Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Oct 20, 2016
Checked for mis-spelling of DeLisle Stewart
WORKING 2151: Add basic pix, tags

NGC 2150 (= PGC 18097)
Discovered (Feb 9, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(r)a) in Dorado (RA 05 55 46.4, Dec -69 33 39)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4470 km/sec, NGC 2150 is about 210 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 2150
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 2150
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 2150

NGC 2151 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Jan 31, 1835) by
John Herschel
An open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 56 20.5, Dec -69 01 03)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.0 arcmin.

NGC 2152 (= PGC 18249)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa) in Pictor (RA 06 00 55.0, Dec -50 44 27)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.8 arcmin.

NGC 2153 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Jan 3, 1837) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 57 51.8, Dec -66 24 03)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.3 arcmin.

NGC 2154 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Nov 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 57 38.3, Dec -67 15 44)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 2.4 arcmin.

NGC 2155 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Nov 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 58 33.3, Dec -65 28 35)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 2.1 arcmin.

NGC 2156 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1826) by
James Dunlop (197)
An 11th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 57 50.4, Dec -68 27 39)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.1 arcmin.

NGC 2157 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Nov 6, 1826) by
James Dunlop (161)
A 10th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 57 34.9, Dec -69 11 50)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 2.7 arcmin.

NGC 2158 (= OCL 468)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 9th-magnitude open cluster (type II3r) in Gemini (RA 06 07 25.6, Dec +24 05 46)
NGC 2158 is 10 to 15 thousand light years away. It is over a billion years old, so its hottest Main Sequence stars are spectral type F0, and it has many orange and red giants. Its thousands of stars are contained within a region about 5 arcmin across, or 15 to 20 light years in diameter. Because of this compact structure, it was once thought to be a small globular cluster, but the "youth" of its stellar population confirm that it is a galactic cluster (Milky Way globular clusters are over 10 billion years old).
NOAO image of open cluster NGC 2158
Above, a 10 arcmin wide image of NGC 2158 (Image Credits: Neil Jacobstein/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, an image of NGC 2158 and apparently nearby M35 (Image Credit: N. A. Sharp, AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of open cluster NGC 2158 and open cluster NGC 2168, also known as M35
In the image above, NGC 2158 is the smaller cluster at lower right. M35 is the larger one at upper left. However, the difference in apparent size is misleading, as it is primarily due to their different distances (NGC 2158 being 10 to 15 thousand light years away, and M35 only about 2800 light years away, or about four to five times closer).

NGC 2159 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Nov 6, 1826) by
James Dunlop (193)
An 11th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 58 03.0, Dec -68 37 28)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 0.9 arcmin.

NGC 2160 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 58 12.9, Dec -68 17 23)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.2 arcmin.

NGC 2161 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Feb 8, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude open cluster in Mensa (RA 05 55 43.2, Dec -74 21 14)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 2.2 arcmin.

NGC 2162 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Nov 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 06 00 30.4, Dec -63 43 20)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 2.1 arcmin.

NGC 2163
Discovered (Feb 6, 1874) by
Édouard Stephan (9-6)
A reflection nebula in Orion (RA 06 07 49.5, Dec +18 39 27)
The second IC notes "NPD is 71 19.5; the (original) PD given belongs to 1741. My mistake." Apparent size 3.0 by 2.0 arcmin.

NGC 2164 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1826) by
James Dunlop (194)
A 10th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 58 55.0, Dec -68 30 56)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 2.5 arcmin.

NGC 2165
Discovered (Feb 12, 1831) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 open cluster in Auriga (RA 06 11 04.0, Dec +51 40 42)
Apparent size 6? arcmin.

NGC 2166 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1826) by
James Dunlop (222)
A 13th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 05 59 33.8, Dec -67 56 29)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.2 arcmin.

