Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3000 - 3049) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 3050 - 3099 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 3100 - 3149)
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Page last updated Aug 7, 2015
Done with Steinicke, Dreyer, C positions, references to C notes
WORKING 3066, 3068: Need some work or at least a final edit
WORKING 3070+: Precess positions & identify objects, post images, fill in physical information

NGC 3050 (almost certainly =
NGC 2979, and if so = PGC 27795)
Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 2979)
Also observed (Mar 9, 1828) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 2979)
Recorded (1886) by Frank Muller (and later listed as NGC 3050)
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type (R)SA(r)a?) in Sextans (RA 09 43 08.7, Dec -10 23 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3050 (Muller list II (#418), 1860 RA 09 47 32, NPD 99 43.6) is "very faint, pretty small, very little extended, gradually brighter middle and nucleus". The position precesses to RA 09 54 24.6, Dec -10 23 09, in a nearly stellar field, with nothing nebular that Muller could possibly have seen. However, per Corwin, there is an object that perfectly matches Muller's description a little over 11 minutes of time to the west, namely NGC 2979, so it appears that Muller simply made a digit error (that is, 10 minutes of time) in recording the right ascension, plus the one or two minute of time error typical of Leander McCormick Observatory "novae". As a result, the identification of NGC 3050 as a duplicate of NGC 2979 is considered essentially certain.
Physical Information: Given the apparent duplicate entry, see NGC 2979 for anything else.

NGC 3051 (= PGC 28536, and perhaps =
NGC 3046)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1835) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3051)
Perhaps also observed (Mar 24, 1835) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3046)
A magnitude 11.8 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(s)a? pec) in Antlia (RA 09 53 58.6, Dec -27 17 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3051 (= GC 1961 = JH 3201, 1860 RA 09 47 41, NPD 116 37.9) is "pretty faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, northeastern of 2", the other being NGC 3046. The position precesses to RA 09 54 00.4, Dec -27 17 26, on the eastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: As discussed in the entry for NGC 3046, that otherwise nonexistent object may be a misrecorded observation of NGC 3051; but since Herschel specifically disavowed that possibility, the equality of the two entries is considered uncertain at best.
Physical Information: In a cluster of galaxies. Based on a recessional velocity of 2550 km/sec, NGC 3051 is 115 to 120 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 125 to 170 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.0 by 1.6 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3051
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3051
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3051

NGC 3052 (= PGC 28570)
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 23, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Hydra (RA 09 54 28.0, Dec -18 38 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3052 (= GC 1962 = JH 3202 = WH III 272, 1860 RA 09 47 51, NPD 107 58.7) is "faint, pretty large, round, gradually a little brighter middle, northeastern of 2", the other being NGC 3045. The position precesses to RA 09 54 28.3, Dec -18 38 16, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3780 km/sec, NGC 3052 is 175 to 180 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 120 to 190 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.25 by 1.7 arcmin, it is about 115 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3052
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3052
Below, a 2.6 by 2.4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 3052

NGC 3053 (= PGC 28631)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 18, 1836) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)a?) in Leo (RA 09 55 33.6, Dec +16 25 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3053 (= GC 1963 = JH 3200 = WH III 600, 1860 RA 09 47 54, NPD 72 54.1) is "very faint, small, very little extended, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 09 55 34.2, Dec +16 26 16, on the northeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3735 km/sec, NGC 3053 is 170 to 175 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 180 to 190 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.7 by 0.65 arcmin, it is 85 to 90 thousand light years across. Its complex core suggests that it may be a starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3053
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3053
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3053

NGC 3054 (= PGC 28571)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1859) by
Christian Peters
Also observed (Jan 14, 1886) by Ormond Stone
A magnitude 11.8 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Hydra (RA 09 54 28.6, Dec -25 42 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3054 (Peters, Ormond Stone list I (#160), 1860 RA 09 48 00, NPD 115 03) is "pretty bright, large, irregularly oblong". The position precesses to RA 09 54 23.0, Dec -25 42 35, just off the western rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 2425 km/sec, NGC 3054 is 110 to 115 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 70 to 130 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.7 by 2.4 arcmin, it is 120 to 125 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3054
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3054
Below, a 4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 3054
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide HST image of part of the galaxy, superimposed on the image above
(Image Credit & © as above, Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons)
HST image of part o f spiral galaxy NGC 3054 superimposed on a Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey background

NGC 3055 (= PGC 28617)
Discovered (Jan 24, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 10, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c?) in Sextans (RA 09 55 18.1, Dec +04 16 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3055 (= GC 1964 = JH 656 = WH VI 4, 1860 RA 09 48 00, NPD 85 04.2) is "faint, pretty large, very little extended, very gradually brighter middle, partially resolved, some stars seen, 7th magnitude star 92 seconds of time to east". The position precesses to RA 09 55 18.3, Dec +04 16 10, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits (including the position of the star to the east) and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1805 km/sec, NGC 3055 is about 85 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 80 to 115 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.1 by 1.15 arcmin, it is 50 to 55 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3055
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3055
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3055

