Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated July 16, 2017
Checked Corwin positions, updated Steinicke databases
Checked Dreyer entries and other historical references
Updated formatting, images, and from images, apparent sizes & types
WORKING: 420/421: Fix confusion involving Steinicke's reversal of their order
422/422old: Previous misidentification needs to be corrected
NEXT ITERATION: Confirm historical IDs (Corwin+)

NGC 400
Recorded (Dec 30, 1866) by
Robert Ball
A magnitude 15.3 star in Pisces (RA 01 09 02.5, Dec +32 44 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 400 (= GC 5153, Ball using Lord Rosse's 72-inch telescope, 1860 RA 01 01 19, NPD 58 00.9) is "extremely faint, very small, GC 217 to east", GC 217 being NGC 403.
Physical Information:
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 403, also showing the stars listed as NGC 400, NGC 401 and NGC 402
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 403, also showing NGC 400, 401 and 402

NGC 401
Recorded (Dec 30, 1866) by
Robert Ball
A magnitude 15.4 star in Pisces (RA 01 09 07.8, Dec +32 45 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 401 (= GC 5154, Ball using Lord Rosse's 72-inch telescope, 1860 RA 01 01 22, NPD 57 59.1) is "extremely faint, stellar, 217 to east", (GC) 217 being NGC 403.
Physical Information:
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 403, also showing the stars listed as NGC 400, NGC 401 and NGC 402
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 403, also showing NGC 400, 401 and 402

NGC 402
Recorded (Oct 7, 1874) by
Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse
A magnitude 15.5 star in Pisces (RA 01 09 13.4, Dec +32 48 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 402 (= GC 5155, 4th Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 01 01 27, NPD 57 56.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round, 217 three arcmin to south", (GC) 217 being NGC 403.
Physical Information:
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 403, also showing the stars listed as NGC 400, NGC 401 and NGC 402
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 403, also showing NGC 400, 401 and 402

NGC 403 (= PGC 4111)
Discovered (Aug 29, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pisces (RA 01 09 14.2, Dec +32 45 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 403 (= GC 217, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 01 30, NPD 57 59.8) is "very faint, pretty small, considerably extended, 11th magnitude star 85 arcsec to south".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.5 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 403, also showing the stars listed as NGC 400, NGC 401 and NGC 402
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 403, also showing NGC 400, 401 and 402
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing NGC 401
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 403, also showing the star listed as NGC 401
Corwin notes two neighboring galaxies:
PGC 4113 at RA 01 09 20.4, Dec +32 43 22, and PGC 212671 at RA 01 09 26.4, Dec +32 46 16,
so they are shown in the 12 arcmin wide SDSS image below
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 403, also showing the stars listed as NGC 400, NGC 401 and NGC 402, and galaxies PGC 4113 and PGC 212671

NGC 404 (= PGC 4126), Mirach's Ghost
Discovered (Sep 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 17, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0(rs)a?) in Andromeda (RA 01 09 27.0, Dec +35 43 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 404 (= GC 218 = JH 89 = WH II 224, 1860 RA 01 01 39, NPD 55 01.9) is "pretty bright, considerably large, round, gradually brighter middle, β Andromedae to southeast". The position precesses to RA 01 09 26.7, Dec +35 42 59, within 0.1 arcmin of the galaxy's center, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: NGC 404 has a radial velocity of -50 km/sec, so it is approaching us instead of going away from us, as practically all other galaxies are. This means that it is too close for the expansion of the Universe to significantly affect its radial velocity, and its distance must be determined with redshift-independent methods. Those are difficult to make because it is so close to Mirach (β Andromedae), a 2nd-magnitude red giant only 200 light years from the Sun, that the glare from the star makes it difficult to even see the galaxy with most telescopes (hence its name, Mirach's Ghost). Still, half a dozen estimates give results ranging from 8 to 11 million light years, meaning it is close to our Local Group, although almost certainly too far away to be gravitationally bound to the Group (as a result, NED lists it as an "isolated galaxy"). The best estimate of its distance is from measurements of the brightness of its red giants (stars not much more massive than the Sun, which are at the end of their lives). Given the resulting distance of about 10 million light years and an apparent size of 3.5 by 3.5 arcmin, the galaxy is about 10 thousand light years across, meaning it is a "dwarf" galaxy, more like the smallest companion of the Andromeda Galaxy than the much larger galaxies that dominate our Local Group (namely, our Milky Way galaxy and the Andromeda Galaxy). Most lenticular galaxies have little dust or gas, and consist almost entirely of old, faint stars (the brighter stars having died billions of years ago); but the GALEX ultraviolet image at bottom shows a 30 thousand light year wide ring of hot, bright young stars surrounding the central galaxy, probably due to a collision with another galaxy. Previous studies had revealed the existence of a large ring of hydrogen gas surrounding NGC 404 which was tentatively attributed to a collision with an even smaller galaxy the best part of a billion years ago. It now appears that the gas compressed by the gravitational shock of the encounter has led to the formation of new associations and clusters of stars, many hot and bright enough to give off considerable amounts of ultraviolet radiation. So what was once thought to be a rather ordinary galaxy has turned out to be a very interesting one.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 404, also known as Mirach's Ghost
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 404
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 404, also known as Mirach's Ghost
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST view of the core reveals dusty filaments (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 404, also known as Mirach's Ghost
Below, a 12 arcmin wide ultraviolet image of the galaxy (Image Credit GALEX/JPL-Caltech/DSS/NASA)
Mirach appears faint in this image because it is a cool (red giant) star, and gives off little UV radiation
GALEX UV image of lenticular galaxy NGC 404, also known as Mirach's Ghost

