group with NGC 1511 as the main component, and PGC 14255 as another minor component, in which case it is probably a little closer than implied by its recessional velocity.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 14279, also known as NGC 1511B
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 14279
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 14279, also known as NGC 1511B
Below, a 15 arcmin wide DSS image showing NGC 1511, PGC 14255 and PGC 14279
DSS image showing the relative positions of spiral galaxies NGC 1511, PGC 14255 and 14279 (also known as NGC 1511A and NGC 1511B)

NGC 1512 (= PGC 14391)
Discovered (Oct 29, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 10.3 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)ab? pec) in Horologium (RA 04 03 54.2, Dec -43 20 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1512 (= GC 808, JH 2607, Dunlop 466, 1860 RA 03 59 20, NPD 133 44.4) is "a globular cluster, bright, considerably large, round, brighter middle, partially resolved, some stars seen". The second IC adds (per DeLisle Stewart) "Not a globular cluster, but an extremely faint ring nebula". The position precesses to RA 04 03 55.6, Dec -43 21 18, which is within the bright central ring of the galaxy, and Stewart's description makes the identity certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 900 km/sec, NGC 1512 is about 40 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 30 to 45 million light years (the HST site says the distance is 30 million light years, but whether that is any more accurate than any other estimate is not clear). Given that and its apparent size of 8.2 by 5.8 arcmin, the bright central galaxy is about 95 thousand light years across; however, the faint outer arms discussed below cover about 16 by 16 arcmin, corresponding to about 185 thousand light years. The galaxy contains an oval network of star-forming regions, probably fed fresh material from the bar running through the ringlike structure that comprises the most obvious part of the galaxy, while the center of the bar contains a circular structure with even more active stellar formation. Surrounding the galaxy is an irregularly extended network of much fainter arms that are barely discernible in visible light, but very obvious in the ultraviolet radiation at which the arms' hottest stars have their maximum brightness. Those arms wrap around NGC 1510 in a way that suggests the two galaxies are physically interacting, in which case they must be at the same distance from us, and may be less than 70 thousand light years from each other. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (R')SB(r)ab pec.
Pingley Australian Observatory image of spiral galaxy NGC 1512, also showing NGC 1510
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 1512, also showing NGC 1510
(Image Credit & © above and below Teri Smoot, MCG; used by permission)
Below, an 8 arcmin wide image of the galaxy, also showing NGC 1510
Pingley Australian Observatory image of spiral galaxy NGC 1512, also showing part of lenticular galaxy NGC 1510
Below, a 2 arcmin wide image of the central galaxy (with North to upper right)
(Image Credit NASA, ESA, and D. Maoz (Tel-Aviv University and Columbia University))
HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 1512
Below, a 20 arcsec wide image of the central core (Image Credit essentially as above)
HST multispectral image of central core of spiral galaxy NGC 1512
Below, an 18 arcmin wide ultraviolet image shows a complex structure interacting with NGC 1510
(Image Credit NASA/JPL/CalTech/GALEX)
GALEX ultraviolet image of spiral galaxy NGC 1512, showing how its complex outer arms wrap around itself and its apparent companion, NGC 1510

NGC 1513 (= OCL 398 = "PGC 3517888")
Discovered (Dec 28, 1790) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 8.4 open cluster (type II1m) in Perseus (RA 04 09 54.0, Dec +49 31 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1513 (= GC 809 = WH VII 60, 1860 RA 03 59 36, NPD 40 51.8) is "a cluster, large, very rich, pretty compressed, stars very large", 'stars very large' meaning very bright.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 10 arcmin? Listed in LEDA as PGC 3517888 (and as a cluster), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 1513
Above, a 15 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1513

NGC 1514 (= "PGC 2882948")
Discovered (Nov 13, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.9 planetary nebula in Taurus (RA 04 09 17.0, Dec +30 46 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1514 (= GC 810 = JH 311 = WH IV 69, 1860 RA 04 00 30, NPD 59 35.9) is a "9th magnitude star in a 3 arcmin diameter nebula".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.3 by 3.1 arcmin for the outermost region, 2.4 by 2.1 arcmin for the brighter inner region. Listed in LEDA as PGC 2882948 (and as a planetary nebula), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near planetary nebula NGC 1514
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1514
Below, a 4 arcmin wide desaturated image of the planetary (Image Credit Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of planetary nebula NGC 1514

