Celestial Atlas
(NGC 150 - 199) ←NGC Objects: NGC 200 - 249 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (NGC 250 - 299)
Click here for Introductory Material
QuickLinks:
200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216,
217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233,
234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249

Page last updated Jun 28, 2017
Checked Corwin positions, Steinicke's revised historical databases, NGC entries
Updated formatting
WORKING: Still have some historical references to check (in next iteration of page)
WORKING: Check IDs (Corwin+)/Steinicke's revised physical databases

NGC 200 (= PGC 2387)
Discovered (Dec 25, 1790) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)bc?) in Pisces (RA 00 39 34.9, Dec +02 53 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 200 (= GC 104 = WH II 858, 1860 RA 00 32 23, NPD 87 53.0) is "pretty bright, small, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.7 by 0.95 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 200, also showing NGC 198
Above, a 12 arcmin SDSS image centered on NGC 200, also showing NGC 198
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 200

NGC 201 (= PGC 2388 =
HCG 7C)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 7)

Discovered (Dec 28, 1790) by William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 20, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)c?) in Cetus (RA 00 39 34.8, Dec +00 51 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 201 (= GC 102 = JH 43 = WH III 873, 1860 RA 00 32 26, NPD 89 55.1) is "very faint, considerably large, extended, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.95 by 1.45 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 201, also showing NGC 192, NGC 196 and NGC 197; the four galaxies comprise Hickson Compact Group 7
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 201, also showing NGC 192, 196 and 197
Below, a 2.0 by 2.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 201, one of the members of Hickson Compact Group 7
Below, a 1.5 by 1.8 arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble/NASA)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 201, one of the members of Hickson Compact Group 7

NGC 202 (= PGC 2394)
Discovered (Nov 17, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(rs)a?) in Pisces (RA 00 39 39.8, Dec +03 32 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 202 (= GC 5112, Stephan list VIII (#1), 1860 RA 00 32 28, NPD 87 14.0) is "extremely faint, very small, irregularly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.9 by 0.3 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 202, also showing NGC 203
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 202, also showing NGC 203
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 202

NGC 203 (=
NGC 211 = PGC 2393)
Discovered (Dec 19, 1873) by Ralph Copeland (and later listed as NGC 203)
Discovered (Nov 18, 1876) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 211)
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type SAB0(rs)a? pec?) in Pisces (RA 00 39 39.5, Dec +03 26 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 203 (= GC 5113, Copeland (using Lord Rosse's 72-inch telescope), 1860 RA 00 32 29, NPD 87 19.7) is "faint, round, 9th magnitude star 8 arcmin to southwest".
Discovery Notes: Steinicke has recently revised the discovery information for NGC 204, stating that William Herschel discovered the object, even though he published no observation of it. So until I have a chance to see if there is any mention of the situation on his or some other site, this note will serve as a reminder for me to check this out.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.35 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 203, also showing NGC 202 and part of NGC 193
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 203, also showing NGC 202 and part of NGC 193
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 203

NGC 204 (= PGC 2397)
Discovered (Dec 21, 1786) by
William Herschel
Discovered (Oct 16, 1827) by John Herschel
Also observed (Sep 23, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type SA0?) in Pisces (RA 00 39 44.3, Dec +03 17 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 204 (= GC 101 = JH 42, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 00 32 33, NPD 87 28.1) is "faint, pretty small, round, very gradually brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 193.
Discovery Notes: Per Steinicke, though never published by William Herschel and therefore not listed in the GC or NGC, the elder Herschel did observe this object during his sweep 657, on the date shown above; but since his son was unaware of that, his observation does represent an independent discovery of the nebula.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 1.1 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 204, also showing part of NGC 193
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 204, also showing part of NGC 193
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 204

NGC 205 (=
M110 = PGC 2429)
Discovered (Aug 10, 1773) by Charles Messier but too late to include in his Catalog
Discovered (Aug 27, 1783) by Caroline Herschel
Recorded (Oct 5, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 1, 1828) by John Herschel
Appended (1966) to the Messier Catalog by Kenneth Glyn Jones as M110
A magnitude 8.1 elliptical galaxy (type E5? pec) in Andromeda (RA 00 40 22.1, Dec +41 41 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 205 (= GC 105 = JH 44 = WH V 18, Caroline Herschel, 1860 RA 00 32 46, NPD 49 05.0) is "very bright, very large, much extended 165°, very gradually very much brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 40 22.4, Dec +41 41 10, right on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Messier's observation was not published until 1801, separately from his famous catalog, so its existence was unknown when the Herschels observed the nebula, ignored when John Herschel compiled his General Catalog (which was primarily though not exclusively based on his and his father's observations), and as a result also ignored when Dreyer compiled his New General Catalog. But given Messier's prior observation, it seemed appropriate to Kenneth Jones to add the object to Messier's catalog, as shown above.
Physical Information: M110 is the satellite galaxy just northwest of M31. About 15000 light-years across, it is comparable in size to the Magellanic Clouds, which are satellites of our galaxy. Elliptical galaxies usually contain little gas and only old stars, but M110 has dust clouds and young stars, perhaps as a result of its gravitational interaction with M31. Apparent size 19.5 by 11.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 205, also known as M110
Above, a 20 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 205
Below, a 20 arcmin wide SDSS image of the same region
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 205, also known as M110
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image of the central portion of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 205, also known as M110