NGC 405 (= HD 6869)
Recorded (Sep 6, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 7.1 star in Phoenix (RA 01 08 33.8, Dec -46 40 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 405 (= GC 219 = JH 2380, 1860 RA 01 02 06, NPD 137 25.6) is "extremely small, stellar, = 7th magnitude star".
Physical Information:
DSS image of region near HD 6869, the star listed as NGC 405
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the star listed as NGC 405

NGC 406 (= PGC 3980)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1834) by
John Herschel
Also observed (Nov 27, 1900) by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)bc?) in Tucana (RA 01 07 24.3, Dec -69 52 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 406 (= GC 220 = JH 2381, 1860 RA 01 02 40, NPD 160 37.5) is "faint, very large, round, very gradually a little brighter middle". However, the second Index Catalog notes (per DeLisle Stewart) "not round; bi-nuclear with extremely extended wisps through it at 165 degrees".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 3.2 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below). Probably a starburst galaxy.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 406
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 406
Below, a 3.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 406
Below, a 1.5 by 2.5 arcmin wide HST image of most of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble/NASA)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 406

NGC 407 (= PGC 4190)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 22, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Oct 25, 1867) by Herman Schultz
Also observed (Oct 2, 1883 by Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pisces (RA 01 10 36.5, Dec +33 07 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 407 (= GC 221 = WH II 219, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 01 02 52, NPD 57 37.0) is "very faint, very small, southwestern of 2", the other being NGC 410.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.05 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 407, also showing NGC 410 and the star listed as NGC 408
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 407, also showing NGC 408 and 410
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 407

NGC 408
Recorded (Oct 22, 1867) by
Herman Schultz
A magnitude 14.5 star in Pisces (RA 01 10 51.1, Dec +33 09 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 408 (= GC 5156, Schultz (Nova III), 1860 RA 01 03 06, NPD 57 35.6) is "very faint, very small, (WH) II 220 eight seconds of time to east", WH II 220 being NGC 410. The position precesses to RA 01 10 51.0, Dec +33 09 11, only 0.1 arcmin north of the star listed above, the description fits (including the relative position of NGC 410) and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain. However, this has not prevented NGC 408 from being misidentified as PGC 4221, so that object is discussed immediately below.
(See either NGC 407 or NGC 410 for an image of NGC 408)

PGC 4221 (not =
NGC 408)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 408
A magnitude 16(?) elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Pisces (RA 01 10 50.6, Dec +33 06 48)
Historical Misidentification: As noted in the entry for NGC 408, that is certainly the star 8 seconds of time west of NGC 410. However, presumably out of a desire to associate the NGC entry with a galaxy, a galaxy over two arcmin south of the correct position (PGC 4221) is sometimes misidentified as NGC 408, whence the need for this warning about the error.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5290 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 4221 is about 245 to 250 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 35 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy PGC 4221, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 408, also showing the star listed as NGC 408; also shown are NGC 407, NGC 410 and NGC 414
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 4221, also showing NGC 407, 408, 410 and 414
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 4221, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 408

NGC 409 (= PGC 4132)
Discovered (Nov 29, 1837) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Sculptor (RA 01 09 33.2, Dec -35 48 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 409 (= GC 223 = JH 2382, 1860 RA 01 03 09, NPD 126 31.4) is "extremely faint, small, round, very small (faint) star near".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.25 by 1.15 arcmin (from the images below). Vr = 6620 km/sec. (PGC 644282's radial velocity is unknown, so whether it is a neighbor or — more likely — a background object is unknown.)
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 409
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 409
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 409
Corwin notes an apparent companion at RA 01 09 46.1, Dec -35 48 49, as shown below
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 409, also showing PGC 644282
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 409, also showing PGC 644282