NGC 1515 (= PGC 14397)
Discovered (Nov 5, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.2 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc?) in Dorado (RA 04 04 02.7, Dec -54 06 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1515 (= GC 811 = JH 2609, Dunlop 348, 1860 RA 04 00 39, NPD 144 29.4) is "bright, large, very much extended 10°, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1175 km/sec, NGC 1515 is about 55 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 45 to 65 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 6.0 by 1.35 arcmin, it is about 95 thousand light years across. NGC 1515 appears to be paired with PGC 14388, but that galaxy is more than ten times farther away, so they are merely an optical double.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1515 and its optical double, spiral galaxy PGC 14388 (also known as NGC 1515A)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1515, also showing PGC 14388
Below, a 6 arcmin wide image of the pair (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 1515 and its optical double, spiral galaxy PGC 14388 (also known as NGC 1515A)

PGC 14388 (= "NGC 1515A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 1515A
A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in
Dorado (RA 04 03 49.8, Dec -54 06 46)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 13125 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 14388 is about 610 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 580 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 595 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). (NED lists a redshift-independent distance estimate of 55 million light years, but that must be a misplaced value for NGC 1515.) Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin, PGC 14388 is about 200 thousand light years across. Although an apparent pair with NGC 1515, PGC 14388 is more than ten times farther away, so they are merely an optical double.
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy PGC 14388 (also known as NGC 1515A)
Above, a 1.5 arcmin wide image of PGC 14388 (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
For a wider-field view, see NGC 1515

NGC 1516 (= "PGC 5067395" =
NGC 1524 (= PGC 14515) + NGC 1525 (= PGC 14516))
Discovered (Jan 30, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 1516)
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 1516)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1885) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 1524 and 1525)
A pair of galaxies in Eridanus
PGC 14515 = A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type SABb? pec) at RA 04 08 07.4, Dec -08 49 45
PGC 14516 = A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type Scd? pec) at RA 04 08 08.2, Dec -08 50 04
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1516 (= GC 812 = JH 2610 = WH III 499, 1860 RA 04 01 24, NPD 99 12.4) is "most extremely faint, small, extended, pretty suddenly much brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Discovery Notes: Herschel saw this as a single object, which Dreyer recorded as NGC 1516. Almost exactly a century later Stone saw that it was a pair of nebulae, but made an error in their position, so Dreyer recorded them as NGC 1524 and 1525. If the error had been recognized earlier the individual galaxies would probably always be called NGC 1524 and 1525; but since it took some time to realize the equivalency of the listings, PGC 14515 is often called NGC 1516A (instead of the more proper NGC 1524), and PGC 14516 is often called NGC 1516B (instead of the more proper NGC 1525). NGC 1516 is listed in LEDA as PGC 5067395 (and as a galaxy), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result; however, the individual galaxies are listed with valid PGC designations, as shown above and at their individual entries.
Physical Information: Based on an average recessional velocity of 9905 km/sec (9945 km/sec for PGC 15415 and 9865 km/sec for PGC 15416), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 1516 is about 460 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 445 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 450 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and PGC 14515's apparent size of 0.65 by 0.5 arcmin, it is about 85 thousand light years across, and PGC 14516's apparent size of 0.65 by 0.65 arcmin corresponds to the same 85 thousand light years. (The quoted sizes include fainter outlying areas shown in the images below; NED only lists the apparent size of the bright cores, while LEDA lists larger sizes than can be justified by the images.) Given the poor quality of the images below (which are still the best available), the galaxy types listed above seem more specific than reasonably credible, so a better type for each member of the pair might be simply S? pec.
DSS image of region near the pair of interacting spiral galaxies known as NGC 1516
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1516
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the pair
DSS image of the pair of interacting spiral galaxies PGC 14515 (also known as NGC 1516A and as NGC 1524) and PGC 14516 (also known as NGC 1516B and as NGC 1525)

NGC 1517 (= PGC 14564)
Discovered (Dec 23, 1884) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Taurus (RA 04 09 11.9, Dec +08 38 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1517 (Stephan list XIII (#25), 1860 RA 04 01 37, NPD 81 43.6) is "very faint, very small, round, mottled but not resolved, 9th or 10th magnitude star to southeast".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3485 km/sec, NGC 1517 is about 160 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.85 by 0.75 arcmin, it is about 40 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1517
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1517
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1517