NGC 206
Discovered (Oct 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 18, 1828) by John Herschel
Also observed (1883) by Edward Barnard
A star-forming region in Andromeda (RA 00 40 31.0, Dec +40 44 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 206 (= GC 106 = JH 45 = WH V 36, 1860 RA 00 32 57, NPD 50 02.2) is "very faint, very large, much extended 0°". Given the description as extended north-south, NGC 206 undoubtedly represents the entire star-forming region shown in the box below, and not merely some part of that region.
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.2 arcmin? A part of the Andromeda Galaxy. Note: A Wikisky search for NGC 206 shows the correct region, but at such a high magnification that it is impossible to tell what is being shown; for a more effective search, use the coordinates given above.
DSS image of region near star forming region NGC 206, which is a part of the Andromeda Galaxy
Above, a 30 arcmin wide DSS image of part of M31; the box shows the location of NGC 206
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of the star-forming region
DSS image of star forming region NGC 206, which is a part of the Andromeda Galaxy
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the star-forming region
SDSS image of star forming region NGC 206, which is a part of the Andromeda Galaxy

NGC 207 ( = PGC 2395, and not =
IC 41)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1857) by R. J. Mitchell
Also observed (Nov 3, 1885) by Ormond Stone
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Cetus (RA 00 39 40.7, Dec -14 14 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 207 (= GC 108, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 00 32 57, NPD 105 04.0) is "very faint, small, a little extended, stellar". Per Malcolm Thomson, several references (including HyperLeda and Wikisky) equate IC 41 with NGC 207, but this is wrong, as shown in the wide-field image below.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.35 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 207, also showing IC 41, which is often misidentified as NGC 207
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 207, also showing IC 41
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 207

NGC 208 (= PGC 2420)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.3 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)a?) in Pisces (RA 00 40 17.6, Dec +02 45 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 208 (= GC 5114, Marth #15, 1860 RA 00 33 08, NPD 88 01) is "pretty faint".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 208
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 208
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 208

NGC 209 (= PGC 2338 = PGC 866044)
Discovered (Oct 9, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Cetus (RA 00 39 03.6, Dec -18 36 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 209 (Leavenworth list I (#10), 1860 RA 00 33 30, NPD 109 23.9) is "very faint, very small, round, brighter middle". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 32 04.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 1.3 arcmin (from images below), including faint outer regions
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 209
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 209
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 209

NGC 210 (= PGC 2437)
Discovered (Oct 3, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 15, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.9 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)b?) in Cetus (RA 00 40 35.0, Dec -13 52 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 210 (= GC 107 = JH 46 = WH II 452, 1860 RA 00 33 32, NPD 104 38.6) is "bright, pretty small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, 11th magnitude star 2 arcmin to west".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.0 by 3.3 arcmin?
NOAO image of area near spiral galaxy NGC 210 overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a NOAO image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 210
(Image Credit above and below Dale Cupp/Flynn Haase/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
Below, a 6 arcmin wide NOAO image of the galaxy
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 210

NGC 211 (=
NGC 203 = PGC 2393)
Discovered (Dec 19, 1873) by Ralph Copeland (and later listed as NGC 203)
Discovered (Nov 18, 1876) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 211)
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type SAB0(rs)a? pec?) in Pisces (RA 00 39 39.5, Dec +03 26 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 211 (= GC 5115, Stephan list VIII (#2), 1860 RA 00 33 47, NPD 87 19.7) is "extremely faint, small, much brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 203 for anything else.

NGC 212 (= PGC 2417)
Discovered (Oct 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Phoenix (RA 00 40 13.3, Dec -56 09 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 212 (= GC 110 = JH 2236, 1860 RA 00 33 50, NPD 146 56.2) is "very faint, small, round, western of 2", the other being NGC 215.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.8 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 212, also showing NGC 215
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 212, also showing NGC 215
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 212

NGC 213 (= PGC 2469)
Discovered (Oct 14, 1784) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab?) in Pisces (RA 00 41 10.0, Dec +16 28 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 213 (= GC 109 = WH III 200, 1860 RA 00 33 55, NPD 74 18.3) is "faint, small, between 2 small (faint) stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.2 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of area near spiral galaxy NGC 213
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 213
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 213