NGC 410 (= PGC 4224)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 22, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Oct 21, 1867) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 11.5 elliptical galaxy (type (R)E/S0? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 10 58.9, Dec +33 09 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 410 (= GC 222 = WH II 220, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 01 03 14, NPD 57 35.7) is "pretty bright, pretty large, northeastern of 2", the other being NGC 407.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 3.6 by 3.0 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 410, also showing NGC 407, NGC 414, and the star listed as NGC 408
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 410, also showing NGC 407, 408 and 414
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 410, also showing 408
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 410, also showing the star listed as NGC 408

NGC 411 (=
NGC 422, an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (1826) by James Dunlop
Also observed (Sep 20, 1835) by John Herschel
Also observed (Nov 27, 1900) by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 12.2 open cluster in Tucana (RA 01 07 56.0, Dec -71 46 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 411 (= GC 224 = JH 2384, (Dunlop 57), 1860 RA 01 03 28, NPD 162 30.7) is "extremely faint, pretty large, round, gradually a very little brighter middle". The second Index Catalog adds (per DeLisle Stewart) "not extremely faint, but considerably bright, small, round, stellar". The position precesses to RA 01 07 54.3, Dec -71 45 49, right on the cluster, so despite descriptions that sound like different objects, the identity is certain.
Discovery Notes 1: At the time Dreyer prepared the NGC none of Dunlop's observations were thought to refer to this object, but it is now believed that one of them probably did, hence the addition of credit (in parentheses) for his presumed discovery.
Discovery Notes 2: See NGC 422 for a discussion of the duplicate listing and the long-standing misidentification of that object.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near NGC 411, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 411
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of NGC 411, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide HST image of the cluster (Image Credit ESA/Hubble & NASA)
HST image of NGC 411, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 412
Recorded (Oct 15, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
A lost or nonexistent object in Cetus (RA 01 10 20.3, Dec -20 00 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 412 (Leavenworth list I (#26), 1860 RA 01 03 30, NPD 110 45.7) is "very faint, extremely small, round, suddenly brighter middle and nucleus (nebulous?)". The position precesses to RA 01 10 20.3, Dec -20 00 54 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there. Leavenworth made a sketch of the area, but it shows only a single star 5 arcmin southwest of his "nebula", and per Corwin no nebulous object exists anywhere in the region with a star in the correct relative position. To make matters worse, Leavenworth's statement that the object's nebulosity was questionable means the sketch could simply represent any two stars with that relative position, and the errors for all objects observed by Leavenworth on the date in question are so large that identifying what he observed is probably a hopeless task (Corwin made a lengthy search, but was unable to identify anything that might be NGC 412), and it is almost certain that the object will remain "lost". Further confusing the situation, PGC 3931 (= NGC 377) is sometimes misidentified as NGC 412, so see the note immediately below.
DSS image of region centered on Leavenworth's position for the apparently nonexistent NGC 412
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Leavenworth's position for NGC 412

PGC 3931 (=
NGC 377, and not = NGC 412)
Properly called NGC 377, but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 412
A magnitude 15.1 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Cetus (RA 01 06 35.0, Dec -20 19 56)
Historical Misidentification: As discussed in the entry for NGC 412, that object is almost certainly lost or nonexistent. However, as noted by Corwin in his lengthy discussion of the matter, the ESO catalog incorrectly equated NGC 412 with PGC 3931, so that misidentification is scattered through the literature. But as can be seen in the wide-field image for NGC 377, there is no reasonably bright star anywhere to the southwest of PGC 3931, so it does not match Leavenworth's sketch for NGC 412 and cannot be that object.
Physical Information: Given PGC 3931's proper designation, see NGC 377 for anything else.

NGC 413 (= PGC 4347)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 01 12 31.4, Dec -02 47 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 413 (Leavenworth list II (#301), 1860 RA 01 03 30±, NPD 93 33.7) is "extremely faint, pretty small, very little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 413
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 413
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 413
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 1081477) at 01 12 30.1, -02 50 52
Hence the 12 arcmin wide SDSS image showing that object, below
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 413, also showing PGC 1081477