NGC 3056 (= PGC 28576)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.7 lenticular galaxy (type SA0(rs)a?) in Antlia (RA 09 54 32.9, Dec -28 17 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3056 (= GC 1965 = JH 3203, 1860 RA 09 48 16, NPD 117 38.6) is "pretty bright, small, round, very gradually much brighter middle, 11th magnitude star attached 204". The position precesses to RA 09 54 33.4, Dec -28 18 12, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 975 km/sec, NGC 3056 is about 45 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 25 to 45 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.5 by 1.6 arcmin, it is 30 to 35 thousand light years across. The galaxy is clearly lenticular, with a standard type of S0 or SA0 (to indicate that it is not a barred lenticular). However, as the Carnegie-Irvine image shows, there is a noticeable ring about halfway between the center and the outer portions of the galaxy, and "raw" HST images (currently available only in the Hubble Legacy Archive) show that the very center has dusty spiral lanes circling the otherwise apparently smooth and uniform nucleus, whence the addition of (rs)a to the standard classification.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3056
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3056
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3056
Below, a 2.1 arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Judy Schmidt)
HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3056
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy (Image Credit as above)
HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3056 highlighting its ring structure
Below, a 0.2 arcmin wide HST image of the center of the galaxy (Image Credit as above)
HST image of core of lenticular galaxy NGC 3056 highlighting its spiral dust lanes

NGC 3057 (= PGC 29296)
Discovered (Sep 26, 1802) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm?) in Draco (RA 10 05 39.6, Dec +80 17 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3057 (= GC 1966 = WH III 978, 1860 RA 09 48 24, NPD 09 03.7) is "extremely faint, pretty large, very little brighter middle, 2 small (faint) stars to south". The position precesses to RA 10 05 13.1, Dec +80 16 07, less than 1.5 arcmin southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1525 km/sec, NGC 3057 is about 70 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 85 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.4 by 1.5 arcmin, it is about 50 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3057
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3057
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3057

NGC 3058 (= PGC 28513 (=
IC 573) + PGC 3442467)
Discovered (May 6, 1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 3058)
Also observed (Jul 1, 1898 to Jun 30, 1899) as NGC 3058 by Herbert Howe
Also observed (Apr 20, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 573)
A pair of interacting galaxies in Hydra
IC 573 = A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) at RA 09 53 36.2, Dec -12 28 56
PGC 3442467 = A 1magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type Sa? pec) at RA 09 53 35.1, Dec -12 28 45
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3058 (Leavenworth list I (#161, #162), 1860 RA 09 48 30, NPD 101 48.5) is "extremely faint, pretty large, double or binuclear". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 09 46 47, and adds "Position 210, Distance 20 arcsec, northeastern one the brighter". Howe's original note also lists the Declination as (1900) -12 00.7 = (1860) NPD 101 49 30, but Dreyer must not have felt the one arcmin alteration in the NPD worth mentioning. Howe's position precesses to RA 09 53 35.7, Dec -12 28 58, right on the pair of galaxies listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7470 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that the pair of galaxies listed as NGC 3058 is 345 to 350 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 370 to 410 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the pair was 335 to 340 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, 340 to 345 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.3 arcmin, IC 573 is 85 to 90 thousand light years across, while PGC 3442467's apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.25 arcmin corresponds to about 50 thousand light years, and the approximately 2.3 by 1.2 arcmin wide region filled with scattered remnants of the interacting galaxies is 225 to 230 thousand light years across. (If and when better images become available they should be spectacular.)
DSS image of region near interacting spiral galaxies IC 573 and PGC 3442467, which comprise NGC 3058
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3058
Below, a 2.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the pair
DSS image of interacting spiral galaxies IC 573 and PGC 3442467, which comprise NGC 3058

NGC 3059 (= PGC 28298)
Discovered (Feb 22, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.0 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Carina (RA 09 50 08.2, Dec -73 55 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3059 (= GC 1967 = JH 3205, 1860 RA 09 48 31, NPD 163 16.3) is "faint, large, irregularly round, gradually a little brighter middle, small (faint) star involved". The position precesses to RA 09 49 57.9, Dec -73 55 40, within the western outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1255 km/sec, NGC 3059 is 55 to 60 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of 45 to 50 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 4.5 by 4.1 arcmin, it is 75 to 80 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3059
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3059
Below, a 4.4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 3059
Below, a 2 arcmin wide image of part of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 3059