NGC 214 (= PGC 2479)
Discovered (Sep 10, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 5, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Andromeda (RA 00 41 28.0, Dec +25 29 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 214 (= GC 111 = JH 47 = WH II 209, 1860 RA 00 34 03, NPD 65 16.1) is "pretty faint, pretty small, gradually a very little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.85 by 1.3 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of area near spiral galaxy NGC 214
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 214
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 214

NGC 215 (= PGC 2451)
Discovered (Oct 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Phoenix (RA 00 40 48.9, Dec -56 12 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 215 (= GC 112 = JH 2337, 1860 RA 00 34 26, NPD 146 58.5) is "faint, small, round, among stars, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 212.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.85 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of area near lenticular galaxy NGC 215, also showing NGC 212
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 215, also showoing NGC 212
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 215

NGC 216 (= PGC 2478 = PGC 833497)
Discovered (Dec 9, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 16, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 41 27.2, Dec -21 02 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 216 (= GC 113 = JH 49 = WH III 244, 1860 RA 00 34 29, NPD 111 49.0) is "extremely faint, very small, a little extended".
Physical Information: (Listed as an edge-on dwarf amorphous galaxy in research paper, perhaps 16 million light years away.) Apparent size of about 2.2 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of area near lenticular galaxy NGC 216
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 216
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 216

NGC 217 (= PGC 2482)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 14, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Cetus (RA 00 41 33.9, Dec -10 01 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 217 (= GC 114 = JH 48 = WH II 480, 1860 RA 00 34 30, NPD 100 47.0) is "faint, small, a little extended 90°, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.6 by 0.55 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of area near spiral galaxy NGC 217
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 217
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 217

NGC 218 (= PGC 2720, and not = PGC 2493)
Discovered (Oct 17, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type Sbc? pec) in Andromeda (RA 00 46 31.9, Dec +36 19 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 218 (= GC 5116, Stephan list VIII (#3), 1860 RA 00 34 57, NPD 54 26.4) is "extremely faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 00 42 30.1, Dec +36 19 43, over 4 minutes west of the correct position, which led to a century of confusion and even at the present date, a badly mistaken identification. The nearest galaxy to Stephan/Dreyer's incorrect position is PGC 2493, another 45 seconds of time to the west, which (as noted in the NGCIC Project entry) seems an unusually poor match for one of Stephan's measurements. Ironically, the answer to the mystery of what Stephan observed has been available for nearly a century. As noted in Steinicke's book about the NGC, and in a 1914 history of the Marseilles Observatory by Stephan himself, sometime prior to 1914 a student assistant at the Observatory, Emmanuel Esmiol, was given the task (apparently by the current director of the Observatory, Guillaume Bigourdan) of collecting all of Stephan's discoveries, and converting their positions to the 1900 Equinox. Apparently the work was completed prior to Stephan's 1914 history, even though it wasn't published until 1916; and hidden in it is the true identity of NGC 218. Namely, as "recently" noticed (per Corwin) by Steve Gottlieb, Esmiol discovered a 4 minute error in the reduction of Stephan's VIIIa-#3, and his 1900 position precesses almost exactly to the position of the actual NGC 218, namely PGC 2720, as listed above. It should be noted that this identification, although absolutely certain, has not yet been corrected in the NGC/IC Project, LEDA, or Wikisky, all of which list or show the wrong galaxy, PGC 2493, as NGC 218 (NED also showed the wrong object until recently, but has corrected the error). Even Steinicke, who has corrected his database to the values shown above, was unaware of the problem at the time he wrote his exhaustive history of the NGC. In a discussion of Esmiol's work, Steinicke mentioned that Esmiol's catalog listed four discoveries by Stephan which had not received NGC or IC numbers, and shows a picture of the most interesting of the four, which is actually the unrecognized NGC 218. Obviously, under these circumstances, any reference to NGC 218 cannot be trusted unless accompanied by its position or PGC listing. If the reference is to PGC 2720 the identification is certain, and the information hopefully trustworthy. If the reference is to PGC 2493 the information may be trustworthy for that object, but the identification is completely wrong. For that reason, the following information is based on a search for PGC 2720, not NGC 218.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11220 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 218 is about 525 million light years away. But for objects at such distances, we must take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took the light from the object to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 500 million light years away when the light by which we see it was emitted, about 510 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the space through which the light traveled during its half-billion year long journey). Given that and its apparent size of 1.7 by 1.5 arcmin (including its fainter extensions), the galaxy is about 220 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 218, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a SDSS image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 218
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 218 and PGC 2726
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 218 and lenticular galaxy PGC 2726
Below, a 1.8 by 2.0 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 218
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 218