NGC 414 (= PGC 4254 + PGC 93079)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1867) by
Herman Schultz
A pair of galaxies in Pisces
PGC 4254 = A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SAB0/a?) at RA 01 11 17.5, Dec +33 06 50
PGC 93079 = A magnitude 14.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) at RA 01 11 17.8, Dec +33 06 45
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 414 (= GC 5157, Schultz (Nova IV), 1860 RA 01 03 32, NPD 57 37.9) is "very faint, small, irregularly round, much brighter middle, II 220 to northwest", (WH) II 220 being NGC 410.
Physical Information: Apparent size of PGC 4254 is about 0.7 by 0.35 arcmin, and of PGC 93079, about 0.35 by 0.15 arcmin (from the images below). (for images, Corwin recommends RA 01 11 17.6, Dec +33 06 46)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxies PGC 4254 and PGC 93079, which comprise NGC 414, also showing NGC 410 and the star listed as NGC 408
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 414, also showing NGC 408 and 410
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair of galaxies
SDSS image of lenticular galaxies PGC 4254 and PGC 93079, which comprise NGC 414

NGC 415 (= PGC 4161)
Discovered (Sep 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Sculptor (RA 01 10 05.6, Dec -35 29 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 415 (= GC 225 = JH 2383, 1860 RA 01 03 37, NPD 126 14.6) is "very faint, small, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.55 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 415
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 415
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 415

NGC 416 (an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Apr 11, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 open cluster in Tucana (RA 01 07 59.0, Dec -72 21 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 416 (= GC 226 = JH 2386, (Dunlop 30, 42?), 1860 RA 01 03 39, NPD 163 06.4) is "faint, pretty small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: At the time Dreyer prepared the NGC none of Dunlop's observations were thought to refer to this object, but it is now believed that one or two of them probably did, hence the addition of credit (in parentheses) for his presumed discovery.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 arcmin (from the images below). Although its shape and richness suggest that NGC 416 is a globular cluster, its Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram shows that it is only about 2.5 billion years old, so it is thought to be an extremely rich open cluster (one of the richest and brightest in the Small Magellanic Cloud).
DSS image of region near NGC 416, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 416
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of NGC 416, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide HST image of the cluster (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of NGC 416, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 417 (= PGC 4237)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/SAB0?) in Cetus (RA 01 11 05.6, Dec -18 08 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 417 (Leavenworth list II (#300), 1860 RA 01 03 50, NPD 108 54.7) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected 1860 RA (per Howe) of 01 04 13.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 12660 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 417 is about 590 million light years away, in fair agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 535 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 560 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 570 to 575 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 105 to 110 thousand light years across. There is an apparent companion (PGC 4241) just north of NGC 417, but the distance of that object is unknown, so whether they are physical companions or merely an optical double is also unknown.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 417, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 4241
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 417, also showing PGC 4241
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide DSS image of the apparent pair
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 417, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 4241
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the nuclei of the apparent pair
PanSTARRS image of the core of lenticular galaxy NGC 417, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 4241

PGC 4241
Not an NGC object but listed here since an apparent companion of
NGC 417
A magnitude 16(?) lenticular galaxy (type SAB0(s)a?) in Cetus (RA 01 11 05.5, Dec -18 08 24)
Physical Information: As discussed in the entry for NGC 417, the distance of PGC 4241 is unknown, so whether it is a physical companion of the NGC object or merely an optical double is also unknown. The galaxy has an apparent size of about 0.35 by 0.2 arcmin (from the images shown at the entry for NGC 417, which see), but nothing else is known.

NGC 418 (= PGC 4189)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)bc?) in Sculptor (RA 01 10 35.7, Dec -30 13 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 418 (= GC 227 = JH 2385, 1860 RA 01 03 58, NPD 120 57.8) is "faint, pretty large, round, very gradually a little brighter middle, western of 2", the other being NGC 423.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.1 by 1.6 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 418
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 418
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 418

NGC 419 (an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Aug 1, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Apr 11, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.2 open cluster in Tucana (RA 01 08 17.7, Dec -72 53 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 419 (= GC 228 = JH 2387, Dunlop 36?, 1860 RA 01 04 04, NPD 163 38.0) is "pretty bright, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: Although Herschel and Dreyer considered Dunlop the original observer of this object, there is now a difference of opinion about which of his observations correspond to NGC 419; at the current time it is thought that his 38 and 44 are probable observations of NGC 419, and his 36 is a completely different object.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.1 by 1.8 arcmin (from the images below) Like NGC 416, an exceptionally rich cluster with a very young age (only about 1.2 billion years), so not a globular cluster.
DSS image of region near NGC 419, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 419
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of NGC 419, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide HST image of the cluster (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of NGC 419, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

WORKING 420/421: Need to resolve confusion caused by Steinicke's reversal of identifications
THEN take care of updating formatting, images, etc

??? Steinicke lists 420 as III 154, "only seen by H", and "not found" ???
and 421 as III 155 = JH 90 = PGC 4320
i.e., he reverses 420 and 421, and III 154 and 155