NGC 3060 (= PGC 28680)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 18, 1836) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Leo (RA 09 56 19.2, Dec +16 49 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3060 (= GC 1968 = JH 3204 = WH III 601, 1860 RA 09 48 40, NPD 72 30.1) is "very faint, considerably small, very little extended, easily resolvable". The position precesses to RA 09 56 20.8, Dec +16 50 11, just off the northeastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3685 km/sec, NGC 3060 is about 170 to 175 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 185 to 190 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.1 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 105 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3060
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3060
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3060

NGC 3061 (= PGC 28670)
Discovered (Apr 2, 1801) by
William Herschel
Supposedly also but not observed (Apr 5, 1832) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)c?) in Draco (RA 09 56 12.0, Dec +75 51 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3061 (= GC 1970 = JH 653 = II 903?, 1860 RA 09 48 44, NPD 13 10.2) is "very faint, pretty large, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 10 02 36.4, Dec +76 09 45, in a completely stellar region, without even an interesting pair or group of stars nearby. This result is explained by a note at the end of the NGC stating that all of William Herschel's discoveries of April 2, 1801 (I 282-284, II 903-905 and III 963 - 971) were affected by some large error. Because of that, when John Herschel tried to reobserve his father's II 903, he was doomed to failure. Fortunately, by 1911 the Royal Observatory had completed and published (because of a request by Dreyer) the results of a photographic survey of the region observed by William Herschel on the night in question, and as a result Dreyer was able to post a correction in his 1912 update to the NGC based on his reassessment of Herschel's observations: "The place of II 903 (Greenwich) is (1860 RA) 09 42 10, (NPD) 13 28.7. Nothing in the place of (JH) 653 (JH says "very doubtful, moon and haze")." In other words, there is nothing at the position observed by John Herschel, but William Herschel's II 903 does correspond to a nebular object, as the Greenwich Observatory position precesses to RA 09 56 11.6, Dec +75 51 57, dead center on the galaxy listed above; the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although the Greenwich Observatory plates determined the actual position and nature of NGC 3061, the reason for Herschel's strange positions of Apr 2, 1801 was not determined until 2011-12, when Wolfgang Steinicke showed that his telescope must have been misaligned with the meridian by 7 degrees on that evening. For more about the problem and a list of objects affected by it, see here.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 2455 km/sec, NGC 3061 is about 115 million light years away, in fair agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of 125 to 230 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.7 by 1.5 arcmin, it is 55 to 60 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3061
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3061
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3061

NGC 3062 (= PGC 28699)
Discovered (Apr 30, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SAB0/a? pec) in Sextans (RA 09 56 35.8, Dec +01 25 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3062 (= GC 5511, Marth 187, 1860 RA 09 49 22, NPD 87 54) is "very faint, very small, almost stellar". The position precesses to RA 09 56 35.3, Dec +01 26 14, just over 0.5 arcmin north northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8260 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 3062 is about 385 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was 370 to 375 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, 375 to 380 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.3 arcmin, the galaxy is about 70 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3062
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3062>
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3062

