Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Oct 12, 2016
Checked all Corwin positions, original NGC entries, updated to current formatting standards
WORKING 150: Checking dates of observations not yet recorded below
WORKING: Checking identifications (Corwin+Steinicke), physical data

NGC 150 (= PGC 2052)
Discovered (Nov 20, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
Also photographed (1899) by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 11.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Sculptor (RA 00 34 15.5, Dec -27 48 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 150 (Swift list VI (#3), 1860 RA 00 26 50, NPD 118 35.1) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe and DeLisle Stewart) of 00 27 19. Using the corrected RA and original NPD, the position precesses to RA 00 34 15.8, Dec -27 48 44, about 0.4 arcmin south of the center of the galaxy, but well within its outline, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1585 km/sec, the galaxy is about 70 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 85 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 3.9 by 1.9 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across. NGC 150 is listed as a member of the NGC 134 group of galaxies, which includes NGC 115, 131 and 148, PGC 2000 (erroneously identified as IC 1554) and IC 1555, and PGC 2044. Several of these are also listed as members of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group, with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all NGC 134 group members are presumably members of the larger group.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 150
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 150
Below, a 4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 150

NGC 151 (=
NGC 153 = PGC 2035)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 151)
Also observed (Dec 14, 1830) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 151)
Discovered (Aug 9, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 153)
Also observed (date?) by Rudolf Spitaler (and equated with NGC 153)
A magnitude 11.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 34 02.8, Dec -09 42 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 151 (= GC 74 = JH 30 = JH 2330 = WH II 478, 1860 RA 00 26 57, NPD 100 28.5) is "pretty faint, pretty large, a little extended 90°, very gradually a little brighter middle". (The identity with NGC 153 (which see for a discussion of the double listing) was published by Spitaler in time to be included in the first Index Catalog corrections.) Herschel's position precesses to RA 00 34 02.9, Dec -09 42 08, within 0.2 arcmin of the center of the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3745 km/sec, the galaxy is about 165 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 125 to 190 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.6 by 1.1 arcmin, it is about 125 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 151
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 151
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 151

NGC 152 (an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Sep 20, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11 open cluster in Tucana (RA 00 32 55.9, Dec -73 06 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 152 (= GC 75 = JH 2331, 1860 RA 00 27 04, NPD 163 53.2) is "very faint, large, round, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 152 in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 152
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of the open cluster
DSS image of open cluster NGC 152 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 153 (=
NGC 151 = PGC 2035)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 151
Also observed (Dec 14, 1830) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 151)
Discovered (Aug 9, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 153)
Also observed (date?) by Rudolf Spitaler (and equated with NGC 151)
A magnitude 11.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 34 02.8, Dec -09 42 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 153 (Swift list IV (#1), 1860 RA 00 27 14, NPD 100 28.4) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, star near to northeast". (The identity with NGC 151 was published by Spitaler in time to be included in the first Index Catalog corrections.)
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry (Corwin has a lengthy note about the identity), see NGC 151 for anything else.

NGC 154 (= PGC 2058)
Discovered (Nov 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 10, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 00 34 19.5, Dec -12 39 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 154 (= GC 76 = JH 31 = WH III 467, 1860 RA 00 27 14, NPD 103 26.0) is "extremely faint, very small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 154
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centred on NGC 154
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 154

NGC 155 (= PGC 2076)
Discovered (Sep 1, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (date?) by Otto Struve
Also observed (Oct 21, 1890) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Cetus (RA 00 34 40.1, Dec -10 45 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 155 (Swift list IV (#2), O Struve list I (#??), 1860 RA 00 27 24, NPD 101 31.7) is "pretty faint, small, round". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 00 27 35.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 155
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 155
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 155

NGC 156
Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 14.4 and 16.0 pair of stars in Cetus (RA 00 34 35.7, Dec -08 20 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 156 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 00 27 28, NPD 99 07) is "very small, northwest of (WH) II 3", WH II 3 being NGC 157 (which see for an image). (Corwin has short note about NGC 156) Corwin lists a second but less likely possibility at RA 00 34 35.9, Dec -08 20 23.
Discovery Notes: Tempel does not give a position for either this or NGC 158, stating only that there are two nebulae near GC 78 (= NGC 157), one (which Dreyer listed as NGC 156) to the southwest of GC 78 and 3 arcmin from a bright star, and the other (which Dreyer listed as NGC 158) to the northeast of GC 78.