NGC 420 (= PGC 4320)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 16, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 01 12 09.6, Dec +32 07 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 420 (= GC 229 = JH 90 = WH III 154, 1860 RA 01 04 25, NPD 58 37.4) is "faint, pretty small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.8 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 420
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 420
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 420

??? Steinicke lists 420 as III 154, "only seen by H", and "not found" ???
and 421 as III 155 = JH 90 = PGC 4320
i.e., he reverses 420 and 421, and III 154 and 155

NGC 421
Recorded (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
A lost or nonexistent object in Pisces (RA 01 12 09.3, Dec +32 08 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 421 (= GC 230 = WH III 155, 1860 RA 01 04 25±, NPD 58 36±) is "extremely faint, very small (only seen by H)", "H" being William Herschel. The position precesses to RA 01 12 09.3, Dec +32 08 42 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there save for NGC 420, which should lie (ignoring the uncertainty in position suggested by the ± signs) exactly 1.4 arcmin to the south. Herschel observed his III 154 and 155 on the same night, describing them as "Two. Both extremely faint, very small. The following is the largest." As noted by Corwin, since NGC 420 is the only object actually in the area, it is presumably "the largest", and should have been listed as NGC 421 instead of NGC 420. However, more than a hundred years of tradition argues against such a reassignment of the identification, so the question becomes which star or group of stars to the west of NGC 420 should be listed as NGC 421; and in the absence of any good position for or any obvious choice of an object, it seems best to agree with Corwin's conclusion that NGC 421 is "Not found".
SDSS image of region near NGC 420, indicating the NGC position for the apparently nonexistent NGC 421
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region showing NGC 420 and the NGC position for NGC 421

Ignore both entries for NGC 422 until this warning is removed

WORKING HERE: Until recently, NGC 422 was thought to be ESO 51-SC22, the cluster shown in the images below (and still is, in almost every reference I can find); but per Corwin, it is now thought that it is actually a duplicate observation of NGC 411. For that reason, the following entry is for the former NGC 422. It will take some time for me to evaluate the arguments in favor of abandoning the former identification, so I cannot forecast when this warning paragraph will be removed.

WORKING 422/422old: Need to resolve confusion caused by misidentification of "422old"

NGC 422 (=
NGC 411, an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Sep 21, 1835) by John Herschel
Not observed (Nov 27, 1900) by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 12.2 open cluster in Tucana (RA 01 07 56.0, Dec -71 46 01)
Historical Identification (and Misidentification): Per Dreyer, NGC 422 (= GC 231 = [JH 162], 1860 RA 01 04 28, NPD 162 30.9) is "very faint (in Nubecula Minor)", Nubecula Minor being the Small Magellanic Cloud. The second Index Catalog notes (per DeLisle Stewart) "only 3 extremely faint stars, close together, not a nebula". NGC 422 was long thought to be ESO 51 - SC 022 and is still listed as such in almost all references; so that object is discussed immediately following. However, as will be discussed here before finalizing this iteration of this page, it has now been shown that it is actually a duplicate observation of NGC 411.
Discovery Notes [JH 162] refers to a list of Small Magellanic Cloud objects observed by Herschel at the Cape of Good Hope that were numbered separately from his usual method of numbering his observations.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate listing, see NGC 411 for anything else.

ESO 51 - SC 022 (formerly thought to be
NGC 422)
An OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud

Recorded (Nov 27, 1900) by DeLisle Stewart (and later misidentified as NGC 422)
Not an NGC object but listed here since formerly thought to be NGC 422 (and often still listed as such)
A magnitude 13.4 open cluster in Tucana (RA 01 09 25.4, Dec -71 46 00)
Historical Misidentification: This will be discussed either here or in the entry for NGC 422 before this iteration of this page is finalized.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near open cluster ESO 51 - SC 022, in the Small Magellanic Cloud, formerly and often still listed as NGC 422 (which is actually a duplicate observation of NGC 411)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on ESO 51 - SC 022, formerly thought to be NGC 422
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of open cluster ESO 51 - SC 022, in the Small Magellanic Cloud, formerly and often still listed as NGC 422 (which is actually a duplicate observation of NGC 411)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered between ESO 51 - SC 022 and NGC 411/422
DSS image of region between NGC 411 (which is also NGC 422) and ESO 51 - SC 022, open clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 423 (= PGC 4266)
Discovered (Nov 14, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Sculptor (RA 01 11 22.2, Dec -29 14 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 423 (= GC 232 = JH 2388, 1860 RA 01 04 42, NPD 119 58.7) is "extremely faint, small, extended, gradually a little brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 418.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 423
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 423
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 423Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 423
NGC 424 (= PGC 4274)
Discovered (Nov 30, 1837) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type (R)Sbc?) in Sculptor (RA 01 11 27.6, Dec -38 05 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 424 (= GC 233 = JH 2389, 1860 RA 01 04 58, NPD 128 49.7) is "very faint, small, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.45 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below). A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 1h).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 424
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 424
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 424
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide HST image of part of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
'Raw' HST image of part of lenticular galaxy NGC 424