PGC 2726
Not an NGC object but listed here because of its interaction with
NGC 218
A magnitude 15 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0/a? pec) in Andromeda (RA 00 46 38.7, Dec +36 19 53)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11095 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 2726 is about 515 million light years away, in reasonably good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 530 to 575 million light years. But for objects at such distances, we must take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took the light of the object to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 490 million light years away when the light by which we see it was emitted, about 500 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the space through which the light traveled during its half-billion year long journey). However, the galaxy is obviously interacting with NGC 218 (which see for images), so whatever the actual distance of the two galaxies is, it must be the same for both of them. Given that and its apparent size of 0.8 by 0.45 arcmin (from the image below) PGC 2726 is about 115 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 2726
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 2726; for wider views see NGC 218

PGC 2493 (not
NGC 218)
Not an NGC object but listed here because of its previous misidentification as NGC 218
A magnitude 15 spiral galaxy (type Scd? pec?) in Andromeda (RA 00 41 44.7, Dec +36 21 33)
Historical Misidentification: Until very recently, PGC 4293 was thought to be NGC 218 (which see for a discussion of the mistake), even though it was a poor match for the supposed position of that object. As a result, it is still listed as NGC 218 in almost every database I have seen, save for Wolfgang Steinicke's NGC and IC Catalog.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4895 km/sec, PGC 2493 is about 225 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 75 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 2493, usually misidentified as NGC 218
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 2493
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 2493, usually misidentified as NGC 218

NGC 219 (= PGC 2522)
Discovered (Sep 16, 1863) by
George Bond
A magnitude 14.3 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Cetus (RA 00 42 11.3, Dec +00 54 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 219 (= GC 5058, G. P. Bond (#1, HN 28), 1860 RA 00 35 01, NPD 89 51.8) is "faint, small, round, 11th magnitude star 1 arcmin to southwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.45 by 0.4 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 219, also showing NGC 223
Above, a 12 arcmin SDSS image centered on NGC 219, also showing NGC 223
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 219

NGC 220 (an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Jan 8, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Discovered (Aug 12, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 open cluster in Tucana (RA 00 40 30.3, Dec -73 24 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 220 (= GC 115 = JH 2338, (Dunlop 2), 1860 RA 00 35 02, NPD 164 09.9) is "faint, irregularly round, very gradually brighter middle, 1st of several", the next being NGC 222. Corwin has a question about whether NGC 220 = NGC 222, but lists different positions for the clusters currently accepted as those objects.
Discovery Notes: Herschel was unable to identify Dunlop's #2, save for a guess that it might be Herschel's #2340, which became NGC 231; but it is now believed that Dunlop #2 refers to this object and NGC 220, hence its inclusion in their NGC entries in parentheses.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.8 arcmin?
DSS image of region near NGC 220, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 222 and NGC 231
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 220, also showing NGC 222 and 231
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the open cluster
DSS image of NGC 220, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 1 degree wide region centered on NGC 220, also showing 222 and 231
DSS image of one degree wide region near NGC 220, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 222 and NGC 231
Below, a 4 degree wide region centered on the clusters (showing the SMC and NGC 104)
Very wide DSS view of region near NGC 220 and 222, showing their position in the Small Magellanic Cloud; also shown is NGC 104

NGC 221 (=
M32 = PGC 2555 = Arp 168)
Discovered (Oct 29, 1749) by Guillaume Le Gentil
Observed (1757) by Charles Messier
Recorded (Aug 3, 1764) by Charles Messier as M32
Also observed (1825) by Wilhelm Struve
Also observed (Sep 18, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.1 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Andromeda (RA 00 42 41.8, Dec +40 51 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 221 (= GC 117 = JH 51, Legentil, M32, 1860 RA 00 35 05, NPD 49 54.2) is "a remarkable object, very very bright, large, round, pretty suddenly much brighter middle and nucleus".
Discovery Notes: Struve's observation was recorded in his catalog of stellar objects, and although some NGC entries do include credit for "stellar" observations made without recognizing the nebular nature of an object, this is one that Dreyer missed; hence Struve's omission in the NGC entry.
Physical Information: A satellite of M31, namely the small galaxy near the disc of its larger companion. Apparent size 8.5 by 6.5 arcmin? Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type cE2. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with a diffuse counter-tail.
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 221, also known as M32
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 221
Below, a 1 degree wide DSS image of the galaxy and M31
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 221, also known as M32, also showing part of M31