NGC 2167 (= HD 41794)
Discovered (Jan 8, 1831) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 6.6 star in Monoceros (RA 06 06 58.6, Dec -06 12 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 2167 (= GC 1359 = JH 378 = WH IV 44, 1860 RA 06 00 09, NPD 96 11.8) is a "nebulous 7th magnitude star, among 3 stars". The position precesses to RA 06 06 58.9, Dec -06 12 32, which falls right on magnitude 6.6 HD 41794, and although save for the magnitude the description is wrong, that problem was resolved by Dreyer in a 1912 paper (as discussed in the Discovery Notes immediately below), so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: As implied by the NGC entry, John Herschel presumed that his father's IV 44 was the same object as his 378, and added part of his father's description to his own impression of the star. However, when Dreyer went over William Herschel's papers twenty-some years later, he discovered that the two observations were of completely different objects, and in a 1912 list of corrections to the NGC stated "2167. (William Herschel's) IV.44 cannot be (John Herschel's) 378 but is probably a star of the 11th magnitude 70 seconds of time following it on the parallel", meaning 70 seconds of time to the east. That star (HD 42004) is surrounded by a large reflection nebula, and perfectly fits the elder Herschel's description of his IV 44 (as quoted by Corwin): "A star involved in milky chevelure, situated betwee[n] two stars, with a 3[rd] star at rectangles to the former two." However, Dreyer's 1912 list of corrections is often overlooked, so NGC 2167 is just as often misidentified as the reflection nebula to its east, as warned against in the following entry.
DSS image of region near the star listed as NGC 2167
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the star listed as NGC 2167

WH IV 44 (= vdB 68, but not =
NGC 2167)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1786) by William Herschel
Not an NGC object but listed here because of the historical errors noted in the entry for NGC 2167
A reflection nebula in Monoceros (RA 06 08 04.0, Dec -06 13 31)
Historical Identification: As stated in the Discovery Notes for NGC 2167, John Herschel assumed that his 387 was the same as his father's IV 44; but two years before the publication of the General Catalog Auwers noted that the elder Herschel's position was nearly 40 seconds of time to the east of his son's observation. And as a result of his reassessment of William Herschel's papers Dreyer also published a note (fifty years after Auwer's 1862 paper) stating that WH IV 44 could not be the same as NGC 2617, and was probably the 11th magnitude star 70 seconds of time to the east of that object. The (9th magnitude) star lighting up the reflection nebula listed above has three stars to its north that fit William Herschel's description of his IV 44, and the position is close to that stated by Dreyer, so there is no doubt of the identification of this object as WH IV 44.
Warning: This reflection nebula was listed as NGC 2167 in my primary reference when I started this catalog, and I presume has been listed as such in other places as well. So though it is definitely not the star observed by John Herschel that became Dreyer's NGC 2167, it may still be listed as the NGC object in some places.
Physical Information: Apparent size 8 by 8 arcmin?
DSS image of region near reflection nebula WH IV 44, which is vdB 68 but not NGC 2167
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on vdB 68 = WH IV 44
Below, a 10 arcmin wide image of the reflection nebula
(Image Credit Stephan Seip and Elke Schulz/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of reflection nebula WH IV 44, which is vdB 68 but not NGC 2167

NGC 2168 (=
M35 = OCL 466)
Discovered (1745) by Philippe de Cheseaux
Recorded (Aug 30, 1764) by Charles Messier
A 5th-magnitude open cluster (type III2m) in Gemini (RA 06 09 00.0, Dec +24 21 00)
M35 is about 2800 light years away. Its core is almost 20 arcmin across, and scattered outliers cover twice that distance (these apparent sizes correspond to about 15 and 30 light years). The cluster contains over 120 stars brighter than magnitude 13, and around 500 stars total. Its hottest stars are of spectral class B3, but it also contains some yellow and orange giants of type G and K. This indicates a probable age of 100 million years. Velocity studies indicate that there are about 2000 solar masses in the central 10 light years, and the entire cluster probably contains at least twice that mass.
DSS image of open cluster NGC 2168, also known as M35
Above, a 36 arcmin wide "closeup" of M35
Below, a view of M35 and its "nearby" companion, NGC 2158
NOAO image of open cluster NGC 2168, also known as M35, and open cluster NGC 2158
In the image above, NGC 2158 is the smaller cluster at lower right. M35 is the larger one at upper left. However, the difference in apparent size is misleading, as it is primarily due to their different distances (NGC 2158 being 10 to 15 thousand light years away, and M35 only about 2800 light years away, or about four to five times closer).