NGC 425 (= PGC 4379)
Discovered (Oct 29, 1866) by
Truman Safford
Independently discovered (Oct 11, 1879) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) in Andromeda (RA 01 13 02.6, Dec +38 46 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 425 (Stephan list X (#4), (Safford 62), 1860 RA 01 05 09, NPD 51 58.6) is "very faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle, 11th magnitude star attached".
Discovery Notes: Safford's observations, although made 20-some years beforehand, were not published until the late 1880's, and even then only in an obscure journal, so Dreyer was not aware of their existence until the NGC was nearly ready to go to press. As a result, he did not have the opportunity to list Safford's observations in the main part of the text, and only noted a few of them in an appendix at the end of the paper.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 425
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 425
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 425
Below, a 0.85 arcmin wide monochrome PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 425

NGC 426 (= PGC 4363)
Discovered (Dec 20, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 20, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Cetus (RA 01 12 48.6, Dec -00 17 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 426 (= GC 234 = JH 91 = WH III 592, 1860 RA 01 05 40, NPD 91 02.7) is "very faint, very small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.25 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below). A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 426, also showing NGC 429 and NGC 430
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 426, also showing NGC 429 and 430
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 426

NGC 427 (= PGC 4333)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)a?) in Sculptor (RA 01 12 19.2, Dec -32 03 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 427 (= GC 236 = JH 2390, 1860 RA 01 05 44, NPD 122 49.7) is "3 very small (faint) stars with nebulosity (?)".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 427
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 427
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 427

NGC 428 (= PGC 4367)
Discovered (Dec 20, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)m) in Cetus (RA 01 12 55.8, Dec +00 58 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 428 (= GC 238 = WH II 622, 1860 RA 01 05 46, NPD 89 45.7) is "faint, large, round, brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 4.1 by 2.6 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 428, processed to remove glare from the 9th-magnitude star at the top
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 428
(partially replaced by a DSS image to remove glare from the 9th magnitude star at top)
Below, a 4.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 428
Below, a 3.4 arcmin wide HST image overlaid on the one above (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 428 overlaid on an SDSS background to fill in missing areas
Below, a 1.05 by 2.4 arcmin wide image of part of the galaxy (rotated clockwise for more detail)
Credit NASA/ESA/Hubble/S. Smartt, Queen’s University Belfast. Acknowledgement Nick Rose & "penninecloud"
HST image of northern half of spiral galaxy NGC 428

NGC 429 (= PGC 4368)
Discovered (Dec 20, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 20, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Cetus (RA 01 12 57.4, Dec -00 20 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 429 (= GC 237 = JH 92 = WH III 593, 1860 RA 01 05 48, NPD 91 05.6) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 429, also showing NGC 426 and NGC 430
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 429, also showing NGC 426 and 430
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 429

NGC 430 (= PGC 4376)
Discovered (Oct 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 20, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 12 59.9, Dec -00 15 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 430 (= GC 239 = JH 93 = WH II 447, 1860 RA 01 05 52, NPD 90 59.8) is "faint, very small, round, very suddenly brighter middle like a star".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 430, also showing NGC 426 and NGC 429
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 430, also showing NGC 426 and 429
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 430

NGC 431 (= PGC 4437)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0?) in Andromeda (RA 01 14 04.5, Dec +33 42 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 431 (= GC 240 = JH 95, 1860 RA 01 06 16, NPD 57 01.8) is "faint, small, very suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 431
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 431
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 431

NGC 432 (= PGC 4290)
Discovered (Oct 6, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Tucana (RA 01 11 46.3, Dec -61 31 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 432 (= GC 241 = JH 2391, 1860 RA 01 06 16, NPD 152 20.7) is "faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, 12th magnitude star to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.35 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 432
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 432
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 432

NGC 433 (= OCL 319)
Discovered (Sep 29, 1829) by
John Herschel
An open cluster (type III2p) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 15 08.5, Dec +60 07 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 433 (= GC 242 = JH 94, 1860 RA 01 06 28, NPD 30 346.9) is "a cluster, small, a little compressed".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 arcmin?
DSS image of open cluster NGC 433
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 433