NGC 157 (= PGC 2081)
Discovered (Dec 13, 1783) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 20, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Oct 28, 1878) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 10.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 00 34 46.8, Dec -08 23 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 157 (= GC 78 = WH II 3, d'Arrest, Stephan list IX (#1), 1860 RA 00 27 40, NPD 99 10.2) is "pretty bright, large, extended, between 2 considerably bright stars". (Corwin has brief note, but may not be relevant)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1650 km/sec, about 75 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 40 to 95 million light years. Given that and apparent size of 4.2 by 2.7 arcmins, about 90 thousand light years in diameter.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 157, also showing the pair of stars listed as NGC 156 and the pair of stars listed as NGC 158
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 157, also showing NGC 156 and 158
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 157
Below, a 4 arcmin wide infrared view of the galaxy (Image Credit ESO)
'Natural'-color ESO infrared image of spiral galaxy NGC 157

NGC 158
Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 15.3 and 17.3 pair of stars in Cetus (RA 00 35 05.3, Dec -08 20 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 158 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 00 27 51, NPD 99 05) is "very small, northeast of II 3", (WH) II 3 being NGC 157, which see for an image. (Corwin has note about object)
Discovery Notes: Tempel does not give a position for either this or NGC 156, stating only that there are two nebulae near GC 78 (= NGC 157), one (which Dreyer listed as NGC 156) to the southwest of GC 78 and 3 arcmin from a bright star, and the other (which Dreyer listed as NGC 158) to the northeast of GC 78.

NGC 159 (= PGC 2073)
Discovered (Oct 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0/a(r)?) in Phoenix (RA 00 34 35.5, Dec -55 47 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 159 (= GC 77 = JH 2332, 1860 RA 00 28 03, NPD 146 33.4) is "very faint, pretty small, round, gradually a little brighter middle, 3 stars to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 0.4 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 159
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 159
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 159

NGC 160 (= PGC 2154)
Discovered (Dec 5, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 17, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SA0/a? pec) in Andromeda (RA 00 36 04.1, Dec +23 57 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 160 (= GC 79 = JH 32 = WH III 476, 1860 RA 00 28 42, NPD 66 48.8) is "very faint, very small, stellar, 8th magnitude star 4 arcmin away 17° east of north". (The star is 7th magnitude HD 3293.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.3 by 1.2 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 160, also showing the star listed as NGC 162, PGC 2148, which is often misidentified as NGC 162, and PGC 212552, which is also sometimes misidentified as NGC 162
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 160
Also shown are NGC 162, and PGC 2148 and 212552, which are often misidentified as NGC 162
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 160 and 162
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 160, also showing the star listed as NGC 162

NGC 161 (= PGC 2131)
Discovered (Nov 21, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Oct 9, 1890) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Cetus (RA 00 35 33.9, Dec -02 50 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 161 (Swift list VI (#4), 1860 RA 00 28 44, NPD 93 36.2) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, nearly between 2 stars". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 00 28 26.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.8 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 161, also showing IC 1557
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 161, also showing IC 1557
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 161