NGC 1518 (= PGC 14475)
Discovered (Nov 13, 1835) by
John Herschel
Also observed by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 11.8 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm?) in Eridanus (RA 04 06 49.6, Dec -21 10 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1518 (= GC 813 = JH 2611, 1860 RA 04 01 44, NPD 111 33.0) is "bright, large, pretty much extended, gradually brighter middle, 8th magnitude star to southwest". The second IC adds (per Howe) "Minute of RA is 00, not 01".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 920 km/sec, NGC 1518 is about 40 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 25 to 40 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 3.8 by 1.35 arcmin, it is about 45 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1518
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1518
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 1518
Below, a 1.35 by 1.7 arcmin wide view of the central portion of the galaxy
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive; composite of own work and Wikimedia Commons image)
'Raw' HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 1518

NGC 1519 (= PGC 14514 = PGC 887349)
Discovered (Jan 2, 1878) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)b?) in Eridanus (RA 04 08 07.6, Dec -17 11 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1519 (Tempel lists I (#14) and V (#2), 1860 RA 04 01 50, NPD 107 34.1) is "very faint, small, a little extended, very small star involved", 'very small star' meaning very faint star.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1835 km/sec, NGC 1517 is about 90 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 65 to 85 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.2 by 0.5 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1519
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1519
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1519

NGC 1520 (= "PGC 3070076")
Discovered (Nov 8, 1836) by
John Herschel
A group of stars in Mensa (RA 03 57 31.7, Dec -76 50 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1520 (= GC 814 = JH 2615, 1860 RA 04 02 08, NPD 167 13.0) is "a cluster, pretty large, a little rich, stars of 9th to 10th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 4.5 arcmin? Listed in LEDA as PGC 3070076 (and as the star HD 25864), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near the group of stars listed as NGC 1520
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1520

NGC 1521 (= PGC 14520)
Discovered (Nov 21, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.4 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Eridanus (RA 04 08 18.9, Dec -21 03 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1521 (= GC 815 = JH 2612, 1860 RA 04 02 10, NPD 111 25.6) is "pretty bright, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4245 km/sec, NGC 1521 is about 200 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 135 to 220 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.7 by 2.0 arcmin, it is about 155 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1521
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1521
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 1521

NGC 1522 (= PGC 14462)
Discovered (Dec 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type (R')S0? pec) in Dorado (RA 04 06 07.9, Dec -52 40 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1522 (= GC 816 = JH 2613, 1860 RA 04 02 35, NPC 143 02.7) is "extremely faint, very small, round, very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 900 km/sec, NGC 1522 is about 40 million light years away (a second velocity measurement of 700 km/sec would imply a distance of less than 35 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin, the galaxy is about 15 thousand light years across (or a little less, if the lower velocity and distance are correct).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1522
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1522
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1522

NGC 1523 (= "PGC 5067591")
Recorded (Dec 6, 1834) by
John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by DeLisle Stewart
Four stars in Dorado (RA 04 06 10.4, Dec -54 05 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1523 (= GC 817 = JH 2614, 1860 RA 04 02 48, NPD 144 28.6) is "very faint, round". The second IC adds (per DeLisle Stewart) "Only 3 very faint stars, not a nebula". Listed in LEDA as PGC 5067591 (and as a group of stars), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near the group of four stars listed as NGC 1523
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1523

NGC 1524 (= PGC 14515 = the northern member of
NGC 1516 = "NGC 1516A")
Discovered (Jan 30, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 1516)
Also observed by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 1516)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1885) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 1524)
A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type SABb? pec) in Eridanus (RA 04 08 07.4, Dec -08 49 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1524 (Ormond Stone list I (#123), 1860 RA 04 03 35, NPD 99 09.9) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round, gradually brighter middle, part of a double nebula with NGC 1525, separated by 0.5 arcmin at a position angle of 340°".
Physical Information: Given the more or less duplicate entry, see NGC 1516 for anything else.

NGC 1525 (= PGC 14516 = the southern member of
NGC 1516 = "NGC 1516B")
Discovered (Jan 30, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 1516)
Also observed by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 1516)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1885) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 1525)
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type Scd? pec) in Eridanus (RA 04 08 08.2, Dec -08 50 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1525 (Ormond Stone list I (#124), 1860 RA 04 03 35, NPD 99 09.9) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round, gradually brighter middle, part of a double nebula with NGC 1524, separated by 0.5 arcmin at a position angle of 340°".
Physical Information: Given the more or less duplicate entry, see NGC 1516 for anything else.

