Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3150 - 3199) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 3200 - 3249 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 3250 - 3299)
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3200, 3201, 3202, 3203, 3204, 3205, 3206, 3207, 3208, 3209, 3210, 3211, 3212, 3213, 3214, 3215, 3216,
3217, 3218, 3219, 3220, 3221, 3222, 3223, 3224, 3225, 3226, 3227, 3228, 3229, 3230, 3231, 3232, 3233,
3234, 3235, 3236, 3237, 3238, 3239, 3240, 3241, 3242, 3243, 3244, 3245, 3246, 3247, 3248, 3249

Page last updated Jun 26, 2015
WORKING 3200: Check IDs, add closeup pix, verify info

NGC 3200 (= PGC 30108)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1882) by
Edward Holden
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SBbc??) in Hydra (RA 10 18 36.4, Dec -17 58 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3200 (Holden (#1), 1860 RA 10 11 51, NPD 107 17) is "pretty bright, extended 160°, brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.2 by 1.3? arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3200
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3200
Below, a 5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3200
*Carnegie Observatory image now available*

NGC 3201 (= GCL 15)
Discovered (May 1, 1826) by
James Dunlop
A magnitude 6.9 globular cluster (type X) in Vela (RA 10 17 36.8, Dec -46 24 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3201 (= GC 2068 = JH 3238, Dunlop #445, 1860 RA 10 11 53, NPD 135 42.1) is a "globular cluster, very large, irregularly round, a little compressed middle, stars from 13th to 16th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 20? arcmin.
DSS image of region near globular cluster NGC 3201
Above, a 30 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3201
*ESO and HST images now available*

NGC 3202 (= PGC 30236)
Discovered (Feb 3, 1788) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SBa??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 20 31.6, Dec +43 01 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3202 (= GC 2069 = JH 696 = WH II 720, 1860 RA 10 12 05, NPD 46 18.7) is "considerably faint, small, round, very gradually brighter middle, 1st of 3", the others being NGC 3205 and 3207.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.8? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3202, also showing NGC 3205 and NGC 3207
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3202, also showing NGC 3205 and 3207
*SDSS images appear to be best available*

NGC 3203 (= PGC 30177)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type SA0(r)a?) in Hydra (RA 10 19 33.6, Dec -26 41 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3203 (= GC 2070 = JH 3240, 1860 RA 10 12 06, NPD 116 00.3) is "pretty bright, small, considerably extended, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.8 by 0.6? arcmin.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3203
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3203

NGC 3204 (= PGC 30214)
Discovered (Dec 24, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SBb??) in Leo (RA 10 20 11.2, Dec +27 49 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3204 (= GC 2071 = JH 698, 1860 RA 10 12 13, NPD 61 28.9) is "extremely faint, pretty large, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.9? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3204
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3204

NGC 3205 (= PGC 30254)
Discovered (Feb 3, 1788) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Sa?? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 10 20 50.0, Dec +42 58 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3205 (= GC 2072 = JH 699 = WH II 721, 1860 RA 10 12 22, NPD 46 20.8) is "considerably faint, small, round, very gradually brighter middle, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 3202 and 3207.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.1? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3205, also showing NGC 3202 and NGC 3207
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3205, also showing NGC 3202 and 3207

NGC 3206 (= PGC 30322)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1793) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 21 47.6, Dec +56 55 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3206 (= GC 2073 = JH 697 = WH I 266, 1860 RA 10 12 31, NPD 32 22.1) is "pretty bright, considerably large, extended, very gradually little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.9 by 1.9? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3206
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3206

NGC 3207 (= PGC 30267)
Discovered (Feb 3, 1788) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type pec??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 21 00.5, Dec +42 59 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3207 (= GC 2074 = JH 700 = WH II 722, 1860 RA 10 12 33, NPD 46 18.8) is "considerably faint, small, round, stellar, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 3202 and 3205.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.8? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3207, also showing NGC 3202 and NGC 3205
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3207, also showing NGC 3202 and 3205

NGC 3208 (= PGC 30180)
Discovered (1886) by
Ormond Stone
Also observed by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Hydra (RA 10 19 41.4, Dec -25 48 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3208 (Ormond Stone list I (#171), 1860 RA 10 12 35, NPD 115 07.0) is "extremely faint, pretty large, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 10 13 10.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.6? arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3208
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3208