NGC 2169 (= OCL 481)
Possibly observed (before 1654) by
Giovanni Hodierna
Discovered (Oct 12, 1782) by William Herschel
A 6th-magnitude open star cluster (type I3p) in Orion (RA 06 08 24.3, Dec +13 57 53)
Historical Identification: (See the discussion of Hodierna for an explanation of why he was not credited with the discovery of any NGC object. In addition, although many of his discoveries can be definitely connected to specific NGC objects, the identification of NGC 2169 and 2175 with Hodierna's observations is very uncertain.)
Discovery Notes: William Herschel's VIII 24 was observed by him on Oct 15, 1784; but per Steinicke, Herschel had already observed the cluster (but not recorded it as such) during his earlier studies of double stars, whence the date of discovery shown above.
Physical Information: Just a few stars, scattered across a region about 6 arcmin across.
DSS image of open cluster NGC 2169
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 2169

NGC 2170
Discovered (Oct 16, 1784) by
William Herschel
A reflection nebula in Monoceros (RA 06 07 31.3, Dec -06 23 53)
Apparent size 2.0 by 2.0 arcmin.

NGC 2171
Discovered (Dec 16, 1835) by
John Herschel
A star cloud in Mensa (RA 05 44 13.8, Dec -70 40 09)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud.

NGC 2172 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Jan 31, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 06 00 05.9, Dec -68 38 13)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.7 arcmin.

NGC 2173 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Feb 8, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude open cluster in Mensa (RA 05 57 58.5, Dec -72 58 41)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 2.4 arcmin.

NGC 2174 (= a knot in
NGC 2175)
Discovered (Feb 6, 1877) by Édouard Stephan
A group of stars and associated nebulosity in Orion (RA 06 09 23.6, Dec +20 39 34)
Per Dreyer, NGC 2174 (= Stephan's list IX (#7), 1860 RA 06 01 03, NPD 69 19.0) is "extremely faint, between 3 very faint stars". The position precesses to RA 06 09 23.9, Dec +20 39 56, dead center on the brightest portion of a group of stars and surrounding nebulosity located in the northwest portion of NGC 2175, so the identification is certain. The "knot in NGC 2175" (as described by Corwin), is about 3.5 by 2.0 arcmin in size. Note: Many (if not most) references assign NGC 2174 to the much larger nebula which should be actually be called NGC 2175 (as shown below). As a result, most images of "NGC 2174" are actually images of NGC 2175.
DSS image of the group of stars and associated nebulosity which should be listed as NGC 2174
Above, an 8 arcmin wide region centered on the correct NGC 2174
Below, a half-degree wide region centered on NGC 2174, showing its relationship to NGC 2175
DSS image of the region near the group of stars and associated nebulosity which should be listed as NGC 2174, showing their position within emission nebula NGC 2175

