Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3350 - 3399) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 3400 - 3449 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 3450 - 3499)
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Page last updated Aug 24, 2015
Finished posting all original NGC entries
WORKING: Add discovery info/positions/physical data (per Steinicke/Corwin)

NGC 3400 (= PGC 32499)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Leo Minor (RA 10 50 45.5, Dec +28 28 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3400 (= GC 2220 = JH 768 = WH II 361, 1860 RA 10 43 03, NPD 60 47.4) is "pretty faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3400
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3400
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3400

NGC 3401
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3401 (= WH III 88, 1860 RA 10 43 04±, NPD 83 28) is "extremely faint (not verified)".
Physical Information:

NGC 3402 (=
NGC 3411)
Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3411)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3402)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3402 (Common (#6), 1860 RA 10 43 11, NPD 101 56) is "faint, round".
Physical Information:

NGC 3403
Discovered (Apr 3, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3403 (= GC 2221 = JH 767 = WH II 335, 1860 RA 10 43 15, NPD 15 34.6) is "pretty faint, large, irregularly extended, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3404 (=
IC 2609)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3404)
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3404)
Discovered (Apr 19, 1898) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 2609)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3404 (Common (#7), 1860 RA 10 43 17, NPD 101 08) is "pretty bright, very large, extended east-west".
The second IC lists a corrected NPD (per Howe) of 101 22.0.
Physical Information:

NGC 3405
Discovered (Apr 1, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3405 (= GC 5537, Marth 206, 1860 RA 10 43 18, NPD 73 01) is "faint, extremely small, almost stellar, close to small (faint) star".
Physical Information:

NGC 3406
Discovered (Feb 17, 1831) by
John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3406 (= GC 2222 = JH 771, 1860 RA 10 43 18, NPD 38 13.9) is "pretty bright, round, pretty gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3407
Discovered (Apr 9, 1793) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3407 (= GC 2223 = JH 769 = WH III 919, 1860 RA 10 43 20, NPD 27 53.1) is "very faint, very small, round, very small (faint) star near".
Physical Information:

NGC 3408
Discovered (Apr 8, 1793) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3408 (= GC 2224 = JH 770 = WH III 913, 1860 RA 10 43 21, NPD 30 49.8) is "very faint, considerably small, round, 2 pretty bright stars to south".
Physical Information:

NGC 3409
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3409 (Leavenworth list II (#426), 1860 RA 10 43 26, NPD 106 17.5) is "extremely faint, small, extended 200°, 2 very faint stars involved".
Physical Information:

NGC 3410
Discovered (Apr 1, 1878) by
Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3410 (4th Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 10 43 28, NPD 38 15) is "faint, pretty small, diffuse, 2 arcmin southeast of h771", h771 being NGC 3406.
Physical Information:

NGC 3411 (=
NGC 3402)
Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3411)
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3411)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3402)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3411 (= GC 2228 = JH 776 = WH III 522, 1860 RA 10 43 29, NPD 102 06.5) is "faint, small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3412
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3412 (= GC 2229 = JH 774 = WH I 27, 1860 RA 10 43 29, NPD 75 50.9) is "bright, small, a little extended 135°±, suddenly much brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information:

NGC 3413
Discovered (Dec 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (May 7, 1896) by Stephane Javelle
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3413 (= GC 2232 = WH II 493, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 43 33, NPD 56 29.5) is "faint, small".
The second IC notes "3413 is = Javelle 1167".
Physical Information:

NGC 3414
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3414 (= GC 2227 = JH 773 = WH II 362, 1860 RA 10 43 35, NPD 61 17.1) is "bright, pretty large, round, much brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3415
Discovered (Jan 15, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3415 (= GC 2225 = JH 772 = WH II 718, 1860 RA 10 43 36, NPD 45 32.8) is "pretty bright, small, very little extended, stellar, 3 small (faint) stars near".
Physical Information:

NGC 3416
Discovered (Mar 30, 1854) by
R. J. Mitchell
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3416 (= GC 2226, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 10 43 37, NPD 45 29) is "extremely faint (perhaps faint star?), north of h772", h772 being NGC 3415.
Physical Information:

NGC 3417
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3417 (= GC 5538, Marth 207, 1860 RA 10 43 41, NPD 80 48) is "extremely faint, very small, almost stellar".
Physical Information:

NGC 3418
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3418 (= GC 2230 = JH 775 = WH II 363, 1860 RA 10 43 42, NPD 61 08.8) is "considerably faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3419
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel(?)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1864) by Albert Marth
Also observed (Mar 15, 1876) by Wilhelm Tempel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3419 (= GC 5539, Marth 208, Tempel list I (#??), 1860 RA 10 43 54, NPD 75 18.7) is "faint, very small, round, almost stellar, small (faint) star very near".
Discovery Notes: Dreyer's failure to mention Herschel's supposed observation in the NGC means that it was identified at a later or even far later time; that also suggests that the observation is of uncertain quality, so this entry may involve considerably more information and/or speculation when it is finished. For now, the attribution to Herschel should probably be treated as tentative. Physical Information:

NGC 3420
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3420 (Leavenworth list II (#427), 1860 RA 10 43 56, NPD 106 28.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round, pretty gradually brighter middle and nucleus, magnitude 8.5 star 6 arcmin to south".
The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 10 43 17.
Physical Information:

NGC 3421 (= PGC 32514 =
IC 652)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3421)
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3421 & 3422)
Discovered (Apr 19, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 652)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)a? pec) in Hydra (RA 10 50 57.7, Dec -12 26 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3421 (Common (#8), 1860 RA 10 43 57, NPD 101 29) is one of "2 nebulae, faint, round", the other being NGC 3422. The second IC says of NGC 3421-22 "Only one seen by Howe, RA 10 44 00, NPD 101 42.4, two suspected north and southwest of it."
Discovery Notes: See IC 652 for a discussion of the duplicate listing.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.4 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3421
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 3421
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 3422
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3421, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 3422

NGC 3422
Discovered (1880) by
Andrew Common
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3421 & 3422)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3422 (Common (#8), 1860 RA 10 43 57, NPD 101 29) is one of "2 nebulae, faint, round", the other being NGC 3421.
The second IC says of NGC 3421-22 "Only one seen by Howe, RA 10 44 00, NPD 101 42.4, two suspected north and southwest of it."
Physical Information:

NGC 3423
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3423 (= GC 2234 = JH 777 = WH IV 6 = WH II 131, 1860 RA 10 43 58, NPD 83 25.0) is "faint, very large, round, very gradually brighter middle, partially resolved (some stars seen)".
Physical Information:

NGC 3424
Discovered (Dec 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3424 (= GC 2235 = JH 778 = WH II 494, 1860 RA 10 44 00, NPD 56 21.6) is "pretty faint, pretty large, a little extended, southwestern of 3", the second being NGC 3430, but there is no "third", as discussed in the entry for NGC 3430.
Discovery Notes: As discussed in the entry for NGC 3430, d'Arrest's examination of the area near NGC 3424 and 3430 was crucial in proving the nonexistence of the "third" galaxy mentioned in the NGC entries; hence the need to list the date of his observation above.
Physical Information:

NGC 3425 (=
NGC 3388)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3425)
Also observed (1877) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 3425)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3388)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3425 (= GC 2237 = WH III 108, Tempel list I (#??) and list V (#??), 1860 RA 10 44 00, NPD 80 43.0) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round".
Physical Information:

NGC 3426
Discovered (Mar 23, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3426 (Swift list VI (#37), 1860 RA 10 44 05, NPD 70 46.4) is "pretty faint, small, round, double star to north".
Physical Information:

NGC 3427
Discovered (1877) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Also observed (Nov 11, 1877) by David Todd
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3427 (Tempel list I (#29) & list V (#??), 1860 RA 10 44 10, NPD 81 00.0) is a "nebula, no description".
Physical Information:

NGC 3428 (=
NGC 3429)
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 3428)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3429)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3428 (= GC 5540, Marth 209, 1860 RA 10 44 10, NPD 79 59) is "very faint, small, a little extended, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3429 (=
NGC 3428)
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 3428)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3429)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3429 (Common (#9), 1860 RA 10 44 12, NPD 80 00.0) is "pretty faint, round".
Physical Information:

NGC 3430
Discovered (Dec 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 8, 1828) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3430 (= GC 2236 = JH 779 = GC 2239 = JH 782 = WH I 118, 1860 RA 10 44 23, NPD 56 18.5) is "pretty bright, large, irregularly extended, gradually brighter middle, 2nd of 3", the first of three being NGC 3424, but there is no "third" (see Discovery Notes).
Discovery Notes: In John Herschel's General Catalog, GC 2235, 2236 and 2239 were listed as the southwestern, 2nd and northeastern of three nebulae, but in Dreyer's 1877 Supplement to the GC he states that GC 2239 is to be struck out, as per d'Arrest's discussion of the region, it is a duplicate of GC 2236; hence the line equating the two in the NGC listing. As a result, there are only two galaxies in "the line of three" discussed in the GC, and the reference to "southwestern of 3" for NGC 3424 and "2nd of 3" for NGC 3430 is an inadvertent carry-over of the incorrect description in the GC.
Physical Information:

NGC 3431
Discovered (Jan 5, 1887) by
Francis Leavenworth
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3431 (Leavenworth list II (#428), 1860 RA 10 44 26, NPD 106 16.5) is "extremely faint, small, extended 130°, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3432
Discovered (Mar 19, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3432 (= GC 2238 = JH 780 = WH I 172, 1860 RA 10 44 36, NPD 52 38.5) is "pretty bright, pretty large, very much extended 40°, double star close to southwest".
Physical Information:

NGC 3433
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3433 (= GC 2240 = JH 783 = WH III 20, 1860 RA 10 44 43, NPD 79 06.0) is "very faint, very large, round, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3434
Discovered (Jan 27, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3434 (= GC 2241= JH 784 = WH III 497, 1860 RA 10 44 44, NPD 85 28.0) is "faint, pretty small, round, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3435
Discovered (Apr 9, 1793) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3435 (= GC 2242 = JH 781 = WH II 887, 1860 RA 10 44 55, NPD 27 58.4) is "considerably faint, pretty small, a little extended, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3436
Discovered (Nov 30, 1877) by
David Todd
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3436 (Todd (#6), 1860 RA 10 44, NPD 81 18) is "extremely small".
Physical Information:

NGC 3437
Discovered (Mar 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3437 (= GC 2243 = JH 786 = WH II 47, 1860 RA 10 45 01, NPD 66 19.6) is "pretty bright, pretty large, a little extended 120°, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3438
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3438 (= GC 5541, Marth 210, 1860 RA 10 45 06, NPD 78 43) is "very faint, extremely small, almost stellar".
Physical Information:

NGC 3439
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3439 (= GC 5542, Marth 211, 1860 RA 10 45 06, NPD 80 43) is "most extremely faint, very small, almost stellar".
Physical Information:

NGC 3440
Discovered (Apr 8, 1793) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3440 (= GC 2244 = JH 785 = WH III 914, 1860 RA 10 45 11, NPD 32 08.5) is "very faint, small, a little extended".
Physical Information:

NGC 3441
Discovered (Apr 6, 1882) by
Edward Holden
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3441 (Holden (#2), 1860 RA 10 45 13, NPD 82 03) is "pretty bright".
Physical Information:

NGC 3442
Discovered (Mar 25, 1884) by
Édouard Stephan
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3442 (Stephan list XIII (#59), 1860 RA 10 45 20, NPD 55 20.8) is "faint, very small, round, much brighter middle, mottled but not resolved?"
Physical Information:

NGC 3443
Discovered (Apr 24, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3443 (Swift list VI (#38), 1860 RA 10 45 24, NPD 71 49.3) is "most extremely faint, very small, round".
Physical Information:

NGC 3444
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3444 (= GC 5543, Marth 212, 1860 RA 10 45 39, NPD 79 04) is "extremely faint, very small, pretty much extended".
Physical Information:

NGC 3445 (=
Arp 24 = PGC 32772)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1793) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBm?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 54 34.8, Dec +56 59 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3445 (= GC 2245 = JH 787 = WH I 267, 1860 RA 10 45 58, NPD 32 16.3) is "considerably bright, pretty large, irregularly round, very gradually a little brighter middle, 10th magnitude star 2 arcmin to northeast".
Physical Information: Based on recessional velocity of 1985 km/sec, about 90 million light years away. Given that and apparent size of 1.4 by 1.3 arcmin, about 35 thousand light years across. Probably gravitationally interacting with PGC 32784, the galaxy just to its left (east) in the closeup below. The other galaxy shown in the image, PGC 2554198, is seven times farther away, and only appears close to the pair.
SDSS image of NGC 3445, PGC 32784 and PGC 2554198
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 3445, PGC 32784 and PGC 2554198
Below, a "roughly edited" HST image of NGC 3445 (in other words, closer to the "raw" image than usual)
Wikimedia Commons HST image of NGC 3445
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 3445
SDSS image of region near NGC 3445

NGC 3446
Discovered (Mar 15, 1836) by
John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3446 (= GC 2246 = JH 3301, 1860 RA 10 45 59, NPD 134 24.4) is a "cluster, pretty large, poor, a little compressed, irregular figure, stars from 9th to 13th magnitude".
Physical Information:

NGC 3447
Discovered (Mar 18, 1836) by
John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3447 (= GC 2247 = JH 3300, 1860 RA 10 46 00, NPD 72 29.5) is "extremely faint, very large, very gradually very little brighter middle, bright double star to southwest".
Physical Information:

NGC 3448 (= PGC 32774, and with PGC 32740 =
Arp 205)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 10, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 irregular galaxy (type IB0?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 54 38.8, Dec +54 18 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3448 (= GC 2248 = JH 788 = WH I 233, 1860 RA 10 46 10, NPD 34 57.1) is "bright, pretty large, much extended 67°.0, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1350 km/sec, NGC 3448 is about 65 million light years away, in fair agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 80 million light years. (Its apparent companion, PGC 32740, has a recessional velocity of 1495 km/sec, which corresponds to a distance of 70 million light years.) Given that and its apparent size of 2.6 by 1.0 arcmin, the main galaxy is about 50 thousand light years across, and the entire complex listed as Arp 205, which is 8.0 by 1.1 arcmin, is about 150 thousand light years across. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy (NGC 3448) with material (PGC 32740) ejected from its nucleus.
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 3448, also showing PGC, with which is it comprises Arp 205
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3448, also showing PGC 32740
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 3448, which is part of Arp 205

NGC 3449
Discovered (Apr 29, 1834) by
John Herschel
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3449 (= GC 2249 = JH 3302, 1860 RA 10 46 20, NPD 122 11.0) is "faint, small, round, 6.7 magnitude star to southeast".
Physical Information:
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3350 - 3399) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 3400 - 3449     → (NGC 3450 - 3499)