NGC 3209 (= PGC 30242)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 elliptical galaxy (type E2??) in Leo (RA 10 20 38.5, Dec +25 30 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3209 (= GC 2075 = JH 701, 1860 RA 10 12 47, NPD 63 47.8) is "faint, small, round, has a star".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 1.1? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3209
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3209

NGC 3210
Recorded (Sep 26, 1802) by
William Herschel
A pair of stars in Draco (RA 10 27 59.2, Dec +79 49 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3210 (= GC 2077 = WH III 979 (= HON (#6)), 1860 RA 10 12 10±, NPD 09 27) is "stellar, 1st of 3 in line, 1 arcmin apart", the others being NGC 3212 (which see for an image) and 3215. The position precesses to RA 10 26 59.6, Dec +79 50 39, about (3 arcmin?) west northwest of the pair of stars listed above, but the description makes the identification certain.

NGC 3211
Discovered (Mar 7, 1837) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 10.7 planetary nebula in Carina (RA 10 17 50.4, Dec -62 40 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3211 (= GC 2076 = JH 3242, 1860 RA 10 13 18, NPD 151 58.6) is a "planetary = a 10th magnitude star, round, among 150 stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.32? arcmin.
DSS image of region near planetary nebula NGC 3211
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3211

NGC 3212 (= PGC 30813, and with
NGC 3215 = Arp 181)
Discovered (Sep 26, 1802) by William Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SBb??) in Draco (RA 10 28 16.4, Dec +79 49 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3212 (= GC 2078 = WH III 980 (= HON (#7)), d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 13 30, NPD 09 27.7) is "very faint, small, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 3210 and 3215.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.1? arcmin. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with narrow filaments. Probably interacting with NGC 3215, as a result of which that galaxy is usually included in the Arp designation.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3212, also known as Arp 181, also showing NGC 3215 (which is usually included in the Arp designation because of the probable interaction of the galaxies) and the pair of stars listed as NGC 3210
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3212, also showing NGC 3210 and 3215

NGC 3213 (= PGC 30283)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sbc??) in Leo (RA 10 21 17.4, Dec +19 39 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3213 (= Stephan list XIII (#58), 1860 RA 10 13 38, NPD 69 38.4) is "very faint, very small, round, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.8? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3213
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3213

NGC 3214 (= PGC 30419)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1874) by
Ralph Copeland
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 23 08.7, Dec +57 02 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3214 (= GC 5525, Copeland (with Lord Rosse's telescope), 1860 RA 10 13 49, NPD 32 15.4) is "considerably bright, very small, round, suddenly brighter middle, 5 arcmin to west of III 911", the latter object being NGC 3220, which lies within the same field of view.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.3? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3214, also showing NGC 3220
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3214, also showing NGC 3220

NGC 3215 (= PGC 30840, and with
NGC 3212 = Arp 181)
Discovered (Sep 26, 1802) by William Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Draco (RA 10 28 40.7, Dec +79 48 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3215 (= GC 2079 = WH III 981 (= HON (#8)), d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 13 51, NPD 09 28.1) is "very faint, small, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 3210 and 3212. (Per NED, NGC 3215 is misidentified as NGC 3212 in the Arp and Vorontsov-Velyaminov catalogs.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin. Probably interacting with NGC 3212, as a result of which NGC 3215 is usually included in the Arp designation for the other galaxy.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3215
Above, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 3215; for a wider-field image see NGC 3212

NGC 3216 (= PGC 30312)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 elliptical galaxy (type E2??) in Leo (RA 10 21 41.2, Dec +23 55 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3216 (= GC 2080 = JH 702 = WH III 330, 1860 RA 10 13 55, NPD 65 21.9) is "very faint, pretty small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 1.0? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3216
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS centered on NGC 3216

NGC 3217 (=
IC 606 = PGC 30448)
Discovered (Mar 4, 1878) by David Todd (and later listed as NGC 3217)
Discovered (Apr 18, 1893) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 606)
A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)c? pec) in Leo (RA 10 23 32.6, Dec +10 57 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3217 (Todd (#29), 1860 RA 10 14, NPD 78 24) is a "very faint disc".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.55 by 0.35 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3217
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3217
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3217