NGC 434 (= PGC 4325)
Discovered (Oct 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)a?) in Tucana (RA 01 12 14.1, Dec -58 14 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 434 (= GC 243 = JH 2392, 1860 RA 01 06 37, NPD 148 59.9) is "bright, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.2 by 1.15 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 434, also showing NGC 440 and PGC 4344, which is sometimes called NGC 434A
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 434, also showing NGC 440 and PGC 4344
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 434

PGC 4344 (= "NGC 434A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 434A
A magnitude 14.9 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a? pec) in
Tucana (RA 01 12 30.0, Dec -58 12 29)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.35 by 0.2 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy PGC 4344, also known as NGC 434A; also shown are NGC 434 and NGC 440
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 4344, also showing NGC 434 and 440
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 4344, also known as NGC 434A

NGC 435 (= PGC 4434)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)cd?) in Cetus (RA 01 13 59.8, Dec +02 04 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 435 (= GC 5158, Marth #36, 1860 RA 01 06 48, NPD 88 38) is "extremely faint, small, extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 435, partially replaced by a DSS image to remove glare from the 9th-magnitude star near the bottom
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 435
(Partially replaced by a DSS image to remove glare from the 9th magnitude star to the south southwest)
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of piral galaxy NGC 435

NGC 436 (= OCL 320)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1787) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 8.8 open cluster (type I3m) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 15 58.0, Dec +58 48 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 436 (= GC 244 = WH VII 45, 1860 RA 01 06 53, NPD 31 56.1) is "a cluster, small, irregular figure, pretty compressed".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 436
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 436

NGC 437 (= PGC 4464)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 12.8 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(r)a?) in Pisces (RA 01 14 22.3, Dec +05 55 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 437 (Swift list V (#11), 1860 RA 01 06 58, NPD 84 48.8) is "pretty faint, very small, round, faint star to northwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 437
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 437
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 437

NGC 438 (= PGC 4406)
Discovered (Sep 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(s)b?) in Sculptor (RA 01 13 34.2, Dec -37 54 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 438 (= GC 245 = JH 2393, 1860 RA 01 07 07, NPD 128 39.0) is "pretty faint, small, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 438
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 438
(The diffraction lines at right are caused by 6th magnitude HD 7312)
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 438

NGC 439 (= PGC 4423)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0(rs)a?) in Sculptor (RA 01 13 47.3, Dec -31 44 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 439 (= GC 246 = JH 2394, 1860 RA 01 07 12, NPD 122 29.4) is "pretty bright, small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 3.5 by 2.3 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 439, also showing NGC 441
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 439, also showing NGC 441
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 439
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the nucleus of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of nucleus of lenticular galaxy NGC 439

NGC 440 (= PGC 4361)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)bc? pec) in Tucana (RA 01 12 48.5, Dec -58 16 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 440 (= GC 247 = JH 2396, 1860 RA 01 07 13, NPD 149 01.7) is "faint, very small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 440, also showing NGC 434 and PGC 4344, which is also called NGC 434A
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 440, also showing NGC 434 and PGC 4344
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 440

NGC 441 (= PGC 4429)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(rs)a?) in Sculptor (RA 01 13 51.3, Dec -31 47 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 441 (= GC 248 = JH 2395, 1860 RA 01 07 17, NPD 122 32.9) is "pretty faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 1.15 arcmin (from the images below). Despite the less than usual quality of the PanSTARRS image, the central bar and surrounding ring are clearly visible.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 441, also showing NGC 439
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 441, also showing NGC 439
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 441
Below, a 1 arcmin wide monochrome PanSTARRS image of the nucleus of the galaxy
(linear artifacts partially due to being at the southern limit of the survey)
PanSTARRS image of the nucleus of lenticular galaxy NGC 441

NGC 442 (= PGC 4484)
Discovered (Oct 21, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Cetus (RA 01 14 38.7, Dec -01 01 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 442 (Swift list V (#12), 1860 RA 01 07 19, NPD 91 46.0) is "very faint, small, round, bright star to southeast". (The direction of the bright star is actually northeast, but such confusion about directions is not unusual in observations with visual telescopes, as depending on the optical arrangement, the field can be reversed in one or more ways.)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 442
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 442 (the bright star is 6th magnitude 38 Ceti)
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 442

NGC 443 (=
IC 1653 = PGC 4512)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1861) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 443)
Discovered (Oct 17, 1903) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 1653)
A magnitude 13.1 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0(r)a?) in Pisces (RA 01 15 07.6, Dec +33 22 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 443 (= GC 249, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 07 21, NPD 57 30.8) is "faint, small, round, 15th magnitude star 8 seconds of time to west on parallel", "on parallel" meaning on a parallel to the Celestial Equator, and therefore having the same polar distance and declination.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 443
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 443
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 443