NGC 222 (= an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Aug 1, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Apr 11, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 open cluster in Tucana (RA 00 40 44.5, Dec -73 23 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 222 (= GC 118 = JH 2339, (Dunlop 2), 1860 RA 00 35 05, NPD 164 14.0) is "very faint, round, 2nd of several". See the note for NGC 220 concerning the possible duplication with NGC 222.
Discovery Notes: Herschel was unable to identify Dunlop's #2, save for a guess that it might be Herschel's #2340, which became NGC 231; but it is now believed that Dunlop #2 refers to this object and NGC 220, hence its inclusion in their NGC entries in parentheses.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.6 arcmin?
DSS image of NGC 222, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 220
Above, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image centered between NGC 220 and NGC 222
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 222; for more images, see NGC 220
DSS image of NGC 222, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 223 (=
IC 44 = PGC 2527)
Discovered (Jan 5, 1853) by George Bond (and later listed as NGC 223)
Also observed (Jan 1, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 223)
Also observed (in or before 1862) by Auwers (as a reobservation of Bond's nebula)
Also observed (Nov 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 44)
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)ab?) in Cetus (RA 00 42 15.9, Dec +00 50 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 223 (= GC 119, Bond (#2, HN7), d'Arrest, (Auwers 4), 1860 RA 00 35 06, NPD 89 55.7) is "very faint, pretty small, round". The position precesses to RA 00 42 16.5, Dec +00 50 24, on the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain. (See IC 44 for a discussion of the duplicate entry.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5330 km/sec, NGC 223 is about 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.6 by 0.95 arcmin, it is about 115 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 223, also showing NGC 219
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 223, also showing NGC 219
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 223

NGC 224 (=
M31 = PGC 2557), The Andromeda Galaxy
Known to Isfahan (Persian) astronomers before 905 CE
Recorded (964) by Abd-al-Rahman Al-Sufi (in his Book of Fixed Stars)
Seen by innumerable other observers through the ages
Telescopically observed (Dec 15, 1612) by Simon Marius
Observed and recorded (Aug 3, 1764) by Charles Messier as M31
Also observed (Sep 18, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 3.4 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)b?) in Andromeda (RA 00 42 44.3, Dec +41 16 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 224 (= GC 116 = JH 50, Sûfi, M31, 1860 RA 00 35 07, NPD 49 29.8) is "a magnificent object, most extremely bright, extremely large, very much extended (Andromeda)".
Discovery Notes: The nebula was noted (per Richard Hinckley Allen) in a Dutch star map of 1500, and (per Messier and R. H. Allen) had its first telescopic description by Simon Marius. Hodierna also described the object in his publication of 1654, meaning he observed it sometime before then. Edmond Halley ascribed its discovery to Ismail Bouillaud (usually known as Bullialdus), who observed it in 1661; but (per R. H. Allen) Bullialdus stated that it had been seen in the early 1500s by some unnamed astronomer. Given the fact that the nebula is easily visible with the unaided eye in a dark sky, it was probably seen innumerable times by various observers, even in prehistory; but Al-Sufi's volume appears to be the oldest surviving record of its position and (naked-eye) appearance.
Physical Information: The nearest large galaxy to ours, M31 has two elliptical companions, M32 (just below and near the disc of M31 in the image below), and M110 (above M31, in the image below). With its 100 thousand light-year diameter and 2 million light-year distance, M31 appears about the same size as six full moons placed side by side (apparent size 189 by 62 arcmin?). But its low surface brightness makes it impossible to see in urban areas without optical aid, and even with a telescope only the nucleus can be seen, as a faint elliptical blur. In dark skies its true extent is more obvious, and dark lanes of dust crossing the disk can be picked out.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 224, also known as M31, also known as the Andromeda Galaxy; also shown are M32 and M110
Above, a 2 degree wide DSS image of M31, also showing M32 and "M110"
(more images to be posted in a later iteration of this page)

NGC 225 (= OCL 305)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1783) by
Caroline Herschel
Also observed (Nov 26, 1788) by William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 27, 1829) by John Herschel
A magnitude 7.0 open cluster (type III1p) in Cassiopeia (RA 00 43 34.0, Dec +61 46 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 225 (= GC 120 = JH 52 = WH VIII 78, Caroline Herschel, 1860 RA 00 35 19, NPD 28 58.7) is "a cluster, large, a little compressed, stars from 9th to 10th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 15 arcmin?
DSS image of open cluster NGC 225
Above, a 20 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 225

NGC 226 (= PGC 2572)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Andromeda (RA 00 42 54.1, Dec +32 34 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 226 (= GC 121 = JH 53, 1860 RA 00 35 24, NPD 58 10.9) is "extremely faint, small, round, 13th magnitude star 20 arcsec to south".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.7 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 226
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 226
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 226

NGC 227 (= PGC 2547)
Discovered (Oct 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 26, 1883) by Basilius Engelhardt
A magnitude 12.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 00 42 36.8, Dec -01 31 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 227 (= GC 122 = WH II 444, Engelhardt (I), 1860 RA 00 35 28, NPD 92 17.7) is "faint, pretty large, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 1.3 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 227
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 227
Below, a 2 arcmin SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 227