NGC 3218 (=
NGC 3183 = PGC 30323)
Discovered (Apr 2, 1801) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3218)
Discovered (Sep 28, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3183)
A magnitude 11.9 spiral galaxy (type SBbc??) in Draco (RA 10 21 48.6, Dec +74 10 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3218 (= GC 2081 = WH I 283, 1860 RA 10 14 23, NPD 14 37.9) is "considerably bright, considerably large, extremely mottled but not resolved (place very questionable)". The remark about the place being very questionable is presumably related to a note at the end of the NGC stating "3218: (WH) I 283. Not found by d'Arrest. See (NGC) 2977". The note for NGC 2977 states (among other things) "The places of all the nebulae observed on April 2, 1801..." (a list of the nebulae is omitted here, but given here) "...are affected by some large error. They were all compared with one star only, which was assumed to be..." the inference being that the star was incorrectly identified, and the positions are therefore "very questionable". As it turned out the problem was that (as discussed here), Herschel misaligned his telescope by 7 degrees relative to the meridian on the night in question, causing all the calculations based on the assumption that it was aligned with the meridian to be incorrect. Dreyer's 1912 revision of the NGC based on his reassessment of William Herschel's papers resolved the problem by including the notes "3183 is = I 283", and "3218 to be struck out (= 3183)".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate listing, see NGC 3183 for anything else.

NGC 3219 (= PGC 30383)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1882) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0??) in Leo Minor (RA 10 22 37.4, Dec +38 34 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3219 (Stephan list XII (#38), 1860 RA 10 14 23, NPD 50 43.0) is "extremely faint, small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.5? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3219
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3219

NGC 3220 (= PGC 30462 =
IC 604)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1793) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3220)
Discovered (Aug 8, 1890) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 604)
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type Sd?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 23 44.8, Dec +57 01 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3220 (= GC 2082 = WH III 911, 1860 RA 10 14 26, NPD 32 15.9) is "pretty faint, considerably large, extended 92°, 9th magnitude star 9.5 arcmin to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.45 by 0.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3220, also showing NGC 3214
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3220, also showing NGC 3214
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3220

NGC 3221 (= PGC 30358)
Discovered (Jan 1, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Leo (RA 10 22 20.2, Dec +21 34 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3221 (= GC 2083, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 14 39, NPD 67 42.2) is "extremely faint, much extended, with ray".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.1 by 0.7? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3221
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3221

NGC 3222 (= PGC 30377)
Discovered (March 1855) by
August Winnecke
Also observed by Herman Schultz
Also observed by Arthur von Auwers
A magnitude 12.8 lenticular galaxy (type SB0??) in Leo (RA 10 22 34.4, Dec +19 53 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3222 (= GC 2084, Winnecke 1855, 1860 RA 10 14 55, NPD 69 24.7) is "faint, a little brighter middle, partially resolved with some stars seen (per Schultz, binuclear), Auwers 27".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 1.0? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3222
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3222

NGC 3223 (=
IC 2571 = PGC 30308)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1835) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3223)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1897) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 2571)
A magnitude 11.0 spiral galaxy (type Sb??) in Antlia (RA 10 21 34.8, Dec -34 16 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3223 (= GC 2085 = JH 3243, 1860 RA 10 15 21, NPD 123 33.0) is "pretty bright, very large, very little extended, pretty suddenly a little brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.1 by 2.7? arcmin.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3223
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3223
*Carnesgie Observatory image available*

NGC 3224 (= PGC 30314)
Discovered (Apr 18, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.0 elliptical galaxy (type E2??) in Antlia (RA 10 21 41.1, Dec -34 41 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3224 (= GC 2086 = JH 3244, 1860 RA 10 15 28, NPD 123 59.5) is "very faint, pretty small, round, very gradually much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.5? arcmin.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3224
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3224

NGC 3225 (= PGC 30569)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1793) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 25 09.9, Dec +58 08 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3225 (= GC 2087 = JH 703 = WH II 882, 1860 RA 10 15 43, NPD 31 09.3) is "considerably faint, pretty large, a little extended, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.0? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3225
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3225

NGC 3226 (= PGC 30440, and with
NGC 3227 = Arp 94)
Discovered (Feb 15, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 6, 1853) by Angelo Secchi
Also observed by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 11.4 elliptical galaxy (type E2??) in Leo (RA 10 23 26.9, Dec +19 53 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3226 (= GC 2088 = WH II 28, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 10 15 47, NPD 69 23.8) is "pretty bright, considerably large, round, double nebula (with 3227), separation 138 arcsec at position angle 159°".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.8 by 2.0 arcmin? Used in the Arp Atlas as part of an example of a spiral galaxy (NGC 3227, which see for images) with an elliptical companion (NGC 3226).