NGC 2175 (= EN + OCL 476)
Possibly observed (before 1654) by
Giovanni Hodierna (see NGC 2169)
Discovered (1857) by Christian Bruhns
An emission nebula in Orion (RA 06 09 39.6, Dec +20 29 16)
Also a 7th-magnitude open star cluster (OCL 476) within the nebula which has acquired the same title
Per Dreyer, NGC 2175 (= Bruhns, 1860 RA 06 01 19, NPD 69 29.7) is an "8th-magnitude star in nebulosity" (the 8th-magnitude star being Auwers 21, or HD 42088). The second IC lists a corrected 1860 RA (per Bigourdan) of 06 01 32. Per Corwin, this correction is due to Bigourdan's mistaking a bright portion of the nebula as the object observed by Bruhns. However, Auwers' observation of the 8th-magnitude star and surrounding nebulosity, combined with Dreyer's description, makes it clear that it is the much larger nebula surrounding that star that is meant to be NGC 2175, and not the bright knot to its east measured by Bigourdan. Therefore, ignoring the "corrected" RA, the position precesses to RA 06 09 39.2, Dec +20 29 11, which is within 0.1 arcmin of HD 42088 (whose position is listed as the position of NGC 2175, above); so the identification is certain. Despite the certain identification, many (if not most) references incorrectly call this nebula NGC 2174, most so-called images of NGC 2174 are actually images of NGC 2175, and the positions and descriptions of the two are often mixed up. The apparent size of NGC 2175 is about 40 by 30 arcmin. Aside from NGC 2174 (one of several knots in NGC 2175), the emission nebula contains IC 2159 and an open cluster (OCL 476) which (due to the misuse of NGC 2174 in place of NGC 2175) has acquired the title NGC 2175, despite not being mentioned in the historical literature describing the nebula (but is therefore mentioned in the double description at the start of this entry).
DSS image of emission nebula NGC 2175
Above, a 45 arcmin wide view of NGC 2175
Below, a HST closeup of a portion of NGC 2175 (not NGC 2174) (Image Credits: ESA, Hubble, NASA)
HST image of a portion of emission nebula NGC 2175
Below, a 45 arcmin view of NGC 2175, showing the location of NGC 2174 and the HST image above
DSS image of emission nebula NGC 2175, showing the position of NGC 2174, and of an HST image of a western portion of the nebula

"NGC 2175S"
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 2175S due to its proximity to
NGC 2175
An open cluster near NGC 2175 (RA 06 10 54.0, Dec +20 36 36)
Apparent size 5 arcmin. Also known as Lund 1182.
DSS image of so-called open cluster NGC 2175S, also known as Lund 1182
Above, a 15 arcmin wide region centered on the cluster
Below, the 4 degree wide finding chart for NGC 2175, also showing the so-called NGC 2175S
DSS image of region near so-called open cluster NGC 2175S, also known as Lund 1182, showing its position relative to NGC 2175

NGC 2176 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Jan 3, 1837) by
John Herschel
An open cluster in Dorado (RA 06 01 19.4, Dec -66 51 12)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.3 arcmin.

NGC 2177 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Dec 13, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 06 01 16.5, Dec -67 44 00)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.2 arcmin.

NGC 2178 (= PGC 18322)
Discovered (Jan 31, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0) in Pictor (RA 06 02 47.5, Dec -63 45 50)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.9 arcmin.

NGC 2179 (= PGC 18453)
Discovered (Nov 21, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Lepus (RA 06 08 02.1, Dec -21 44 46)
The second IC adds (per Howe) "For 'very much extended' read 'between 2 stars' ".
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin.

NGC 2180
Discovered (Jan 24, 1784) by
William Herschel
An open cluster in Orion (RA 06 09 36.2, Dec +04 42 44)
Apparent size 6 arcmin.

NGC 2181 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Nov 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 06 02 43.7, Dec -65 15 54)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.6 arcmin.

NGC 2182
Discovered (Feb 24, 1786) by
William Herschel
A reflection nebula in Monoceros (RA 06 09 30.9, Dec -06 19 35)
Apparent size 2.0 by 2.0 arcmin.

NGC 2183
Discovered (1850) by
Bindon Stoney
A reflection nebula in Monoceros (RA 06 10 46.9, Dec -06 12 43)
Apparent size 1.0 by 1.0 arcmin.

NGC 2184, the "mini-Hyades"
Discovered (Feb 19, 1830) by
John Herschel
A group of stars in Orion (RA 06 11 00.0, Dec -03 29 00)
Apparent size 33 arcmin.