NGC 228 (= PGC 2563)
Discovered (Oct 10, 1879) by
Édouard Stephan
A 1magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(rs)ab?) in Andromeda (RA 00 42 54.5, Dec +23 30 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 228 (Stephan list X (#1), 1860 RA 00 35 32, NPD 67 15.8) is "extremely faint, small, round, fainter of 2", the other being NGC 229.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below), including the faint outer ring/arms.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 228, also showing NGC 229
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 228, also showing NGC 229
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 228

NGC 229 (PGC 2577)
Discovered (Oct 10, 1879) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.1 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Andromeda (RA 00 43 04.7, Dec +23 30 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 229 (Stephan list X (#2), 1860 RA 00 35 42, NPD 67 15.5) is "very faint, small, round, smaller of 2", the other being NGC 228.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.3 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 229, also showing NGC 228
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 229, also showing NGC 228
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 229

NGC 230 (= PGC 2539)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 42 27.2, Dec -23 37 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 230 (Leavenworth list II (#291), 1860 RA 00 35 43, NPD 114 22.9) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.2 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 230, also showing NGC 232, NGC 235, and IC 1573
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 230, also showing NGC 232, NGC 235, and IC 1573
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 230

NGC 231 (an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Probably not observed (Aug 1, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Discovered (Aug 12, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 open cluster in Tucana (RA 00 41 07.2, Dec -73 21 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 231 (= GC 123 = JH 2340, Dunlop 2??, 1860 RA 00 35 51, NPD 164 07.3) is "an irregular train of stars and nebulae".
Discovery Notes: Dunlop #2 is now thought to represent NGC 220 and 222, and not NGC 231.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 arcmin?
DSS image of region near NGC 231, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 220 and NGC 222
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 231, also showing NGC 220 and 222
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster; for wider views, see NGC 220
DSS image of NGC 231, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 232 (= PGC 2559)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)a? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 42 45.8, Dec -23 33 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 232 (Leavenworth list II (#292), 1860 RA 00 36 01, NPD 114 19.9) is "extremely faint, small, round, brighter middle and nucleus". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 35 49.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin (from image below)
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 232
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 232; for a wider view, see NGC 235

NGC 233 (= PGC 2604)
Discovered (Sep 11, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 23, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 43 36.6, Dec +30 35 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 233 (= GC 124 = JH 54 = WH III 149, 1860 RA 00 36 05, NPD 60 11.0) is "faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 1.2 arcmin??
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 233
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 233
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 233

NGC 234 (= PGC 2600)
Discovered (Oct 14, 1784) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Pisces (RA 00 43 32.4, Dec +14 20 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 234 (= GC 125 = WH II 245, 1860 RA 00 36 11, NPD 76 27.9) is "faint, pretty small, irregularly a little extended, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.2 arcmin??
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 234
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 234
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 234

NGC 235 (= PGC 2568)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0/(r)a? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 42 52.8, Dec -23 32 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 235 (Leavenworth list II (#293), 1860 RA 00 36 13, NPD 114 17.9) is "extremely faint, small, round, brighter middle and nucleus". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 35 57. The NGC description gives no hint of PGC 2570's existence, so "NGC 235" is generally assigned only to PGC 2568, and its companion treated as a separate object, instead of as a component of Leavenworth's nebula.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6665 km/sec, NGC 235 is about 310 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.3 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 120 thousand light years across. Given the minimal difference in their radial velocities and their apparent interaction, it is probably a physical pair with its companion. (Note: A Wikisky search for NGC 235 shows the correct object, but the mouseover labels are offset to the west, and out of order.)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 235 and lenticular galaxy PGC 2570 (which is sometimes called NGC 235B), overlaid on a DSS image to fill in missing areas; also shown is NGC 232
Above, a SDSS image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 235
Also shown are NGC 230 and 232
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS/DSS image of the galaxy and its apparent companion, PGC 2570
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 235 and lenticular galaxy PGC 2570 (which is sometimes called NGC 235B), overlaid on a DSS image to fill in an otherwise missing area at lower right
Below, a raw HST image of the pair (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive; minimal processing by C. Seligman)
Raw HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 235 and lenticular galaxy PGC 2570 (which is sometimes called NGC 235B)

PGC 2570 (= "NGC 235B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 235B
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0? pec) in
Cetus (RA 00 42 53.7, Dec -23 32 43)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6800 km/sec, PGC 2570 is about 315 million light years away, and given the minimal difference between its radial velocity and that of NGC 235 (which see for images), is probably a physical pair with that galaxy. Given that and its apparent size of 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin, it is about 35 thousand light years across.