NGC 3227 (= PGC 30445, and with
NGC 3226 = Arp 94)
Discovered (Feb 15, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 6, 1853) by Angelo Secchi
Also observed by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 10.3 spiral galaxy (type SBa??) in Leo (RA 10 23 30.4, Dec +19 51 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3227 (= GC 2089 = WH II 29, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 10 15 51, NPD 69 25.8) is "pretty bright, considerably large, round, double nebula (with 3226), separation 138 arcsec at position angle 159°".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.1 by 3.9 arcmin? Used in the Arp Atlas as part of an example of a spiral galaxy (NGC 3227) with an elliptical companion (NGC 3226).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3227 and elliptical galaxy NGC 3226, which comprise Arp 94
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3227 and 3226
Below, a 6 by 9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair, which comprise Arp 94
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3227 and elliptical galaxy NGC 3226, with which it comprises Arp 94

WORKING HERE: need to clean up mosaic artifact on far left (& perhaps add wider-field view?)

NGC 3228 (= OCL 800)
Discovered (1751) by
Nicolas Lacaille
Also observed (May 9, 1826) by James Dunlop
A magnitude 6.0 open cluster (type I1p) in Vela (RA 10 21 22.0, Dec -51 43 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3228 (= GC 2090 = JH 3245, Lacaille II 7, Dunlop 386, 1860 RA 10 16 11, NPD 141 01.0) is a "cluster, nine large and a few small stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.0 arcmin? (Note: Although there are obviously other bright stars in the region, the description indicates that only the stars near the center of the image below belong to Dunlop's grouping.)
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 3228
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3228

NGC 3229
Recorded (Mar 31, 1859) by
Sidney Coolidge
Three stars in Sextans (RA 10 23 24.3, Dec +00 03 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3229 (= GC 5068, S Coolidge (#14, HN16), 1860 RA 20 16 14, NPD 89 13.8) is "faint". The 20 hours of RA is an obvious misprint (though not obvious enough to have been noticed by Dreyer, even in later corrections), all other NGC listings in the same range being at 10 hours, and does not correspond to the position (1900 RA 10 18.3, Dec +00 34) in the original Harvard report. That position precesses to RA 10 23 25.7, Dec +00 03 40, only 0.4 arcmin southeast of the stars listed above (the position is that of the brightest star in the triple), and there is nothing else nearby (either nebular or stellar) bright enough for Coolidge to have noticed, so the identification is certain.
SDSS image of region near the stars listed as NGC 3229
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3229

NGC 3230 (= PGC 30463)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1830) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Leo (RA 10 23 44.0, Dec +12 34 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3230 (= GC 2091 = JH 705, 1860 RA 10 16 16, NPD 76 44.4) is "pretty faint, pretty small, suddenly brighter middle equal to a 14th magnitude star, 9th to 10th magnitude star 19 arcsec to south".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.3 by 1.1 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3230
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3230

NGC 3231
Discovered (Apr 3, 1832) by
John Herschel
An open cluster in Ursa Major (RA 10 26 57.8, Dec +66 48 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3231 (= GC 2092 = JH 704, 1860 RA 10 16 26, NPD 22 29.1) is a "cluster, considerably large, poor, a little compressed, stars from 10th to 12th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 3231
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3231