NGC 162
Recorded (Aug 22, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Oct 16, 1866) by Lawrence Parsons, 4th Lord Rosse
Also observed (Sep 5, 1867) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 14.8 star in Andromeda (RA 00 36 09.3, Dec +23 57 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 162 (= GC 5107, Schultz, 1860 RA 00 28 48, NPD 66 48.4) is "extremely faint, stellar, h39 to southwest". The reference to h39 (= NGC 192) must be a typographical error, as Dreyer's NGC note for NGC 160 states that Schultz was the first to see a nebula 78° east of north, 1.2 arcmin from h32 (= NGC 160), which means that galaxy must be the one near NGC 160, not NGC 192. The position precesses to RA 00 36 09.8, Dec +23 57 55, within 0.3 arcmin of the star listed above, and NGC 160 is in the correct relative position, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: In a lengthy discussion on pages 201 to 203 of Observing and Cataloguing Nebulae and Star Clusters of the difficulties faced by Dreyer in identifying the objects seen by various observers in the region near NGC 160 and 169, Steinicke notes that d'Arrest was the first to see NGC 162, during his first observation of III 476 (= NGC 160), quoting from the Siderum Nebulosorum "Alia nebula eaque 'nova' insequitur 2' borealior; utraque manifesto classis tertiae", meaning "Another nebula (and nova) follows 2 arcmin north; each one is obviously third class." Steinicke's discussion also notes that according to Dreyer's 1880 summary of the 4th Lord Rosse's observations the 1866 observations of what became NGC 160 and 162 were made by Lord Rosse himself, hence his identification as the second person to observe NGC 162.
Modern Misidentifications of NGC 162: It was not only difficult for catalogers to identify the objects in this region in the 1800's. In modern times two faint galaxies near NGC 160 (PGC 2148 and PGC 212552) have also been misidentified as NGC 162, so each of them is briefly discussed immediately below. Given so much historic and recent confusion, see NGC 160 for correctly labeled images of the objects in the region.

PGC 2148 (= PGC 2156, but not =
NGC 162)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 162
A magnitude 15.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Andromeda (RA 00 35 57.9, Dec +24 02 13)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5610 km/sec, PGC 2148 is 260 to 265 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.2 arcmin, it is about 75 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 2148, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 162
Above, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 2148; see NGC 160 for a wide-field view

PGC 212552
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 162
A magnitude 16(?) galaxy (type SBb?) in
Andromeda (RA 00 36 15.1, Dec +23 56 36)
Historical Identification: Apparent size about 0.6 by 0.2 arcmin; apparently nothing else known. Listed in NED as 2MASX J00361507+2356357.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 212552, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 162
Above, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 212552; see NGC 160 for a wide-field view

NGC 163 (= PGC 2149)
Discovered (Dec 10, 1798) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 20, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Aug 9, 1886) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 12.7 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Cetus (RA 00 35 59.8, Dec -10 07 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 163 (= GC 81 = WH III 954, d'Arrest, Swift list IV (#3), 1860 RA 00 28 55, NPD 100 53.5) is "very faint, very small".
Discovery Notes: Swift's position is about 15 seconds of time to the east of the galaxy, but within an arcsec of the correct declination, and his description fits the galaxy and its field of view; so Dreyer's assumption that it was the object seen by d'Arrest must be correct.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.4 arcmin??
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 163
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 163
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 163

NGC 164 (= PGC 2181, and not =
IC 1560)
Discovered (Aug 3, 1864) by Albert Marth
A magnitude 15.8 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Pisces (RA 00 36 32.9, Dec +02 45 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 164 (= GC 5108, Marth #12, 1860 RA 00 29 23, NPD 88 02) is "extremely faint". The second Index Catalog adds "Not found by Bigourdan; perhaps = Bigourdan 361 with an error of 1m".
Discovery Notes: The suggestion that Bigourdan 361 (= IC 1560) is actually NGC 164 was made by Bigourdan himself, in his notes for his #361. On the night that he observed #361 he found nothing near the NGC position for NGC 164 but a faint star, so when he found a nebula a minute of time to the east he supposed it might be a "nova"; but upon reflection considered the possibility that his #361 was actually NGC 164. However, NGC 164 is too faint for Bigourdan to have seen, and as discussed at the entry for IC 1560 (which see) there is no doubt that it is a lost or (more likely) nonexistent object, so the second Index Catalog note should be ignored, and for that reason I have chosen to emphasize the fact that NGC 164 is not IC 1560 in the title for this entry.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 164
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 164
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 164

NGC 165 (= PGC 2182)
Discovered (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 00 36 28.9, Dec -10 06 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 165 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 00 29 24, NPD 100 53.5) is "faint, large, star in centre, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 163.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 165
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 165
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 165