NGC 236 (= PGC 2596)
Discovered (Aug 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c?) in Pisces (RA 00 43 27.5, Dec +02 57 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 236 (= GC 5117, Marth #16, 1860 RA 00 36 14, NPD 87 47) is "very faint, pretty large".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.25 by 1.15 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 236
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 236
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 236

NGC 237 (= PGC 2597)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1867) by
Truman Safford
Discovered (Nov 21, 1886) by Lewis Swift
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd?) in Cetus (RA 00 43 27.9, Dec -00 07 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 237 (Swift list VI (#6), (Safford 94), 1860 RA 00 36 33, NPD 90 53.6) is "very faint, pretty small, a little extended, a little brighter middle". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 00 36 18.
Discovery Notes: Although Safford observed this object in 1867, none of his discoveries were published until 1887 (see more about that at his biographical entry), so neither Swift nor Dreyer were aware of them at the time the NGC was under preparation. Some of them were included in an Appendix to the NGC, but it was impractical to correct the individual entries.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.8 by 1.1 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 237
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 237
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 237

Barnard's Andromeda OB, part of the Andromeda Galaxy
Not an NGC object but listed here since in Corwin's
notngc notes
Recorded (Oct 8, 1885) by Edward Barnard
An OB association in Andromeda (RA 00 44 33.4, Dec +41 52 20)
Historical Identification: Barnard's Andromeda OB association (1860 RA 00 36 53, NPD 48 54.6) is "small, faint, near eastern end of M31, 17.1 arcmin north and 29 seconds east of 9th magnitude star W2 0h952, southeast of small star" (the 1860 position having been obtained by precessing Barnard's 1885 position). Barnard's original position precesses to J2000 RA 00 44 32.9, Dec +41 51 23, well within the OB association listed above, 17 arcmin north and 29 seconds east of magnitude 9.0 star BD+40 151, and southeast of a 13th magnitude star, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: As noted by Corwin, such an observation would normally have been given an NGC entry by Dreyer, but in this case it was not, hence its inclusion in his "notngc" list. The "date recorded" is based on Barnard's note of Oct 9, 1885, in which he says "I have for some time suspected a faint Nebula near the (eastern) end of the Great Nebula in Andromeda. Last night being fine I verified its existence." This suggests that he had already observed the region on numerous occasions, but only took the time to carefully observe and record the position on Oct 8, 1885.
Physical Information: Given the 2.54 million light year distance of the Andromeda Galaxy, the association's apparent size of 4.1 by 1.8 arcmin corresponds to 3000 light years.
NOAO image of M31 showing the location of the OB association listed as Barnard And OB
Above, a ? degree wide image of the Andromeda Galaxy showing the location of Barnard And OB
(Image Credit Bill Schoening, Vanessa Harvey/REU program/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 15 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Barnard And OB
DSS image of region near the OB association listed as Barnard And OB
Below, an 8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the association
DSS image of the OB association listed as Barnard And OB

NGC 238 (= PGC 2595)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)b? pec) in Phoenix (RA 00 43 25.8, Dec -50 10 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 238 (= GC 126 = JH 2341, 1860 RA 00 36 53, NPD 140 56.7) is "extremely faint, pretty large, round, gradually a very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.6 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 238
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 238
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 238

NGC 239 (= PGC 2642)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Ormond Stone
Also observed (date?) by Max Wolf
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab?) in Cetus (RA 00 44 37.5, Dec -03 45 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 239 (Leavenworth list I (#12), 1860 RA 00 37 30, NPD 94 32.9) is "pretty faint, pretty small, extended 20°, brighter middle and nucleus, 8th magnitude star 20 seconds of time to east". The first Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Ormond Stone) of 00 38 40; but the second Index Catalog states (per Max Wolf) that the original NGC place is correct.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.5 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 239
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 239
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 239

NGC 240 (= PGC 2653)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0(r)a? pec) in Pisces (RA 00 45 01.9, Dec +06 06 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 240 (Swift list V (#9), 1860 RA 00 37 58, NPD 84 39.3) is "very faint, small, round, star near to south".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.3 by 2.3 arcmin (from images below), counting the extended outer ring.
SDSS image of region near lenticulargalaxy NGC 240
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 240
Below, a 2.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 240

NGC 241 (=
NGC 242, an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1834) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 242)
Discovered (Aug 12, 1834) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 241)
A magnitude 12 open cluster in Tucana (RA 00 43 33.9, Dec -73 26 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 241 (= GC 127 = JH 2342, 1860 RA 00 38 13, NPD 164 11.7) is "very faint, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 arcmin? Bi-nuclear, with the northwestern center at RA 00 43 31.6, Dec -73 26 26, and the southeastern center at RA 00 43 36.4, Dec -73 26 41.
DSS image of region near NGC 241, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 241
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of NGC 241, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 242 (=
NGC 241, an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1834) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 242)
Discovered (Aug 12, 1834) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 241)
A magnitude 12 open cluster in Tucana (RA 00 43 33.9, Dec -73 26 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 242 (= GC 128 = JH 2343, 1860 RA 00 38 19, NPD 164 12.3) is "very faint, small, bi-nuclear".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 241 for anything else.