NGC 1526 (= PGC 14437)
Discovered (Nov 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc?) in Reticulum (RA 04 05 12.3, Dec -65 50 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1526 (= GC 818 = JH 2617, 1860 RA 04 04 09, NPD 156 12.6) is "extremely faint, very small, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5335 km/sec, NGC 1526 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.85 by 0.5 arcmin, it is about 60 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1526
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1526
Below, a 1.0 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1526

NGC 1527 (= PGC 14526)
Discovered (Sep 28, 1826) by
James Dunlop (409)
A magnitude 10.8 lenticular galaxy (type SAB0(r)a?) in Horologium (RA 04 08 24.1, Dec -47 53 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1527 (= GC 819 = JH 2616, 1860 RA 04 04 18, NPD 138 15.9) is "pretty bright, pretty small, extended 77°, very suddenly much bright middle and round nucleus".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1210 km/sec, NGC 1527 is about 55 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 35 to 60 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 5.1 by 1.8 arcmin, it is about 85 thousand light years across. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SAB0-.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1527
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1527
Below, a 5.2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1527

NGC 1528 (= OCL 397 = "PGC 3517889")
Discovered (Dec 28, 1790) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 6.4 open cluster (type II2m) in Perseus (RA 04 15 25.0, Dec +51 12 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1528 (= GC 820 = WH VII 61, 1860 RA 04 04 37, NPD 39 07.2) is "a cluster, bright, very rich, considerably compressed".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 18 arcmin? Listed in LEDA as PGC 3517889 (and as an unknown type of object), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 1528
Above, a 30 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1528

NGC 1529 (= PGC 14495 = PGC 338357)
Discovered (Dec 9, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Reticulum (RA 04 07 19.9, Dec -62 53 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1529 (= GC 821 = JH 2619, 1860 RA 04 05 33, NPD 153 16.1) is "very faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.15 by 0.25 arcmin.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1529
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1529
Below, a 1.3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1529

NGC 1530 (= PGC 15018)
Discovered (1876) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 11.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Camelopardalis (RA 04 23 26.7, Dec +75 17 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1530 (= GC 5334, Tempel list I (#15), 1860 RA 04 05 42, NPD 15 03.2) is "pretty bright, large".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 2460 km/sec, NGC 1527 is about 115 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 60 to 120 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 4.6 by 2.5 arcmin, it is about 155 thousand light years across. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SB(rs)b.
Composite of Nordic Optical Telescope image of spiral galaxy NGC 1530 and a DSS background of the region near the galaxy to fill in missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide composite (credited image on a DSS background) centered on NGC 1530
(Image Credit above and below Almudena Zurita Muñoz & Isabel Pérez, Nordic Optical Telescope)
Below, a 5 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
Nordic Optical Telescope image of spiral galaxy NGC 1530

PGC 15917 (=
IC 381 = "NGC 1530A")
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes incorrectly called NGC 1530A
A 12th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Camelopardalis (RA 04 44 28.6, Dec +75 38 23)
Non-Standard Designation: PGC 15917 is IC 381, but it is sometimes incorrectly called NGC 1530A, hence its inclusion here. It is an example of an extreme mis-use of non-standard NGC designations, in that it has a perfectly good IC designation that should always be used.
Physical Information: Given the galaxy's IC designation, see IC 381 for anything else.

NGC 1531 (= PGC 14635)
Discovered (Oct 19, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0? pec) in Eridanus (RA 04 11 59.3, Dec -32 51 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1531 (= GC 822 = JH 2620, 1860 RA 04 06 35, NPD 123 12.6) is "pretty bright, pretty large, round, brighter middle, northwestern of 2", the other being NGC 1532.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1170 km/sec, NGC 1531 is about 55 million light years away, in fair agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of 42 million light years. It is part of a double system with NGC 1532, suggesting a common distance of around 50 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.5 by 0.8 arcmin, it is about 20 thousand light years across. Over time the gravitational interaction of the two galaxies will probably tear the smaller galaxy apart and merge its remains with the larger one. Their interaction has already torn huge plumes of material from each galaxy (particularly the larger), and generated bursts of star-formation in and near each of them. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SB0 pec / I0 pec.
NOAO/Gemini Observatory image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1531
Above, a 1.8 arcmin wide image of NGC 1531; for a wide-field view see NGC 1532
(Image Credit NOAO/AURA/NSF/Gemini Observatory/Travis Rector, University of Alaska Anchorage)