NGC 166 (= PGC 2143)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.3 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Cetus (RA 00 35 48.8, Dec -13 36 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 166 (Leavenworth list II (#285), 1860 RA 00 29 30, NPD 104 23.0) is "extremely faint, small, a little extended, 11th magnitude star to northwest". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 28 46.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.3 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 166
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 166
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 166

NGC 167 (= PGC 2122)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Not observed by Frank Muller (see Discovery Notes below)
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
Also photographed (Nov 3, 1898) by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)c?) in Cetus (RA 00 35 23.1, Dec -23 22 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 167 (Muller list II (Actually Leavenworth list II #286), 1860 RA 00 29 30, NPD 114 09.0) is "very faint, pretty small, irregularly round". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe and DeLisle Stewart) of 00 28 24.
Discovery Notes: Dreyer's reference to "Muller list II" is to a paper by Ormond Stone in which observations by Stone, Leavenworth and Muller are presented. In this case Dreyer accidentally credited Muller with one of Leavenworth's discoveries.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 167
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 167
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 167

NGC 168 (= PGC 2192)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Cetus (RA 00 36 38.7, Dec -22 35 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 168 (Muller list II (#287), 1860 RA 00 29 30, NPD 113 23.0) is "extremely faint, small, extended 30°, 10th magnitude star 3 arcmin northeast". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 29 40.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.25 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 168
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 168
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 168

NGC 169 (= PGC 2202, and with
IC 1559 = Arp 282)
Discovered (Sep 18, 1857) by R. J. Mitchell
Also observed (Aug 22, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)ab?) in Andromeda (RA 00 36 51.6, Dec +23 59 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 169 (= GC 82, d'Arrest, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 29 30, NPD 66 47.1) is "faint, pretty large, double or binary nucleus, 6th magnitude star 4 arcmin northeast".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.6 by 0.6 arcmin? Used (with IC 1559) by the Arp Atlas as an example of galaxies with infall and attraction.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 169 and IC 1559, which comprise Arp 282
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 169, also showing IC 1559
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair; the glare at top is from magnitude 6.5 HD 3411
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 169 and lenticular galaxy IC 1559, which comprise Arp 282

NGC 170 (= PGC 2195)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 00 36 45.8, Dec +01 53 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 170 (= GC 5109, Marth #13, 1860 RA 00 29 35, NPD 88 52) is "faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.35 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 170, also showing part of NGC 173
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 170, also showing part of NGC 173
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 170

NGC 171 (=
NGC 175 = PGC 2232)
Discovered (Oct 20, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 171)
Discovered (Nov 11, 1834) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 175)
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)ab?) in Cetus (RA 00 37 21.6, Dec -19 56 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 171 (= GC 83 = WH III 223??, 1860 RA 00 29 41, NPD 109 44.1) is "very faint, pretty large, a little extended, 2 pretty bright stars to southeast". Dreyer's 1912 correction to the NGC (based on a revision of William Herschel's Catalogs) states "To be struck out; (WH) III 223 = (NGC) 175"; so the supposition that Dreyer made that NGC 171 = NGC 175 in 1887 became a certainty in 1912, and the duplication has been known for over a century. However, modern usage almost always uses the lower NGC designation, even when Dreyer specifically struck out an entry; so this galaxy is usually (but not always) referred to as NGC 171, instead of NGC 175.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 1.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 171
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 171
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 171

NGC 172 (= PGC 2228)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc?) in Cetus (RA 00 37 13.6, Dec -22 35 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 172 (Muller list II (#288), 1860 RA 00 30 00, NPD 113 23.0) is "extremely faint, small, extended". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 30 15, and adds "13th magnitude star close southwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 0.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near NGC 172 spiral galaxy, also showing NGC 177
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 172, also showing NGC 177
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 172

NGC 173 (= PGC 2223)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 17, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)c?) in Cetus (RA 00 37 12.5, Dec +01 56 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 173 (= GC 84 = JH 33 = WH III 871, 1860 RA 00 30 02, NPD 88 49.8) is "very faint, small, round, very gradually brighter middle, 11th magnitude star 80 arcsec southwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.2 by 2.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 173
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 173
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 173