NGC 3063 (= "PGC 5067676")
Recorded (Sep 30, 1802) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 10, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A pair of stars in Ursa Major (RA 10 01 41.7, Dec +72 07 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3063 (= GC 1972 = WH II 909?, HON 5, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 09 49 27, NPD 17 12.4) is "faint, pretty small, round" (Herschel's entry for II 909 actually states "very faint, very small, round"). The position (which per Dreyer is d'Arrest's) precesses to RA 10 01 43.0, Dec +72 07 33, less than half an arcmin north northeast of the pair of stars listed above, the description fits and d'Arrest also observed the other objects in the region (NGC 3065 and 3066), so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Dreyer's assignment of NGC numbers for NGC 3063, 3065 and 3066 was based on d'Arrest's right ascensions, which are essentially correct, and since the NGC is organized in order of recorded (1860) right ascension, the NGC entries' assignments to specific positions and their corresponding objects are equally correct. The question here is how do those positions correspond to Herschel's original observations which, as indicated by "= WH II 909?", was something of a mystery to Dreyer. The mystery deepens in a note at the end of the NGC in which Dreyer incorrectly concludes (thanks to an error in the Cape of Good Hope listing for "HON 5" quoted below) "Probably II 909 is = II 334, which is pretty large according to d'Arrest; but Herschel must have seen all three nebulae, as he says that II 909 is the last of three". Actually, William Herschel did not state that II 909 was the last of three. That statement comes from John Herschel's Cape of Good Hope catalog, and is an obvious misinterpretation of an observation by his father that was not included in his 1802 list of 500 nebulae and clusters (his third and last list) in which he states the relative positions and appearance of the three objects that he observed in the region as follows (the note is not mentioned in the GC, but is quoted by Dreyer in his 1912 notes for the Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel): "Three (nebulae), the place is that of the last, which is faint, pretty large, round. The southwestern one is extremely faint, very small, about an arcmin more south and 20 seconds of time to the west. The northwestern one pretty bright, stellar, about 3 arcmin more north than that of which the place is taken and 30 seconds to the west." John Herschel (and therefore Dreyer) assumed that since this note was associated with William Herschel's unpublished entry for what is now called II 909, "the place is that of the last" meant that WH II 909 was "the last", but I believe it was attached to II 909 simply because II 333 and II 334 had been published in Herschel's first list of 1000 nebulae and clusters, and with II 909 having been observed much later and left unpublished, its logbook entry was the appropriate place to discuss the relationship of the three objects, and only their relative positions and descriptions should be used to determine which is which. In his first list of 1000 nebulae and clusters Herschel gives the same position for II 333 and II 334, stating that the northern one is pretty bright and stellar, while the southern one is faint, pretty large, and round. As quoted above, the note "attached" to II 909 states that the northwestern nebula is about 3 arcmin to the north of the southern one (it was actually 2m 40s north in 1785), and the southwestern one is an arcmin south of the "last" (it was actually about 1/2 an arcmin south in 1802), while both are stated as being to the west of the southeastern one, making it definitely the last, or NGC 3066, per d'Arrest's observations. Presuming that II 333 and II 334 are assigned to the nebulae according to their position, that makes NGC 3066 = II 334, NGC 3065 = II 333, and NGC 3063 = II 909. Note that this makes NGC 3066 = II 334 "faint, pretty large, and round", which corresponds to d'Arrest's statement that II 334 is "pretty large", and since NGC 3066 is the easternmost of the three objects, it must also be the "last". In other words, this assignment of identities matches Herschel's and d'Arrest's observations, whereas no other designation makes any sense, and Dreyer's unfortunate 1912 conclusion (namely, that NGC 3063 = II 333, NGC 3064 = II 334 and NGC 3066 = II 909) must be wrong. It should also be pointed out (per Corwin) that regardless of how Herschel's observations are assigned to the three NGC entries, since the entries are based on d'Arrest's positions, their identification as the objects listed on this page is certain; so for historical reasons alone, the identifications must remain as stated in the NGC entries, and not changed per any of Dreyer's concurrent or later "corrections". It is, however, pleasing to see that the original NGC assignment of William Herschel's observations happens to (more or less) perfectly agree with what Herschel observed, despite all later statements to the contrary.
Cape of Good Hope Notes: HON 5 is a reference to a list of eight observations by the elder Herschel that were not published in the Philosophical Transactions, but were listed on page 128 of his son's Cape of Good Hope catalog. In that list, since the last published object in Herschel's class II was II 907, the younger Herschel assigned II 908 to HON 3, and II 909 to HON 5 (and in his 1912 notes, Dreyer correctly stated that they were omitted from the P. T.). The note that John Herschel added to HON 5, which was quoted in Dreyer's 1877 Supplement to the General Catalog and started the chain of errors discussed above, said that II 909 was "faint, pretty large, round; the last of 3, the others are II 333 and II 334". But as discussed above, the last of 3 must actually be NGC 3066, II 333 and II 334 must be NGC 3065 and 3066, and II 909 must actually be NGC 3063. So the only completely correct conclusion in the note for HON 5 was the statement that it was discovered on Sep 30, 1802.
Physical Information: The southwestern star is magnitude 14.9, while the northeastern one is magnitude 15.3. Listed in LEDA as a pair of stars with designation PGC 5067676, but a search of the database for that designation returns no result.
See NGC 3065 or 3066 for images of the region

NGC 3064 (= PGC 28638)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Sextans (RA 09 55 41.5, Dec -06 21 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3064 (Leavenworth list I (#159), 1860 RA 09 49 30, NPD 95 42.5) is "extremely faint, very small, extended 45". The position precesses to RA 09 56 29.9, Dec -06 22 16, in a completely stellar field. However, Leander McCormick Observatory right ascensions were notoriously poor, and there is a perfect candidate for what Leavenworth observed less than a minute of time nearly due west, namely the galaxy listed above. The description is a perfect fit and there is nothing else anywhere near Leavenworth's parallel of declination, so the identification is considered certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5165 km/sec, NGC 3064 is about 240 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.3 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3064
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3064
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3064

NGC 3065 (= PGC 29046)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 4, 1831) by John Herschel
Also observed (Oct 9, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type SA0(r)?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 01 55.3, Dec +72 10 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3065 (= GC 1969 = JH 654 = WH II 333, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 09 49 40, NPD 17 09.4) is "pretty faint, very small, round, brighter middle, 11th magnitude star near". The position precesses to RA 10 01 56.5, Dec +72 10 32, well within the northeastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description is a perfect fit (including the star to the northwest) and the only other objects in the region are accounted for by d'Arrest's observations of NGC 3063 and 3066, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Dreyer's 1877 Supplement to the General Catalog stated that per WH and d'Arrest the minute of RA was 49, instead of the 48 minutes listed in the GC, but that error was corrected in the NGC entry. As noted in the entry for NGC 3063, a misinterpretation of the description of William Herschel's unpublished II 909 led to an incorrect 1912 reassignment of Herschel's observations, but that has no effect on the assignment of the NGC entries, which were based on d'Arrest's measurements, and although an interesting (but unfortunately complex) historical sidelight, the confusion created by the misinterpretation of Herschel's unpublished note can be safely ignored in any discussion of NGC 3065.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 2000 km/sec, NGC 3065 is 90 to 95 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 65 to 125 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.5 by 1.4 arcmin, the galaxy is about 40 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3065, also showing NGC 3063 and NGC 3066
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3065, also showing NGC 3063 and 3066
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3065