NGC 3232 (= PGC 30508 + PGC 3080163)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1861) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A pair of galaxies in Leo Minor
PGC 30508 = A magnitude 15(?) spiral galaxy (type SBb? pec) at RA 10 24 24.2, Dec +28 01 34
PGC 3080163 = A magnitude 15(?) lenticular galaxy (type SB0(r)a?) at RA 10 24 24.4, Dec +28 01 43
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3232 (= GC 2093, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 16 33, NPD 61 16.7) is "extremely faint, 11th magnitude star 150 arcsec to west and a little south, preceding (western) of 2", the other being NGC 3235.
Physical Information: The recessional velocity of PGC 30508 relative to the Local Group is 6265 km/sec; that of PGC 3080163 is 6205 km/sec. Given their similar radial velocities the two galaxies are certainly at about the same distance from us, are probably companions and although there are is no extreme distortion of the sort often seen with interacting or colliding galaxies, they do appear to share a common "halo", so they may well be involved in a gravitational interaction that will eventually result in their merger. Based on their average recessional velocity of 6235 km/sec, the pair are about 290 million light years away. Given that and PGC 30508's apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.35 arcmin, and PGC 3080163's apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.45 arcmin, each galaxy is about 55 thousand light years across; and the 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin apparent size of their (shared?) outer regions spans almost 70 thousand light years.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 30508 and lenticular galaxy PGC 3080163, which are listed as NGC 3232
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3232
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide (preliminary) SDSS image of the pair of galaxies
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 30508 and lenticular galaxy PGC 3080163, which are listed as NGC 3232

NGC 3233 (= PGC 30336)
Discovered (1886) by
Ormond Stone
Also observed by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type (R)SBb?) in Hydra (RA 10 21 57.5, Dec -22 16 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3233 (Ormond Stone list I (#172), 1860 RA 10 16 35, NPD 111 32.9) is "extremely faint, pretty large, irregular figure, stellar nucleus". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 10 15 18.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.5 by 2.3 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3233
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3233

NGC 3234 (=
NGC 3235 = PGC 30553)
Discovered (Dec 24, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3234)
Also observed by William Denning (and thought to confirm listing as NGC 3234)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1861) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3235)
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0??) in Leo Minor (RA 10 24 59.3, Dec +28 01 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3234 (= GC 2094 = JH 706, 1860 RA 10 17 05, NPD 62 16.1) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, pretty suddenly bright middle (perhaps = 2095)", the query at the end meaning that Dreyer thought it might be the same as NGC 3235.
(Note to self: should include a discussion of the note at the end of the NGC here, or in Discovery Notes)
The first IC has the correction "3234 is not = 3235; both seen by Denning". This makes the presumed modern equivalence of the two listings seem strange; however Corwin points out that there is nothing at NGC 3234's supposed location, that the difference of exactly 1 degree in declination between it and NGC 3235 suggests a typographical error in Herschel's position, and feels that the two listings must represent the same object. Of course that leaves the question of what Denning saw, leading to the IC note; Corwin makes the reasonable suggestion that he probably saw d'Arrest's preceding nebula, NGC 3232. In any event, since there is nothing at Herschel's position the questions raised in the original NGC weigh heavily in favor of NGC 3234 being the same as NGC 3235, regardless of any subsequent confusion.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3234, also showing IC 2572
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3234, also showing IC 2572

NGC 3235 (= PGC 30553 =
NGC 3234)
Discovered (Dec 24, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3234)
Also observed by William Denning (and thought to confirm listing as NGC 3234)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1861) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3235)
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0??) in Leo Minor (RA 10 24 59.3, Dec +28 01 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3235 (= GC 2095, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 17 05, NPD 61 16.6) is "faint, small, following (eastern) of 2", the other being NGC 3232. See NGC 3234 for a discussion of the double listing.
Physical Information: Despite the identity of NGC 3235 being secure, and that of NGC 3234 merely the best guess available, the tradition of assigning duplicate entries to the earlier number holds here, so see NGC 3234 for anything else.