NGC 174 (= PGC 2206)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(rs)a?) in Sculptor (RA 00 36 58.9, Dec -29 28 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 174 (= GC 85 = JH 2333, 1860 RA 00 30 02, NPD 120 14.5) is "extremely faint, small, very little extended, among bright stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 174
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 174
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticulargalaxy NGC 174

NGC 175 (=
NGC 171 = PGC 2232)
Discovered (Oct 20, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 171)
Discovered (Nov 11, 1834) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 175)
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)ab?) in Cetus (RA 00 37 21.6, Dec -19 56 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 175 (= GC 86 = JH 2334 = WH III 223?, 1860 RA 00 30 21, NPD 110 42.2) is "pretty bright, pretty large, extended, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved." Dreyer's 1912 correction to the NGC (based on a revision of William Herschel's Catalogs) states "To be struck out; (WH) III 223 = (NGC) 175"; so Dreyer's 1887 supposition that NGC 171 = NGC 175 became a certainty in 1912, and the duplication has been known for over a century. However, modern usage almost always uses the lower NGC designation, even when Dreyer specifically disowned an entry; so this galaxy is usually (though not always) referred to as NGC 171, instead of NGC 175.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 171 for anything else.

NGC 176 (an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Aug 12, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 open cluster in Tucana (RA 00 35 58.4, Dec -73 09 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 176 (= GC 87 = JH 2335, 1860 RA 00 30 22, NPD 163 56.5) is "extremely faint, small, very little extended, mottled but not resolved, 8th magnitude star near".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.25 by 1.1 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near NGC 176, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 176
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the open cluster
DSS image of NGC 176, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 177 (= PGC 2241)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SA(r)ab?) in Cetus (RA 00 37 34.3, Dec -22 32 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 177 (Muller list II (#289), 1860 RA 00 30 30, NPD 113 12.0) is "extremely faint, small, extended 175° (perhaps a star?)". The second Index Catalog says "Delete the (original) query; it seems to be a nebula (per Howe)".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.75 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 177, also showing NGC 172
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 177, also showing NGC 172
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 177

NGC 178 (=
IC 39 = PGC 2349 = PGC 928022)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1885) by Ormond Stone (and later listed as NGC 178)
Discovered (Aug 26, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 39)
Also observed (Jul 1898 to Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe (while looking for NGC 178)
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type Sb(s)m? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 39 08.4, Dec -14 10 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 178 (Ormond Stone list I (#7), 1860 RA 00 30 30, NPD 104 57.0) is "faint, small, much extended 0°, brighter middle". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 32 06. The original NGC position precesses to RA 00 37 33.1, Dec -14 10 44, which is a minute and a half of time to the west of the galaxy listed above, in a region devoid of anything Stone could have observed, so when Javelle made an accurate observation of the object Dreyer assumed it was a different nebula, leading to the double listing. Howe observed the region between July 1, 1898 and June 30, 1899 and published a corrected position for NGC 178 of 1900 RA 00 34 07, Dec -14 43.2 in late 1899 (whence Dreyer's corrected RA in the IC2), which precesses to RA 00 39 08.9, Dec -14 10 13, right on the galaxy, so the identity of NGC 178 and its equality with IC 39 should have been noticed when Dreyer published the IC2; but the duplication remained unnoticed until (per Corwin) one of the Helwan (Cairo) observers discovered it the best part of a century later.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1445 km/sec, NGC 178 is about 65 million light years away, in good agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 60 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.1 by 0.85 arcmin, it is about 40 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 178
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 178
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 178
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST image of part of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
'Raw' HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 178

NGC 179 (= PGC 2253)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/SAB0?) in Cetus (RA 00 37 46.3, Dec -17 50 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 179 (Leavenworth list II (#290), 1860 RA 00 30 36, NPD 108 37.0) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, bright star to northwest". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 30 46.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.85 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 179
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 179
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 179

NGC 180 (= PGC 2268)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1790) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type (R?)SB(rs)bc?) in Pisces (RA 00 37 57.7, Dec +08 38 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 180 (= GC 88 = WH III 876, 1860 RA 00 30 47, NPD 82 06.1) is "very faint, pretty large, irregularly round, star involved to northwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.5 by 1.8 arcmin for the main galaxy, and about 2.9 by 2.3 arcmin with fainter outer regions (measured from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 180
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 180
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 180