NGC 2185
Discovered (Oct 16, 1784) by
William Herschel
A reflection nebula in Monoceros (RA 06 11 00.4, Dec -06 13 36)
Apparent size 1.0 by 1.0 arcmin.

NGC 2186 (= OCL 498)
Discovered (Jan 27, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 9th-magnitude open cluster (type II2p) in Orion (RA 06 12 07.1, Dec +05 27 31)
Apparent size 5 arcmin

NGC 2187 (= PGC 18354 + 18355)
Discovered (Dec 23, 1834) by
John Herschel
A pair of spiral galaxies in Dorado
PGC 18354 = A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa) at RA 06 03 52.4, Dec -69 34 40
PGC 18355 = A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa) at RA 06 03 44.2, Dec -69 35 17
PGC 18354 apparent size is 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin. PGC 18355 apparent size is 1.7 by 0.9 arcmin. Dreyer's original entry specifies a double nebula, so the listing refers to the pair of galaxies.
DSS image of the pair of spiral galaxies listed as NGC 2187, showing the PGC listing for each galaxy
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of the pair of galaxies listed as NGC 2187
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
DSS image of region near the pair of spiral galaxies listed as NGC 2187

NGC 2188 (= PGC 18536)
Discovered (Jan 9, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBm) in Columba (RA 06 10 09.7, Dec -34 06 18)
Apparent size 4.2 by 1.1 arcmin

NGC 2189
Recorded (Mar 19, 1863) by
Truman Safford (7, HN 25/26)
A lost or nonexistent object in Orion (RA 06 12 17.0, Dec +01 03 42)

NGC 2190
Discovered (Feb 8, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude open cluster in Mensa (RA 06 01 04.1, Dec -74 43 32)
Apparent size 2.0 arcmin

NGC 2191 (= PGC 18464)
Discovered (Jan 9, 1837) by
John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Carina (RA 06 08 23.7, Dec -52 30 44)
Apparent size 1.7 by 0.9 arcmin

NGC 2192 (= OCL 437)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1788) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude open cluster (type III1p) in Auriga (RA 06 15 17.4, Dec +39 51 19)
Apparent size 5.0 arcmin

NGC 2193 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Dec 3, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 06 06 17.9, Dec -65 05 57)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.9 arcmin.

NGC 2194 (= OCL 495)
Discovered (Feb 11, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 9th-magnitude open cluster (type III1r) in Orion (RA 06 13 45.9, Dec +12 48 24)
Apparent size 9 arcmin

NGC 2195
Recorded (1886) by
Gerhard Lohse
A pair of stars in Orion (RA 06 14 34.8, Dec +17 38 22)

NGC 2196 (= PGC 18602)
Discovered (Nov 20, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SA(s)a) in Lepus (RA 06 12 09.6, Dec -21 48 22)
Based on a recessional velocity of 2320 km/sec, NGC 2196 is about 110 million light years away, in reasonably good agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of 95 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 3.0 by 2.3 arcmin, the galaxy is about 90 thousand light years across. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SA(rs)ab.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 2196
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 2196
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 2196

NGC 2197 (= OCL in LMC)
Discovered (Jan 31, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude open cluster in Dorado (RA 06 06 08.7, Dec -67 05 51)
In the Large Magellanic Cloud. Apparent size 1.7 arcmin.

NGC 2198
Recorded (Mar 19, 1863) by
Truman Safford (8, HN27)
A lost or nonexistent object in Orion (RA 06 13 54.0, Dec +00 59 42)

NGC 2199 (= PGC 18379)
Discovered (Feb 8, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa) in Mensa (RA 06 04 44.9, Dec -73 24 00)
Apparent size 2.0 by 0.8 arcmin
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 2199
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 2199
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 2199
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 2100 - 2149) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 2150 - 2199     → (NGC 2200 - 2249)