NGC 1532 (= PGC 14638)
Discovered (Oct 29, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.9 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)b? pec) in Eridanus (RA 04 12 04.3, Dec -32 52 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1532 (= GC 823 = JH 2621, Dunlop 600, 1860 RA 04 06 40, NPD 123 14.1) is "bright, very large, very much extended 32°, pretty suddenly much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1040 km/sec, NGC 1532 is about 50 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 45 to 62 million light years. NGC 1532 is part of a double system with NGC 1531, suggesting a common distance of around 50 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 12.6 by 3.3 arcmin, it is about 180 thousand light years across. Over time the gravitational interaction of the two galaxies will tear the smaller galaxy apart and merge its remains with the larger one. As it is, their interaction has thrown huge plumes of material away from each galaxy (particularly the larger), and generated bursts of star-formation (the red-purplish regions glowing with the heat of the new stars) in each galaxy. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SB(s)b pec sp.
Composite of ESO and DSS images of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1532 and lenticular galaxy NGC 1531, also showing lenticular galaxy IC 2041
Above, a 15 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 1532 and 1531; also shown is IC 2041)
Below, a ? arcmin wide ESO image of the pair (Image Credit IDA/Danish 1.5 m/R.Gendler & J.-E. Ovaldsen/ESO)
(The image has been rotated to allow for more detail; as a result, North is to the upper right)
ESO closeup of lenticular galaxy NGC 1531 and spiral galaxy NGC 1532

NGC 1533 (= PGC 14582)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 10.7 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0) in Dorado (RA 04 09 51.8, Dec -56 07 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1533 (= GC 824 = JH 2622, 1860 RA 04 06 51, NPD 146 29.3) is "very bright, very large, round, suddenly much brighter middle, 2 stars of magnitude 10 to northeast".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 790 km/sec, NGC 1533 is about 37 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 44 to 70 million light years. This may mean that the redshift-independent estimates are too large and the galaxy is closer to 40 million light years away, or that it just happens to have a motion toward us relative to the galaxies in its vicinity of 150 or more km/sec (which would not be that unusual), and is somewhat further away than its reduced radial velocity would imply. All we can say is that it is more likely to be between 40 and 50 million light years away than not. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.05 by 2.75 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 35(?) thousand light years across. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (RL)SB0°.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1533
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1533
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1533
Below, a 2.4 by 2 arcmin wide image of the central galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble and NASA)
HST image of part of lenticular galaxy NGC 1533

NGC 1534 (= PGC 14547)
Discovered (Dec 26, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Reticulum (RA 04 08 46.1, Dec -62 47 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1534 (= GC 825 = JH 2623, 1860 RA 04 07 00, NPD 153 09.4) is "faint, small, round, very small star 3/4 of a degree to southeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.7 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1534
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1534
Below, a 2.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1534

NGC 1535 (= "PGC 3517751")
Discovered (Feb 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.6 planetary nebula in Eridanus (RA 04 14 15.8, Dec -12 44 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1535 (= GC 826 = JH 2618 = WH IV 26, 1860 RA 04 07 44, NPD 103 05.8) is "a planetary nebula, very bright, small, round, pretty suddenly or very suddenly brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 by 1.1 arcmin for the very faint outer ring, and of about 0.85 by 0.75 arcmin for the brighter inner ring (from the images below). LEDA lists the object as PGC 3517751 (and as a planetary nebula), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near planetary nebula NGC 1535
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1535
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide image of the planetary nebula
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of planetary nebula NGC 1535

NGC 1536 (= PGC 14620 = PGC 399723)
Discovered (Dec 4, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c pec?) in Reticulum (RA 04 10 59.9, Dec -56 28 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1536 (= GC 827 = JH 2625, 1860 RA 04 08 04, NPD 146 50.4) is "very faint, round, pretty large, very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1215 km/sec, NGC 1536 is about 55 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of 45 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.1 by 1.5 arcmin(?), it is about 30 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1536
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1536
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1536

NGC 1537 (= PGC 14695)
Discovered (Nov 18, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 10.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/SAB0?) in Eridanus (RA 04 13 40.7, Dec -31 38 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1537 (= GC 828 = JH 2624, 1860 RA 04 08 18, NPD 121 54.7) is "very bright, pretty small, a little extended, pretty suddenly very much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1430 km/sec, NGC 1536 is about 65 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 45 to 75 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 4.8 by 3.3 arcmin, it is about 90 thousand light years across. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SAB0- or E5 (twist).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1537
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1537
Below, a 5.2 by 4.8 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1537

NGC 1538 (by tradition =
PGC 3093623,
but later identified as probably = IC 2047 or perhaps = IC 2045)