NGC 181 (= PGC 2287)
Discovered (Oct 6, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 38 23.2, Dec +29 28 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 181 (Stephan list XIII (#6), 1860 RA 00 30 57, NPD 61 17.9) is "extremely faint, extremely small, irregular, very faint star attached".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.2 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 181, also showing NGC 183 and NGC 184
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 181, also showing NGC 183 and 184
The glare at the bottom is from magnitude 4.4 ε Andromedae
Below, a 1.0 by 1.1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 181

NGC 182 (= PGC 2279)
Discovered (Dec 25, 1790) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(rs)a? pec?) in Pisces (RA 00 38 12.4, Dec +02 43 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 182 (= GC 89 = WH III 870, 1860 RA 00 31 01, NPD 88 02.0) is "very faint, small, irregularly round, very gradually brighter middle."
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 182
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 182
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 182

NGC 183 (= PGC 2298)
Discovered (Nov 5, 1866) by
Truman Safford
Also observed (Oct 6, 1883) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 38 29.4, Dec +29 30 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 183 (Stephan list XIII (#9), (Safford 65), 1860 RA 00 31 03, NPD 61 15.6) is "pretty faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 38 29.0, Dec +29 30 38, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Dreyer was not aware of Safford's observations at the time he compiled the NGC, as they were published as an appendix to an obscure paper; but he did list a number of Safford's observations in an appendix to the NGC. Unfortunately, he only listed those objects not already in the NGC, so in those cases where Safford was the discoverer of an object already credited to someone else, his prior discovery went unmentioned. Steinicke's book has a complete listing of the objects for which Safford deserves priority, whence his listing as the discoverer of this object.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.0 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 183, also showing NGC 181 and NGC 184
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 183, also showing NGC 181 and 184
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 183

NGC 184 (= PGC 2309)
Discovered (Oct 6, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 38 35.8, Dec +29 26 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 184 (Stephan list XIII (#8), 1860 RA 00 31 09, NPD 61 19.4) is "extremely faint, extremely small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.15 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 184, also showing NGC 181 and NGC 183
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 184, also showing NGC 181 and 183
The glare at the bottom is from magnitude 4.4 ε Andromedae
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 184

NGC 185 (= PGC 2329)
Discovered (Nov 30, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 31, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.2 elliptical galaxy (type E2? pec) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 38 57.9, Dec +48 20 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 185 (= GC 90 = JH 35 = WH II 707, 1860 RA 00 31 14, NPD 42 26.0) is "pretty bright, very large, irregularly round, very gradually much bright middle, mottled but nor resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 9.5 by 7.5 arcmin (from image below). Considerable star formation and dustiness near its center, as shown in the last image below. One of numerous satellites of the Andromeda Galaxy.
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 185
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 185; see NGC 147 for wider views
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy with exaggerated contrast, to show its full size
Exaggerated contrast DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 185
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide La Palma Kapteyn Telescope image of the galaxy's core (Image Credit STSCI)
La Palma Kapteyn Telescope image of core of elliptical galaxy NGC 185

NGC 186 (= PGC 2291)
Discovered (Dec 6, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
Also observed (Sep 23, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 38 25.3, Dec +03 09 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 186 (= GC 91 = GC 99, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 31 15, NPD 87 36.1) is "faint, small, round, a little brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: (WORKING: Resolve apparent error in attribution; probably discussed in Steinicke's book)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 186
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 186
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 186

NGC 187 (= PGC 2380)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1885) by
Ormond Stone
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)cd?) in Cetus (RA 00 39 30.4, Dec -14 39 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 187 (Ormond Stone list I (#8), 1860 RA 00 31 30, NPD 105 25.9) is "faint, small, much extended 150°, brighter middle". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 32 28.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 0.55 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 187
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 187
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 187