WORKING HERE: Check everything from A to Z, especially incorrect "II 909?" (see 3063)

NGC 3066 (= PGC 29059)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 4, 1831) by John Herschel
Also observed (Aug 10, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type SBb?? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 10 02 11.0, Dec +72 07 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3066 (= GC 1971 = JH 655 = WH II 334 = II 909?, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 09 49 45, NPD 17 12.3) is "very faint, very small, very gradually a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 10 02 00.4, Dec +72 07 37, only 0.8 arcmin west northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the only other objects in the region are accounted for by d'Arrest's observations of NGC 3063 and 3065, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Dreyer's 1877 Supplement to the General Catalog stated that per WH and d'Arrest the minute of RA was 49, instead of the 48 minutes listed in the GC; but that correction was included in the NGC entry. Dreyer's 1912 revision of the NGC based on his reassessment of William Herschel's observations states that NGC 3066 = WH II 909, and reassigns II 334 to NGC 3065. (see Corwin)
Physical Information:
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3066, also showing NGC 3063 and NGC 3065
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3066, also showing NGC 3063 and 3065
Below, a ? arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3066

DONE WITH 3067?

NGC 3067 (= PGC 28805 = PGC 1993781)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Jan 22, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)ab? pec) in Leo (RA 09 58 21.1, Dec +32 22 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3067 (= GC 1973 = JH 657 = WH II 492, 1860 RA 09 50 08, NPD 56 57.9) is "pretty bright, pretty large, extended 106, gradually brighter middle, 9th magnitude star 4 arcmin away at position angle 74". The position precesses to RA 09 58 20.9, Dec +32 22 12, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits (including the star to the northeast) and there is nothing else nearby so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1475 km/sec, NGC 3067 is 65 to 70 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 80 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.1 by 0.8 arcmin, it is 40 to 45 thousand light years across. Its extensive central region of activity means it is almost certainly a starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3067
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3067
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3067

DONE WITH 3068 save for editing for typos/etc

NGC 3068 (= PGC 28815, and with PGC 87670 =
Arp 174)
Discovered (Mar 12, 1785) by William Herschel
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Leo (RA 09 58 40.1, Dec +28 52 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3068 (= GC 1974 = WH III 293, 1860 RA 09 50 33, NPD 60 21.9) is "most extremely faint, extremely small, stellar (?)". The position precesses to RA 09 58 37.9, Dec +28 58 10, about 5.5 arcmin nearly due north of the galaxy listed above, but the description is a perfect fit, there is nothing else within a very large region surrounding Herschel's position and no one has suggested any problem with the identification, so it appears to be certain.
Discovery Notes: In Herschel's first list of 1000 nebulae and clusters, the object is listed as being 17m 46s west and 22 arcmin south of 23 Leonis; but at the end of the NGC a note quotes John Herschel's General Catalog: "III 293. Auwers' place is wrong, owing to an erratum in P. T. (Philosophical Transactions), where the determining star is set down as 23 Leonis instead of 23 Leonis minoris." Given the error in the declination I checked the modern position of that star, corrected for its proper motion between the epochs of 1785 and 2000, precessed it to 1785 coordinates, applied Herschel's offsets, then precessed it to the 1860 positions in the GC and NGC (which agree with each other within round-off errors), and found that the GC and NGC positions are, though not exactly the same as the elder Herschel's position, close enough to make no difference in the error noted in the Historical Identification above; so there is no explanation for the error in the declination save for the difficulty involved in measuring very large differences in position with telescopes of ancient construction. In any event, though such large errors in declination are not common in the Herschels' observations, neither are they rare, so despite the error in the declination the identification with the galaxy listed above is, as already stated, almost certainly correct.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6320 km/sec, NGC 3068 is about 295 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin, it is about 60 thousand light years across. It is obviously interacting with PGC 87670, causing the formation of an extended tail and countertail. The approximately 5.0 by 1.5 arcmin apparent size of those structures corresponds to about 430 thousand light years. NGC 3068 and PGC 87670 are used by the Arp Atlas as an example of galaxies with narrow counter-tails.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3068, also known (with PGC 87670) as Arp 174
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3068
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its companion, PGC 87670
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3068 and its companion, lenticular galaxy PGC 87670, which comprise Arp 174
Below, a 5 by 5.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of Arp 174
SDSS image of lenticular galaxies NGC 3068 and PGC 87670, which comprise Arp 174, and the narrow tail and countertail caused by their interaction