Discovered (Dec 31, 1885) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 1538)
Observed (Jan 20, 1900) by Herbert Howe (and perhaps later listed as IC 2047 or IC 2045)
One of several galaxies in Eridanus, the most likely being
IC 2047 = A magnitude 15.1 spiral galaxy (type S?) at RA 04 14 56.1, Dec -13 11 30
PGC 3093623 = A magnitude 15(?) elliptical galaxy (type E2 pec?) at RA 04 15 05.0, Dec -13 13 56
IC 2045 = A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type E1/S0-) at RA 04 14 36.0, Dec -13 10 29
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1538 (= Ormond Stone list I (#125), 1860 RA 04 08 35, NPD 103 35.6) is "extremely faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 04 15 05.5, Dec -13 14 20, which is near the outline of the brighter of two faint galaxies (PGC 940994 and PGC 3093623). Under normal circumstances this would be considered reasonably accurate, and the identification of NGC 1538 as PGC 3093623 relatively certain. And in fact when Howe observed the area in 1900 he presumed that what is now called PGC 3093623 was Stone's NGC 1538 and according to Corwin, Reinmuth agreed with that assessment in 1928; so this identification of NGC 1538 was considered correct for a long time. But in recent years the identification has been called into question, and NGC 1538 is now more commonly identified as one of two other galaxies observed by Howe, as noted above. The reason for this is that Stone's right ascensions were often off by as much as a couple of minutes, so it is possible that his observation was of one of the other galaxies in the area, and if so the most logical assumption is that it was the brightest one (which is IC 2045). However, Stone's sketch of the area suggests that what he actually observed was the next brightest (which is IC 2047). It seems that none of the three galaxies can be definitely deemed correct or ruled out, so it might be best to say that NGC 1538 refers to an unknown galaxy and discuss each suggestion at the appropriate place. For IC 2045 and IC 2047 that is at those entries, since their identification as those objects is not in question; but since PGC 3093623 was considered to be NGC 1538 for many years, its discussion immediately follows this entry. (Note: Perhaps not unsurprisingly given such confusion, Wikisky searches for NGC 1538, IC 2045 and IC 2047 all show IC 2045, labeled as NGC 1538.)
Designation Note: LEDA lists this as PGC 941480, which is IC 2047, but does not list it as an IC object.
DSS image showing elliptical galaxy PGC 3093623, lenticular galaxy IC 2045, and spiral galaxy IC 2047, any of which might or might not be NGC 1538
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image showing PGC 3093623, IC 2045 and IC 2047,
each of which is a more or less likely candidate for NGC 1538

PGC 3093623 (= the traditional
NGC 1538)
A magnitude 15(?) elliptical galaxy (type E2 pec?) in Eridanus (RA 04 15 05.1, Dec -13 13 56)?
Historical Identification: Although listed as NGC 1538 for many decades, that identification is no longer considered certain (refer to NGC 1538).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 9080 km/sec, PGC 3093623 is about 420 million light years away (*note to self: in next iteration, use relativistic correction*). Given that and its apparent size of 0.7 by 0.4 arcmin(?), it is about 85 thousand light years across. It appears to be part of a physical pair with the galaxy to its northeast (PGC 940994), as each has a slightly distorted shape presumably caused by their interaction. (Listed in NED as HOLM 073A.)
DSS image of PGC 3093623, the elliptical galaxy traditionally identified as NGC 1538, and its probable companion, PGC 940994
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 3093623 and 940994; also see the image at NGC 1538
(The box near PGC 3093623 is centered on Dreyer's position for NGC 1538)

PGC 940994
Listed here as a probable companion of
PGC 3093623, the traditional identification of NGC 1538
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0? pec?) in Eridanus (RA 04 15 07.6, Dec -13 13 30)?
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 9205 km/sec, PGC 940994 is about 430 million light years away (*note to self: in next iteration, use relativistic correction*). Given that and its apparent size of 0.45 by 0.4 arcmin(?), it is about 55 thousand light years across. The distorted appearance of each galaxy suggests that it is probably part of a physical pair with PGC 3093623 (which see for images), so despite the different distance estimates caused by their slightly different recessional velocities, they are probably at essentially the same distance from us.