NGC 188 (= OCL 309)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1831) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 8.1 open cluster (type II2r) in Cepheus (RA 00 47 29.0, Dec +85 14 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 188 (= GC 92 = JH 34, 1860 RA 00 31 40, NPD 05 26.5) is "cluster, very large, round, 150-200 stars from 10th to 18th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 15 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 188
Above, a 24 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 188

NGC 189 (= OCL 301)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1783) by
Caroline Herschel
Also observed (Oct 27, 1829) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.8 open cluster (type III2p) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 39 32.0, Dec +61 05 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 189 (= GC 93 = JH 36, 1860 RA 00 31 40, NPD 29 42.5) is "a cluster, pretty large, round, stars from 11th to 15th magnitude".
Discovery Notes: Since Caroline's observation was not noted in her brother's catalogues or in her nephew's General Catalog (GC), Dreyer failed to note her prior observation.
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 189
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 189

NGC 190 (= PGC 2324 =
HCG 5A)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 5)

Discovered (Oct 22, 1886) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Pisces (RA 00 38 54.7, Dec +07 03 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 190 (Swift list V (#8), 1860 RA 00 31 48, NPD 83 42.6) is "very faint, small, a little extended, several stars near to southwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 190, PGC 2322, PGC 2325 and PGC 2326, the four members of Hickson Compact Group 5
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 190, also showing PGC 2322, 2325 and 2326
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 190 and Hickson Compact Group 5
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 190, PGC 2322, PGC 2325 and PGC 2326, the four members of Hickson Compact Group 5
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing PGC 2325
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 190, also showing PGC 2325

PGC 2325 (= "NGC 190A" =
HCG 5B)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 5)

Not an NGC object but listed here since often called NGC 190A
A magnitude 14.8 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Pisces (RA 00 38 54.7, Dec +07 03 24)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.7 arcmin?? (See NGC 190 for images.)

PGC 2322 (=
HCG 5C)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 5)

Not an NGC object but listed here due to its proximity to NGC 190, another member of HCG 5
A magnitude 15.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 00 38 52.8, Dec +07 04 22)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.55 arcmin?? (See NGC 190 for images.)

PGC 2326 (=
HCG 5D)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 5)

Not an NGC object but listed here due to its proximity to NGC 190, another member of HCG 5
A magnitude 15.8 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Pisces (RA 00 38 54.9, Dec +07 02 49)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.15 arcmin?? (See NGC 190 for images.) Actually a foreground object, and not a physical companion to the other three members of HCG 5.

NGC 191 (= PGC 2331, and with
IC 1563 = Arp 127)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1785) by William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 14, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 38 59.4, Dec -09 00 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 191 (= GC 95 = JH 38 = WH II 479, 1860 RA 00 31 53, NPD 99 46.4) is "pretty bright, pretty large, irregularly extended 0°". The reference to a north-south extension is probably due to NGC 191 being nearly in contact with IC 1563, with which it comprises Arp 127. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of an elliptical galaxy (IC 1563) close to and perturbing a spiral galaxy.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.35 by 1.25 arcmin (from images below). Strongly interacting with IC 1563, so undoubtedly at the same distance.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 191 and IC 1563, which comprise Arp 127
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 191, also showing IC 1563
Below, a 1.7 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 191 and IC 1563, which comprise Arp 127

IC 1563 (= PGC 2332 = "NGC 191A", and with NGC 191 = Arp 127)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 191A
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 39 00.3, Dec -09 00 53)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: This is another example of the all too common misuse of non-standard NGC designations, and a particularly egregious one, in that the galaxy has a perfectly good IC designation.
Physical Information: Given the warning above, see NGC 191 and/or IC 1563 for images, and IC 1563 for anything else

NGC 192 (= PGC 2352 =
HCG 7A)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 7)

Discovered (Dec 28, 1790) by William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 24, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)a?) in Cetus (RA 00 39 13.4, Dec +00 51 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 192 (= GC 96 = JH 39 = WH III 872, 1860 RA 00 32 03, NPD 89 54.6) is "faint, pretty small, pretty much extended, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 0.9 arcmin?? A member of Hickson Compact Group 7.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 192, a member of Hickson Compact Group 7
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 192; for a wide-field view, see NGC 197