NGC 3236 (= PGC 30711)
Discovered (Mar 25, 1832) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 10 26 48.4, Dec +61 16 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3236 (= GC 2096 = JH 707, 1860 RA 10 17 17, NPD 28 01.3) is "extremely faint, very small, pretty suddenly bright middle, two stars 11th to 12th magnitude to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.0 arcmin? (plus a faint northwestern extension?)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3236
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3236

NGC 3237 (= PGC 30610)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1787) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SAB0(r)a?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 25 43.4, Dec +39 38 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3237 (= GC 2097 = JH 709 = WH III 631, 1860 RA 10 17 28, NPD 49 39.8) is "very faint, very small, round, pretty gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 1.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3237
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3237

NGC 3238 (= PGC 30686)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1793) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 26 42.9, Dec +57 13 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3238 (= GC 2098 = JH 708 = WH II 883, 1860 RA 10 17 29, NPD 32 04.4) is "faint, small, round, pretty suddenly little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.3 arcmin? Perhaps surrounded by a very large outer envelope (most obviously to the southeast).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3238
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3238

NGC 3239 (= PGC 30560, and =
Arp 263)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by William Herschel
A magnitude 11.3 irregular galaxy (type IBm?? pec) in Leo (RA 10 25 05.5, Dec +17 09 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3239 (= GC 2099 = JH 710 = JH 3246 = WH IV 10, 1860 RA 10 17 31, NPD 72 08.3) is "very faint, 9th magnitude star involved near middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.5 by 2.4 arcmin? Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with irregular clumps.
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 3239, which is also known as Arp 263
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3239
Below, a 4 by 5 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (North is at left to allow for a more detailed view)
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of irregular galaxy NGC 3239, which is also known as Arp 263

NGC 3240 (= PGC 30515)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Hydra (RA 10 24 30.6, Dec -21 47 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3240 (= GC 2100 = JH 3247, 1860 RA 10 17 53, NPD 111 04.9) is "extremely faint, small, round, star near".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 1.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3240
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3240

NGC 3241 (= PGC 30498)
Discovered (Feb 16, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SBab??) in Antlia (RA 10 24 17.0, Dec -32 29 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3241 (= GC 2101 = JH 3249, 1860 RA 10 17 57, NPD 121 45.5) is "faint, pretty much extended, gradually a little brighter middle, 11th magnitude star to northwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.6 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3241
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3241

NGC 3242, The Ghost of Jupiter
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also recorded (as a star) by Joseph Lalande
A magnitude 7.7 planetary nebula in Hydra (RA 10 24 46.1, Dec -18 38 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3242 (= GC 2102 = JH 3248 = WH IV 27, LL 20204, 1860 RA 10 18 02, NPD 107 56.1) is "a remarkable planetary, very bright, a little extended 147°, 45 arcsec diameter, blue".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.07 arcmin?
Composite image of region near planetary nebula NGC 3242, also known as The Ghost of Jupiter
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 3242 (Transparency of 2nd image below overlaid on DSS background)
Below, a 4 arcmin wide DSS image of the planetary nebula
DSS image of planetary nebula NGC 3242, also known as The Ghost of Jupiter
Below, a 1.0 arcmin wide image of the central portion of the planetary nebula
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Lemmon SkyCenter image of central portion of planetary nebula NGC 3242, also known as The Ghost of Jupiter
Below, a 33 arcsec wide image of the innermost portion of the planetary (Image Credit Bruce Balick & Jason Alexander
(U. of Washington), Arsen Hajian (USNO), Yervant Terzian (Cornell U.), Mario Perinotto (U. Florence (Italy)), NASA, HST)

HST image of central portion of planetary nebula NGC 3242, also known as The Ghost of Jupiter

NGC 3243 (= PGC 30655)
Discovered (Apr 2, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Sextans (RA 10 26 21.3, Dec -02 37 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3243 (Lewis Swift list III (#54), 1860 RA 10 19 04, NPD 91 55.9) is "very faint, small, a little extended, between 2 stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.1 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3243
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3243

NGC 3244 (= PGC 30594)
Discovered (Apr 22, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Antlia (RA 10 25 28.8, Dec -39 49 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3244 (= GC 2103 = JH 4019, hon, 1860 RA 10 19 21, NPD 129 06.4) is "very faint, 11th magnitude star 90 arcsec to north" ("hon" was used by Dreyer to indicate that the item was accidentally omitted from Herschel's published list of southern nebulae, but included in the errata).
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 1.8 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3244
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3244

NGC 3245 (= PGC 30744)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 10.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Leo Minor (RA 10 27 18.2, Dec +28 30 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3245 (= GC 2104 = JH 711 = WH I 86, 1860 RA 10 19 26, NPD 60 46.9) is "very bright, pretty large, extended 0°, suddenly much brighter middle and extended nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.2 by 1.8 arcmin? Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SA(l)0°.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3245
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3245
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3245