PGC 87670 (= "NGC 3068B", and with
NGC 3068 = Arp 174)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 3068B
A magnitude 15.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/SB0?) in Leo (RA 09 58 38.0, Dec +28 52 16)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6255 km/sec, PGC 87670 is 290 to 295 million light years away. It is obviously interacting with NGC 3068 (which see for images), causing the formation of an extended tail and countertail, so it must be at the same distance as its companion, and closer to its 295 million light year distance than not. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.22 by 0.2 arcmin, it is about 19 thousand light years across.. NGC 3068 and PGC 87670 are used by the Arp Atlas as an example of galaxies with narrow counter-tails.

DONE WITH 3069?

NGC 3069 (= PGC 28788 =
IC 580)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1877) by John Dreyer (and later listed as NGC 3069)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 580)
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Leo (RA 09 57 56.7, Dec +10 25 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3069 (= GC 5513, Dreyer (using Lord Rosse's 72-inch Leviathan), 1860 RA 09 50 33, NPD 78 55) is "very faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 09 58 01.8, Dec +10 25 05, about 0.9 arcmin southeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing nearby save for NGC 3070, which was the object Dreyer used to measure the position of NGC 3069, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Per Corwin, Dreyer's original note for his observation with Lord Rosse's 72-inch Leviathan includes "perhaps a little extended", making the description even more apt. Javelle's position was excellent, but his confused notes about the identity of his "nova" led to its duplicate entry as IC 580 (which see for more about that).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5325 km/sec, NGC 3069 is 245 to 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.25 arcmin, it is 45 to 50 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3069, also showing NGC 3070
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3069, also showing NGC 3070
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3069

WORKING HERE

NGC 3070 (= PGC 28796)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (January, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 elliptical galaxy (type E0??) in Leo (RA 09 58 06.9, Dec +10 21 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3070 (= GC 1975 = JH 659 = WH II 59, 1860 RA 09 50 39, NPD 78 58.5) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, gradually much brighter middle and nucleus, among 3 stars".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3070, also showing NGC 3069
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3070, also showing NGC 3069
Below, a ? arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3070

NGC 3071 (= PGC 28825)
Discovered (Mar 10, 1886) by
Johann Palisa
A magnitude 14.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Leo (RA 09 58 53.0, Dec +31 37 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3071 (Palisa (#5), 1860 RA 09 50 43, NPD 57 42.7) is a "nebulous 13th magnitude star".
Physical Information:

NGC 3072 (= PGC 28749)
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 23, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a??) in Hydra (RA 09 57 23.9, Dec -19 21 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3072 (= GC 1976 = JH 3206 = WH III 273, 1860 RA 09 50 47, NPD 108 40.8) is "very faint, pretty small, a little extended, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3073 (= PGC 28974)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1790) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type E/SB0??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 00 52.1, Dec +55 37 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3073 (= GC 1977 = WH III 853, 1860 RA 09 51 11, NPD 33 42.4) is "very faint, small, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3074 (= PGC 28888)
Discovered (Mar 28, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 11, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Leo Minor (RA 09 59 41.2, Dec +35 23 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3074 (= GC 1978 = JH 660 = WH III 542, 1860 RA 09 51 19, NPD 53 55.8) is "very faint, pretty large, irregularly round, very gradually very little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3075 (= PGC 28833)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Leo (RA 09 58 56.3, Dec +14 25 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3075 (= GC 1979 = JH 3207, 1860 RA 09 51 20, NPD 74 53.9) is "very very faint, 14th magnitude star attached, 11th magnitude star to east".
Physical Information:

NGC 3076 (= PGC 28766 = PGC 28769)
Discovered (Feb 12, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Sab??) in Hydra (RA 09 57 37.6, Dec -18 10 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3076 (= GC 1980 = JH 3208, 1860 RA 09 51 32, NPD 107 30.4) is "extremely faint, small, round".
Physical Information:

NGC 3077 (= PGC 29146)
Discovered (Nov 8, 1801) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 28, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.9 spiral galaxy (type Sd??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 03 20.4, Dec +68 44 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3077 (= GC 1982 = JH 658 = WH I 286, 1860 RA 09 51 59, NPD 20 35.7) is "considerably bright, considerably large, much brighter middle, round with ray". (see Corwin)
Physical Information: Corwin lists N3077N at RA 10 03 19.1, Dec +68 44 02