NGC 193 (= PGC 2359)
Discovered (Dec 21, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 16, 1827) by John Herschel
Also observed (Sep 23, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 12.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/SAB0(s)?) in Pisces (RA 00 39 18.6, Dec +03 19 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 193 (= GC 94 = JH 37 = WH III 595, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 00 32 07, NPD 87 26.4) is "faint, large, preceding of 2, 15th magnitude star close to southwest", the "following of 2" being NGC 204.
Discovery Notes: Schultz's observation was published in the Jan 1875 Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (vol 35, pp. 135ff), but the date of the actual observation is not given there; simply that it was observed within the previous ten years.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.7 by 1.9 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 193, also showing the western outline of NGC 204
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 193, showing the western outline of NGC 204
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 193

NGC 194 (= PGC 2362)
Discovered (Dec 25, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 16, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Pisces (RA 00 39 18.4, Dec +03 02 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 194 (= GC 98 = JH 40 = WH II 856, 1860 RA 00 32 07, NPD 87 43.9) is "pretty bright, small, round, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.0 by 1.8 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 194, also showing part of NGC 199
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 194, also showing part of NGC 199
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 194

NGC 195 (= PGC 2391)
Discovered (1876) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Also observed (Dec 16, 1897) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)a?) in Cetus (RA 00 39 35.8, Dec -09 11 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 195 (= GC 5110, Tempel list I (#2), 1860 RA 00 32 08, NPD 99 53.3) is "faint." The second Index Catalog lists a corrected position (per Bigourdan) of RA 00 32 33, NPD 99 58.
Discovery Notes: Bigourdan also looked for this object on Sep 27, 1891, but could not find it. In his note for the observation of 1897 he states that it was 25 seconds of time east and 5 arcmin south of the NGC position, whence the correction listed in the second IC.
Physical Information:Apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 195
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 195
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 195

NGC 196 (= PGC 2357 =
HCG 7B)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 7)

Discovered (Dec 28, 1790) by William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 24, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type SB0? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 39 17.9, Dec +00 54 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 196 (= GC 100 = JH 41 = WH II 860, 1860 RA 00 32 08, NPD 89 51.4) is "faint, pretty small, round, pretty suddenly much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.85 arcmin (from image below). A member of Hickson Compact Group 7.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 196, a part of Hickson Compact Group 7
Above, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 196; see NGC 197 for a wide-field view

NGC 197 (= PGC 2365 =
HCG 7D)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 7)

Discovered (Oct 16, 1863) by Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)bc? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 39 18.8, Dec +00 53 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 197 (= GC 5111, Marth #14, RA 1860 RA 00 32 09, NPD 89 53) is "extremely faint, south of h41" (h41 being NGC 196).
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.85 arcmin (from images below), including its distorted outer regions. A member of Hickson Compact Group 7, which comprises the four galaxies shown in the wide-field image below.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 197, also showing NGC 192, NGC 196 and NGC 201; the four galaxies comprise Hickson Compact Group 7
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 197, also showing NGC 192, 196 and 201
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 197, a member of Hickson Compact Group 7

NGC 198 (= PGC 2371)
Discovered (Dec 25, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 24, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)bc?) in Pisces (RA 00 39 23.0, Dec +02 47 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 198 (= GC 97 = WH II 857, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 00 32 12, NPD 87 58.2) is "faint, small, very gradually brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: Schultz's observation was published in the Jan 1875 Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society (vol 35, pp. 135ff), but the date of the actual observation is not given there; simply that it was observed within the previous ten years.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 1.35 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 198, also showing NGC 200
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 198, also showing NGC 200
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 198

NGC 199 (= PGC 2382)
Discovered (Sep 24, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type SA0/a? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 39 33.2, Dec +03 08 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 199 (= GC 103, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 32 21, NPD 87 37.9) is "faint, very small, 8th magnitude star 27 sec west and 45 arcsec south".
Physical Information:Apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin (from images below). Perhaps a polar ring galaxy?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 199, also showing part of NGC 194
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 199, also showing part of NGC 194
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 199
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 100 - 149) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 150 - 199     → (NGC 200 - 249)