NGC 1539 (perhaps =
PGC 14852)
Recorded (Sep 6, 1864) by Albert Marth
A lost or nonexistent object in Taurus (RA 04 17 59.0, Dec +26 45 56)
or perhaps PGC 14852 = A magnitude 14.8 elliptical galaxy (type E5?) at RA 04 19 02.0, Dec +26 49 39
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1539 (= GC 5335, Marth #94, 1860 RA 04 09 25, NPD 63 35) is "very faint, very small, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to that shown above as 'lost or nonexistent', since there is nothing there. However, Corwin suggests that what Marth saw might be PGC 14852, the only reasonably bright object in the half-degree field of view surrounding Marth's position, as the 1 minute error in right ascension and 4.7 arcmin error in declination are not unusual for Marth's observations, and the description fits. It seems doubtful that anyone can be certain that this is correct, but as long as the object is in question it doesn't hurt to discuss it, so it is covered immediately after this entry.
DSS image of region near Dreyer's position for NGC 1539, showing the position of elliptical galaxy PGC 14852
Above, a half-degree wide DSS image centered on Dreyer's position for NGC 1539, showing PGC 14852

PGC 14852 (perhaps =
NGC 1539)
Listed here as the only current suggestion for the otherwise lost or nonexistent NGC 1539
A magnitude 14.8 elliptical galaxy (type E5?) in Taurus (RA 04 19 02.0, Dec +26 49 39)
Historical Identification: See the entry for NGC 1539.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5555 km/sec, PGC 14852 is about 255 to 260 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 80 thousand light years across. Note: Corwin lists a magnitude 16.6 apparent companion of PGC 14852 at RA 04 19 02.7, Dec +26 49 47, which is the position of the star just northeast of PGC 14852's nucleus; so that identification is incorrect (undoubtedly due to the poor quality of earlier images of the galaxy).
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy PGC 14852, which may be NGC 1539
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 14852
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 14852, which may be NGC 1539

NGC 1540 (= PGC 14733 + PGC 14734)
Discovered (Nov 6, 1834) by
John Herschel
A pair of colliding galaxies in Eridanus
*Need to verify which is which, as noted below*
PGC 14733 = A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type Sab? pec) at RA 04 15 10.6, Dec -28 29 18
PGC 14734 = A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type Sa? or Irr? pec) at RA 04 15 10.3, Dec -28 28 47
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1540 (= GC 829 = JH 2626, 1860 RA 04 09 33, NPD 118 50.3) is "very faint, very small, extended, gradually a very little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Despite the poor quality of the available images, there can be no doubt that NGC 1540 represents the results of a spectacular collision between two galaxies. Unfortunately, NED reverses the order of the PGC listings, so observations that are supposed to refer to one component may have been made for the other. For that reason, their apparent sizes were directly measured from the images below, and type assignments were made partly on the basis of the NED/LEDA listings, and partly from the appearance of those images. Recessional velocities might also be misattributed, but they are all between 5400 and 5500 km/sec, so an average of 5450 km/sec can't be very far off. Based on that, the pair is about 250 million light years away. Given that, PGC 14733's apparent size of 0.75 by 0.45 arcmin corresponds to about 55 thousand light years, and PGC 14734's apparent size of 0.65 by 0.35 arcmin to about 50 thousand light years.
DSS image of region near the colliding galaxies (PGC 14733 and PGC 14734) that comprise NGC 1540
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1540
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the pair of galaxies
DSS image of the colliding galaxies (PGC 14733 and PGC 14734) that comprise NGC 1540

NGC 1541 (= PGC 14792)
Discovered (Nov 14, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Taurus (RA 04 17 00.2, Dec +00 50 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1541 (= GC 5336, Marth #95, 1860 RA 04 09 48, NPD 89 32) is "very faint, small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1541
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1541
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1541

NGC 1542 (= PGC 14800)
Discovered (Nov 18, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type Sab? pec) in Taurus (RA 04 17 14.2, Dec +04 46 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1542 (= GC 5337, Marth #96, 1860 RA 04 09 51, NPD 85 34) is "very faint, small, extended".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3715 km/sec, NGC 1542 is about 170 to 175 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.45 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 70 to 75 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1542
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 1542
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1542

NGC 1543 (= PGC 14659)
Discovered (Nov 5, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Discovered (Dec 4, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.5 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(rs)a?) in Reticulum (RA 04 12 43.2, Dec -57 44 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1543 (= GC 830 = JH 2627, (Dunlop 306), 1860 RA 04 09 59, NPD 148 05.6) is "bright, pretty large, extended, suddenly much brighter middle and nucleus equal to an 11th magnitude star".
Discovery Notes: At the time Dreyer did the NGC it was not realized that Dunlop's #306 was this object, so he did not credit Dunlop with the discovery.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1175 km/sec, NGC 1543 is about 55 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 44 to 66 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 7.3 by 6.6 arcmin (from the images below), its outer ring is about 115 thousand light years across. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (R)SB(l)0/a.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 1543
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1543
Below, an 8 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of lenticular galaxy NGC 1543