PGC 30714 (= "NGC 3245A")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 3245A due to being in general neighborhood of
NGC 3245
A magnitude 14.3 spiral galaxy (type SBb??) in Leo Minor (RA 10 27 01.1, Dec +28 38 21)
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.5 by 0.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 30714, which is sometimes called NGC 3245A
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 30714

NGC 3246 (= PGC 30684)
Discovered (Apr 9, 1828) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type SBdm??) in Sextans (RA 10 26 41.9, Dec +03 51 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3246 (= GC 2105 = JH 712, 1860 RA 10 19 26, NPD 85 26.4) is "extremely faint, small, round, making a triangle with two stars, 6th magnitude star 8 arcmin distant at position angle 300°".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.0 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3246
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3246

NGC 3247 (= OCL 809 = Westerlund 2, plus surrounding nebula)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
Also observed by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 7.6 open cluster and emission nebula in Carina (RA 10 24 12.0, Dec -57 45 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3247 (= GC 2106 = JH 3250, 1860 RA 10 19 38, NPD 147 10.6) is "stars involved in a nebula". The second IC lists a corrected position (per DeLisle Stewart) of RA 10 18 50, NPD 147 06 and adds "h.'s place was only approximate" ("h" being John Herschel).
Physical Information: Also referred to as RCW49, this large emission nebula is energized by a star cluster, Westerlund 2, partially hidden within its depths. Older stars have already cleared gas and dust out of the central portions of the nebula, but younger stars are still hidden by the clouds of gas and dust out of which they recently formed. Fortunately, the fleet of space telescopes now in orbit allows us to study even those stars. The cluster is approximately 14 thousand light years away, and contains more than 2200 stars, of which 300 were previously unobservable. The cluster is only 1 or 2 million years old, so some of its stars are very massive (high-mass stars have very short lifetimes, so older clusters don't contain very massive stars). One of the cluster members consists of 82 and 83 solar mass stars which orbit each other every 3.7 days, at a distance from each other of less than 25 million miles. Note: The NASA sites (Spitzer, Chandra and APoD) all misidentify the constellation as Centaurus; but the object is in Carina, as indicated above.
DSS image of open cluster NGC 3247
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3247; Westerlund 2 is the star cluster to its right
Below, a 24 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the nebula
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 3247
Below, a Spitzer infrared image showing the nebula and cluster
(Image Credit: NASA / JPL-Caltech / E. Churchwell (Univ. of Wisconsin / Spitzer)
Spitzer infrared image of open cluster NGC 3247 and its surrounding nebulosity
Below, a closeup of the central portion of the Spitzer infrared image above (same Image Credits)
Spitzer infrared image of central portion of NGC 3247 and its surrounding nebulosity
Below, a Chandra X-ray image of Westerlund 2 (the cluster energizing the nebula)
(Image Credit: NASA/CXC/Univ. de Liège/Y. Naze et al)
Chandra X-ray image of open cluster NGC 3247 and its surrounding nebulosity
Below, a combination of the Chandra X-ray image of the region with Spitzer infrared images
The square shows a region approximately 35 light years on a side
(Credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ. de Liege/Y. Naze et al; IR: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Wisconsin/E. Churchwell)
Combined X-ray and infrared images of open cluster NGC 3247 and its surrounding nebulosity

NGC 3248 (= PGC 30776)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Leo (RA 10 27 45.3, Dec +22 50 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3248 (= GC 2107 = JH 713 = WH II 347, 1860 RA 10 20 03, NPD 66 26.5) is "pretty bright, small, round, pretty suddenly bright middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.5 by 1.1 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3248
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3248

NGC 3249 (= PGC 30657)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)bc?) in Antlia (RA 10 26 22.2, Dec -34 57 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3249 (= GC 2108 = JH 3251, 1860 RA 10 20 07, NPD 124 14.6) is "extremely faint, pretty large, round, very gradually very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3400 km/sec, NGC 3249 is about 160 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of 145 million light years. Based on that and its apparent size of 1.6 by 1.45 arcmin, the galaxy is about 75 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3249
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3249
Below, a 2.0 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3249
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3150 - 3199) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 3200 - 3249     → (NGC 3250 - 3299)