NGC 444 (=
IC 1658 = PGC 4561)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1854) by R. J. Mitchell (and later listed as NGC 444)
Discovered (Oct 17, 1903) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 1658)
A magnitude 14.3 spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Pisces (RA 01 15 49.6, Dec +31 04 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 444 (= GC 251, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 01 07 37, NPD 59 40) is "very faint, much extended 135°, a little brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.8 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 444, also showing NGC 452
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 444, also showing NGC 452
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 444

NGC 445 (= PGC 4493)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 14 52.5, Dec +01 55 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 445 (= GC 5159, Marth #37, 1860 RA 01 07 41, NPD 88 49) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 445
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 445
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 445

NGC 446 (=
IC 89 = PGC 4578)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 446)
Discovered (Aug 20, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 89)
A magnitude 12.4 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0(r)a?) in Pisces (RA 01 16 03.6, Dec +04 17 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 446 (= GC 5160, Marth #38, 1860 RA 01 07 48, NPD 86 26) is "faint, very small, stellar". The position precesses to RA 01 15 02.2, Dec +04 18 31, but there is nothing there. However, (per Corwin) the solution appears to be a simple one, namely a 1 minute of time (probably typographical) error by Marth in recording the right ascension. Changing the 1860 RA to 01 08 48, the position precesses to RA 01 16 02.3, Dec +04 18 27, only 0.9 arcmin north northwest of the galaxy listed above, and since there is nothing else within a region nearly a degree wide centered on Marth's original position, the identification is considered certain. (Because of the error in Marth's right ascension there was no way for Dreyer to realize that Javelle's later observation was of the same object, hence the double listing.) Unfortunately, some references misidentify NGC 446 as PGC 4494, so that object is discussed immediately below.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5445 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 446 is about 250 to 255 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.4 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 115 to 120 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 446
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 446
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 446

PGC 4494 (not =
NGC 446)
Not an NGC object, but listed here because sometimes misidentified as NGC 446
A magnitude 14.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Pisces (RA 01 14 48.0, Dec +04 11 22)
Historical Misidentification: Per Thomson and Corwin, several older catalogs misidentify this as NGC 446, and a search for NGC 446 on Wikisky shows PGC 4494 instead of the correct galaxy, indicating that the misidentification is still floating around. I presume this was caused by the galaxy being "only" 8 arcmin south southwest of Marth's incorrect position for NGC 446. But although that is a little closer to Marth's position than the actual NGC 446, the kind of measurement error required to make PGC 4494 Marth's object is very unlikely, the 1-digit error required to make PGC 4578 Marth's object is all too common, and PGC 4494 is far too faint for Marth to have noticed. Given all that, there is no doubt that any identification of PGC 4494 with NGC 446 is wrong.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5455 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 4494 is about 255 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.45 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 105 to 110 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 4494, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 446
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 4494
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 4494, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 446

NGC 447 (=
IC 1656 = PGC 4550)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1861) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 447)
Discovered (1890's?) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 1656)
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(rs)a?) in Pisces (RA 01 15 37.7, Dec +33 04 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 447 (= GC 250, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 07 50, NPD 57 40.5) is "faint, pretty large, brighter middle, 11th magnitude star to northeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.35 by 1.9 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 447, also showing part of NGC 449Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 447, also showing part of NGC 449
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 447

NGC 448 (= PGC 4524)
Discovered (Sep 2, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Cetus (RA 01 15 16.5, Dec -01 37 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 448 (Swift list IV (#5), 1860 RA 01 08 14, NPD 92 21.5) is "pretty bright, very small, a little extended".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1910 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 448 is about 85 to 90 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 55 to 120 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.5 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 35 to 40 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 448
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 448
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 448
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 212690) at RA 01 15 16.4, Dec -01 34 57
Hence the 12 arcmin wide SDSS image showing that object, below
However, it is about 5285 million light years away, so it is not a companion of NGC 448SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 448, also showing PGC 212690

NGC 449 (= PGC 4587)
Discovered (Nov 11, 1881) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)b? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 16 07.2, Dec +33 05 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 449 (Stephan list XII (#11), 1860 RA 01 08 19, NPD 57 39.0) is "very faint, very small, round, a very little brighter middle, very faint star involved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.55 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below). A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 449, also showing NGC 451, part of NGC 447, and the stars listed as NGC 453
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 449, also showing NGC 447, 451 and 453
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 449
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 350 - 399) ←NGC Objects: NGC 400 - 449→ (NGC 450 - 499)