NGC 3078 (= PGC 28806)
Discovered (Dec 9, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 24, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 elliptical galaxy (type E3??) in Hydra (RA 09 58 24.6, Dec -26 55 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3078 (= GC 1981 = JH 3209 = WH II 268, 1860 RA 09 52 04, NPD 116 15.6) is "pretty bright, small, round, much brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3079 (= PGC 29050)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1790) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 10.9 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 01 57.9, Dec +55 40 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3079 (= GC 1983 = WH V 47, 1860 RA 09 52 24, NPD 33 38.5) is "very bright, large, much extended 135".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1115 km/sec, nearly edge-on spiral galaxy NGC 3079 is about 50 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 65 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 7.9 by 1.5 arcmin, it is about 140 thousand light years across. The galaxy is undergoing an episode of unusually active star formation (a starburst), which is responsible for its classification as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy2), and for a 3000 light year wide bubble of hot gas (with temperatures of up to ten million Kelvins) which is being blown out of its core. It is thought that this is a recurrent phenomenon, occurring perhaps every ten million years or so. The bubble we see now was probably created about a million years ago; but over time it will slow, fall back onto the galaxy, and as it does, compress other clouds of gas and dust to form a new starburst, repeating the phenomenon.
SDSS image of NGC 3079
Above, a 9 arcmin wide closeup of the galaxy
Below, a portion of a similar NOAO image (Image Credits: Jeff Hapeman/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)

Below, a HST view of the galaxy (Image Credits: Gerald Cecil (UNC), Sylvain Veilleux (Maryland),
Joss Bland-Hawthorn (AAO), and Alex Filippenko (UC), NASA)


Below, a HST closeup of the expanding bubble near the center of the galaxy
(Image Credits: same as for larger HST image, above)

Below, a half arcmin wide composite of visual and X-ray images of the bubble
(Image Credits: CXC/STScI/U.North Carolina/G.Cecil/NASA)


NGC 3080 (= PGC 28910)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1794) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 18, 1890) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type Sa??) in Leo (RA 09 59 55.9, Dec +13 02 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3080 (= GC 1984 = WH III 934, 1860 RA 09 52 35, NPD 76 20.0) is "very faint". The second IC lists a corrected position (per Bigourdan) of RA 09 52 23, NPD 76 15. (see Corwin)
Physical Information:

NGC 3081 (= PGC 28876 =
IC 2529)
Discovered (Dec 21, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3081)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1898) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 2529)
A magnitude 12.0 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a??) in Hydra (RA 09 59 29.5, Dec -22 49 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3081 (= GC 1985 = WH III 596, 1860 RA 09 52 37, NPD 112 08.0) is "very faint, considerably small, a little brighter middle, triangle of small (faint) stars to northwest". (see Corwin)
Physical Information:

NGC 3082 (= PGC 28829)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0??) in Antlia (RA 09 58 53.1, Dec -30 21 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3082 (= GC 1986 = JH 3210, 1860 RA 09 52 41, NPD 119 41.8) is "very faint, small, round, double star attached".
Physical Information:

NGC 3083 (= PGC 28900)
Discovered (Jan 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type Sa??) in Sextans (RA 09 59 49.7, Dec -02 52 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3083 (= GC 5514, Marth 188, 1860 RA 09 52 42, NPD 92 13) is "extremely faint, small, extended".
Physical Information:

NGC 3084 (= PGC 28841 =
IC 2528)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1835) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3084)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1897) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 2528)
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SBab?? pec) in Antlia (RA 09 59 06.4, Dec -27 07 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3084 (= GC 1987 = JH 3211, 1860 RA 09 52 45, NPD 116 28.1) is "very faint, small, round, 13th magnitude star attached on southeast". (see Corwin)
Physical Information:

NGC 3085 (= PGC 28875)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1835) by
John Herschel
Also observed (Jul 1, 1899 to Jun 30, 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Hydra (RA 09 59 29.2, Dec -19 29 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3085 (= GC 1988 = JH 3212, 1860 RA 09 52 51, NPD 108 50.9) is "very faint, small, round". The second IC notes (per Howe) "Not round but much extended 90".
Physical Information:

NGC 3086 (= PGC 28924)
Discovered (Jan 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type Sb??) in Sextans (RA 10 00 11.0, Dec -02 58 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3086 (= GC 5515, Marth 189, 1860 RA 09 53 04, NPD 92 19) is "extremely faint, small, irregularly round".
Physical Information: Corwin lists the companion at RA 10 00 14.7, Dec -02 59 23

NGC 3087 (= PGC 28845)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 10.5 elliptical galaxy (type E0??) in Antlia (RA 09 59 08.7, Dec -34 13 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3087 (= GC 1989 = JH 3213, 1860 RA 09 53 05, NPD 123 33.8) is "pretty bright, small, round, pretty much brighter middle, between 2 stars".
Physical Information:

NGC 3088 (= PGC 28997)
Discovered (Mar 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 24, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Leo (RA 10 01 08.4, Dec +22 24 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3088 (= GC 1990 = JH 661 = WH III 24, 1860 RA 09 53 18, NPD 66 55.9) is "very faint, small". (see Corwin)
Physical Information:

PGC 28998 (= "NGC 3088B")
Not an NGC object(?) but listed here since sometimes called NGC 3088B
A magnitude 15.0 spiral galaxy (type Sbc??) in
Leo (RA 10 01 09.9, Dec +22 24 05)
Physical Information:

NGC 3089 (= PGC 28882)
Discovered (Feb 5, 1837) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SBb??) in Antlia (RA 09 59 36.7, Dec -28 19 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3089 (= GC 1991 = JH 3214, 1860 RA 09 53 20, NPD 117 38.8) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, very small (faint) star involved".
Physical Information:

NGC 3090 (= PGC 28945)
Discovered (Jan 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 12.6 elliptical galaxy (type E2??) in Sextans (RA 10 00 30.2, Dec -02 58 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3090 (= GC 5516, Marth 190, 1860 RA 09 53 23, NPD 92 18) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information:

NGC 3091 (= PGC 28927 = HCG 42A)
Part of
Hickson Compact Group 42
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 23, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 elliptical galaxy (type E1??) in Hydra (RA 10 00 14.2, Dec -19 38 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3091 (= GC 1992 = JH 3215 = WH II 293, 1860 RA 09 53 39, NPD 108 57.9) is "pretty bright, pretty small, irregularly round, brighter middle, western of 2", the other being NGC 3096.
Physical Information: Listed as part of Hickson Compact Group 42.

NGC 3092 (= PGC 28967)
Discovered (Jan 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a??) in Sextans (RA 10 00 47.4, Dec -03 00 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3092 (= GC 5517, Marth 191, 1860 RA 09 53 41, NPD 92 23) is "extremely faint, small".
Physical Information: Corwin lists the companion at RA 10 00 48.8, Dec -03 02 24

NGC 3093 (= PGC 28977)
Discovered (Jan 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.2 elliptical galaxy (type E6??) in Sextans (RA 10 00 53.6, Dec -02 58 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3093 (= GC 5518, Marth 192, 1860 RA 09 53 47, NPD 92 18) is "extremely faint, very small".
Physical Information:

NGC 3094 (= PGC 29009)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1885) by
Johann Palisa
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SBa??) in Leo (RA 10 01 25.9, Dec +15 46 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3094 (Palisa (#2), 1860 RA 09 53 48, NPD 73 33.6) is "faint, brighter middle, 9th magnitude star half an arcmin to southeast".
Physical Information:

NGC 3095 (= PGC 28919)
Discovered (Feb 16, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.7 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Antlia (RA 10 00 05.8, Dec -31 33 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3095 (= GC 1993 = JH 3216, 1860 RA 09 53 53, NPD 120 52.9) is "faint, large, extended, very gradually very little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3096 (= PGC 28950 = HCG 42B)
Part of
Hickson Compact Group 42
Discovered (Mar 23, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type SB0??) in Hydra (RA 10 00 33.1, Dec -19 39 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3096 (= GC 1994 = JH 3217, 1860 RA 09 54 03, NPD 108 58.0) is "extremely faint, round, little brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 3091.
Physical Information: Listed as part of Hickson Compact Group 42. Corwin lists the companion at RA 10 00 28.2, Dec -19 40 16

NGC 3097
Recorded (1870) by
Edward Austin
A star in Ursa Major (RA 10 03 58.4, Dec +60 04 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3097 (Austin (#177, HN 39), 1860 RA 09 54 20, NPD 29 12) is a "nebulous star? 2 arcmin northwest of h662", h662 being NGC 3102. (see Corwin)
Physical Information: Corwin lists a different star at RA 10 04 16, Dec +60 07 30 (per 1o, not 1c)

NGC 3098 (= PGC 29067)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a??) in Leo (RA 10 02 16.7, Dec +24 42 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3098 (= GC 1995 = JH 663, 1860 RA 09 54 22, NPD 64 36.9) is "pretty bright, small, extended 85, pretty suddenly brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information:

NGC 3099 (= PGC 29087)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Jan 22, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 elliptical galaxy (type E??) in Leo Minor (RA 10 02 36.5, Dec +32 42 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3099 (= GC 1996 = JH 664 = WH III 478, 1860 RA 09 54 25, NPD 56 37.2) is "extremely faint, small". (see Corwin)
Physical Information: Misidentified as a pair in several places; but the companion (PGC 29088, itself a double) is merely a member of the same group.

PGC 29088 (= "NGC 3099B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 3099B
A magnitude 14.8 pair of galaxies (type C?? + C??) in
Leo Minor (RA 10 02 31.2, Dec +32 42 52)
Physical Information: Per Corwin, the western component is at RA 10 02 30.9, Dec +32 42 52+; the eastern at RA 10 02 31.6, Dec +32 42 52-
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3000 - 3049) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 3050 - 3099     → (NGC 3100 - 3149)