NGC 1544 (= PGC 16608)
Discovered (1876) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) in Cepheus (RA 05 02 37.0, Dec +86 13 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1544 (= GC 5338, Tempel list I (#16), 1860 RA 04 10 10, NPD 04 03.3) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3935 km/sec, NGC 1544 is about 180 to 185 million light years away; however, a second velocity measurement of 4515 km/sec implies a distance of 210 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 60 thousand light years across if at the smaller distance, and 70 thousand light years across if at the larger distance.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1544
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1544
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1544

NGC 1545 (= OCL 399 = "PGC 3518640")
Discovered (Dec 28, 1790) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 6.2 open cluster (type II2p) in Perseus (RA 04 20 57.5, Dec +50 15 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1545 (= GC 831 = WH VIII 85, 1860 RA 04 10 25, NPD 40 05.7) is "a cluster, pretty rich, a little compressed, stars large" (meaning bright).
Physical Information: Apparent size 12 arcmin? LEDA lists this as PGC 3518640 (and as an unknown type of object), but a search of the database for the designation does not return a result.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 1545
Above, an 18 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1545

NGC 1546 (= PGC 14723)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 10.9 spiral galaxy (type (R)S(rs)a?) in Dorado (RA 04 14 36.4, Dec -56 03 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1546 (= GC 832 = JH 2628, 1860 RA 04 11 38, NPD 146 25.0) is "pretty bright, a little extended, gradually brighter middle and extended nucleus, double star to west".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 3.8 by 2.8 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1546
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1546
Below, a 4.5 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 1546

NGC 1547 (= PGC 14794 = PGC 14799)
Discovered (Oct 17, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc pec?) in Eridanus (RA 04 17 12.4, Dec -17 51 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1547 (Leavenworth list I (#126), 1860 RA 04 11 40, NPD 108 13.6) is "pretty faint, pretty small, irregularly round (a cluster or nebula with stars involved?)". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 04 10 57, and (incorrectly) adds "a cluster".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 9570 km/sec, NGC 1547 is about 445 million light years away (*Note to self: Need to use relativistic correction*). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.3 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 170(?) thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 1547
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1547
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 1547

NGC 1548 (= "PGC 5067415")
Discovered (Feb 3, 1832) by
John Herschel
A group of stars in Perseus (RA 04 20 49.6, Dec +36 53 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1548 (= GC 833 = JH 312, 1860 RA 04 11 46, NPD 53 25.8) is "a cluster, very large, a little rich, a little compressed, stars from 10th to 12th magnitude". Corwin lists RA 04 20 14, Dec +36 26 48 as the best estimate of the position; but also gives RA 04 20 58.9, Dec +36 34 28 for the position of the star used by JH as the position of the group, and RA 04 21 00, RA 36 54 42 as the incorrect position measured by JH for that star.
Physical Information: Apparent size 30 arcmin? LEDA lists this as PGC 5067415 (and as an open cluster), but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
DSS image of region near the group of stars listed as NGC 1548
Above, a 36 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1548

NGC 1549 (= PGC 14757 = PGC 75116)
Probably discovered (Nov 5, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Discovered (Dec 6, 1834) by John Herschel
Also observed by Robert Innes
Also observed by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 9.8 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Dorado (RA 04 15 45.1, Dec -55 35 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 1549 (= GC 834 = JH 2629, (Dunlop 331), 1860 RA 04 12 09, NPD 145 55.8) is "bright, pretty small, round". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Innes and DeLisle Stewart) of 04 12 44 and adds "13 arcmin northwest of h2630 (h's RA only rough)".
Discovery Notes: At the time Dreyer did the NGC it was not known that Dunlop's #331 was this object.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1255 km/sec, NGC 1549 is about 55 to 60 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 45 to 65 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 5.1 by 4.6 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 85 to 90 thousand light years across. The galaxy is a member of the NGC 1566 group. It is part of a possibly gravitationally bound pair with NGC 1553, which is a little over 11 arcminutes away in the sky, and if at a common distance of about 55 million light years may be separated by as little as 175 thousand light years.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 1549
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 1549
Below, a 5.8 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of  elliptical galaxy NGC 1549
Below, a 20 arcmin wide DSS image centered between NGC 1549 and 1553
DSS image of region between elliptical galaxy NGC 1549 and NGC 1553
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 1450 - 1499) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 1500 - 1549     → (NGC 1550 - 1599)