NGC 243 (= PGC 2687)
Discovered (Oct 18, 1881) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Andromeda (RA 00 46 00.9, Dec +29 57 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 243 (Stephan list XII (#6), 1860 RA 00 38 32, NPD 60 48.5) is "faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle, 10th magnitude star to the west".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.35 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 243, also showing the pair of stars listed as IC 1580
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 243, also showing IC 1580
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 243

NGC 244 (= PGC 2675)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 15, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 45 46.4, Dec -15 35 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 244 (= GC 129 = JH 55 = WH III 485, 1860 RA 00 38 45, NPD 106 21.0) is "very faint, small, irregularly round, mottled but not resolved, 10th magnitude star 5 arcmin to south".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.9 arcmin (from images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 244
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 244
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 244

NGC 245 (PGC 2691)
Discovered (Oct 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)b? pec) in Cetus (RA 00 46 05.4, Dec -01 43 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 245 (= GC 130 = WH II 445, 1860 RA 00 39 04, NPD 92 29.2) is "faint, pretty small, irregular figure, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 1.4 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 245
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 245
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 245

NGC 246, the Skull Nebula
Discovered (Nov 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 16, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.9 planetary nebula in Cetus (RA 00 47 03.3, Dec -11 52 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 246 (= GC 131 = JH 56 = WH V 25, 1860 RA 00 40 01, NPD 102 38.4) is "very faint, large, 4 stars in diffuse nebula".
Physical Information: The nebula is being created by the fainter member of the binary star near the center of the nebula as it enters the last stage of its life, collapsing from a red giant to a white dwarf. Apparent size 4.6 by 4.1 arcmin.
Gemini South image of planetary nebula NGC 246, overlaid on a DSS background of the region near the nebula
Above, a Gemini South image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 246
(Image Credit above and below: Gemini South GMOS, Travis Rector (Univ. Alaska))
Below, a 5 arcmin wide Gemini South image of the planetary nebula
Gemini South image of planetary nebula NGC 246

NGC 247 (= PGC 2758)
Discovered (Oct 20, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 16, 1830) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 9.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)d?) in Cetus (RA 00 47 08.4, Dec -20 45 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 247 (= GC 132 = JH 57 = WH V 20, 1860 RA 00 40 04, NPD 111 31.0) is "faint, extremely large, very much extended 172°". A note in the NGC adds "According to Tempel, this nebula is 30 arcmin long".
Physical Information: A recessional velocity of only 155 km/sec is too small to give a reliable estimate of distance, peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities being that large or larger for many galaxies. Redshift-independent distance estimates previously ranged from 7 to 14 million light years away, with 12 million light years being the most generally agreed-upon distance. However, recent studies of Cepheid variables in NGC 247, taking into account the absorption of their light by dust in the nearly edge-on disc of the galaxy, indicate that it is only 11 million light years away, over a million light years closer than the previous estimate. Given that and its apparent size of about 21 by 7 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across. NGC 247 is part of the Sculptor Group, one of the nearest groups of galaxies to our Milky Way galaxy. Some of the galaxies in the group are only loosely bound to the cluster, but NGC 247 is one of a central core of galaxies which are strongly influenced by each other's gravity, such as the namesake of the group, NGC253.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 247
Above, a 40 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 247
Below, a 20 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 247
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the galaxy, emphasizing its emission regions (Image Credit ESO)
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 247

NGC 248 (in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1834) by
John Herschel
A pair of emission nebulae in Tucana (RA 00 45 25.0, Dec -73 22 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 248 (= GC 133 = JH 2344, 1860 RA 00 40 13, NPD 164 08.6) is "faint, small, extended or binuclear, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Believed to be two separate emission nebulae that only appear to be a single object (though the NGC entry still corresponds to the pair). The northern center lies at RA 00 45 24.2, Dec -73 22 40 and the southern at RA 00 45 25.8, Dec -73 23 01. Overall apparent size about 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin (from the HST image below). Distance about 195 to 200 thousand light years.
DSS image of region near NGC 248, an emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 248
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the nebula
DSS image of NGC 248, an emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide HST image of the nebula
(Image Credit NASA/ESA/STScI, K. Sandstrom (UCSD), & the SMIDGE team)
HST image of NGC 248, an emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 249 (in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Sep 5, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Sep 20, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13 emission nebula in Tucana (RA 00 45 30.0, Dec -73 04 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 249 (= GC 134 = JH 2346, Dunlop 19? 21?, 1860 RA 00 40 18, NPD 163 51.0) is "faint, pretty large, very little extended, mottled but not resolved".
Discovery Notes: This is now thought to be Dunlop #19.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 arcmin?
DSS image of NGC 249, an emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 261
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 249, also showing NGC 261
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the nebula
DSS image of NGC 249, an emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 150 - 199) ←NGC Objects: NGC 200 - 249→ (NGC 250 - 299)