Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3950 - 3999) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4000 - 4049 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 4050 - 4099)
Click here for Introductory Material
QuickLinks:
4000, 4001, 4002, 4003, 4004, 4005, 4006, 4007, 4008, 4009, 4010, 4011, 4012,
4013, 4014, 4015, 4016, 4017, 4018, 4019, 4020, 4021, 4022, 4023, 4024, 4025,
4026, 4027, 4028, 4029, 4030, 4031, 4032, 4033, 4034, 4035, 4036, 4037, 4038,
4039, 4040, 4041, 4042, 4043, 4044, 4045, 4046, 4047, 4048, 4049

Page last updated Aug 17, 2013
WORKING: Add positions/physical data (per Steinicke)

NGC 4000 (= PGC 37643)
Discovered (Apr 25, 1878) by
Lawrence Parsons, 4th Lord Rosse
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc) in Leo (RA 11 57 57.0, Dec +25 08 38)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4555 km/sec, NGC is about 210 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.2 arcmin, it is about 60 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4000
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4000
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 3993, 3999 and 4005
(Some adjustments have been made to reduce the glare from the 8th-magnitude star HD 103913)
Composite of SDSS and DSS images of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4000, somewhat adjusted for glare from 8th-magnitude HD 103913; also shown are spiral galaxies NGC 3993 and 4005, and lenticular galaxy NGC 3999

NGC 4001
Discovered (Apr 13, 1852) by
Bindon Stoney

NGC 4002
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel

NGC 4003
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel

NGC 4004
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel

NGC 4005 (=
NGC 4007)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4007)
Discovered (Mar 16, 1869) by Otto Struve (and later listed as NGC 4005)

NGC 4006
Discovered (Apr 15, 1828) by
William Herschel

NGC 4007 (=
NGC 4005)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4007)
Discovered (Mar 16, 1869) by Otto Struve (and later listed as NGC 4005)

NGC 4008
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel

NGC 4009
Recorded (Apr 26, 1878) by
John Dreyer (i)
A 15th-magnitude star in Leo (RA 11 58 15.0, Dec +25 11 27)

NGC 4010
Discovered (Apr 26, 1830) by
John Herschel

NGC 4011
Discovered (Apr 26, 1878) by
John Dreyer (e)

NGC 4012
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth (225)

NGC 4013
Discovered (Feb 6, 1788) by
William Herschel
The first IC adds "Position angle of extension 60 to 70 degrees (Armagh, 1891). No change".

NGC 4014 (=
NGC 4028)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1783) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4028)
Discovered (Apr 26, 1832) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4014)

NGC 4015
Discovered (Apr 26, 1878) by
John Dreyer (b)

NGC 4016
Discovered (Mar 30, 1854) by
R. J. Mitchell

NGC 4017
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel

NGC 4018
Discovered (Apr 26, 1878) by
John Dreyer (k)

NGC 4019 (probably =
IC 755 = PGC 37912)
Discovered (Apr 23, 1832) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4019)
Discovered (Apr 20, 1889) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 755)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 01 10.4, Dec +14 06 16)
Apparent size 2.4 by 0.3 arcmin. (Historical identification to be discussed in the next iteration of this page.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4019
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4019
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4019

NGC 4020
Discovered (Feb 3, 1788) by
William Herschel

NGC 4021
Discovered (Apr 26, 1878) by
John Dreyer (d)

NGC 4022
Discovered (Apr 26, 1878) by
John Dreyer (l)

NGC 4023
Discovered (Apr 26, 1878) by
John Dreyer (g)

NGC 4024
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 11 51 23.

NGC 4025
Discovered (Mar 17, 1787) by
William Herschel

NGC 4026
Discovered (Apr 12, 1789) by
William Herschel

NGC 4027 (=
Arp 22 = PGC 37773)
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm) in Corvus (RA 11 59 30.5, Dec -19 15 57)
An unusual one-armed spiral (hence its use as an example of such a galaxy in the Arp Atlas), presumably due to a collision with or near passage by another galaxy millions of years ago (the most likely candidate being PGC 37772, also known as NGC 4027A). Part of the NGC 4038 Group, whose namesake is one of the even more spectacular Antennae Galaxies. Based on recessional velocity of 1670 km/sec, about 75 million light years away, in good agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 85 million light years. Given that and apparent size of 3.2 by 2.4 arcmin, about 70 thousand light years across.
ESO image of NGC 4027, also known as Arp 22
Above, a closeup of NGC 4027 (Image Credits: ESO)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide view centered on the galaxy
Composite image of region near NGC 4027, also known Arp 22

PGC 37772 (= "NGC 4027A")
A 15th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IBm) in
Corvus (RA 11 59 29.3, Dec -19 19 55)
See NGC 4027, above, for an image

NGC 4028 (=
NGC 4014)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1783) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4028)
Discovered (Apr 26, 1832) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4014)

NGC 4029
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth (226)

NGC 4030
Discovered (Jan 1, 1786) by
William Herschel

NGC 4031
Discovered (Apr 6, 1864) by
Heinrich d'Arrest

NGC 4032
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by
William Herschel

NGC 4033
Discovered (Dec 31, 1785) by
William Herschel

NGC 4034
Discovered (Apr 6, 1793) by
William Herschel

NGC 4035
Discovered (Feb 8, 1785) by
William Herschel

NGC 4036
Discovered (Mar 19, 1790) by
William Herschel

NGC 4037
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel

NGC 4038 (= PGC 37967), one of the Antennae Galaxies
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)m pec) in Corvus (RA 12 01 53, Dec -18 51 52)
With NGC 4039, the Antennae Galaxies, so-called because of the 300 thousand light year long tails of gas and stars created by their collision. The two galaxies are undergoing a hundred-million-year long collision, in which individual stars rarely (if ever) collide, because they are almost infinitely small in comparison to their separation, but do get scattered through space, as a result of the other galaxy's gravity changing their original motions. Meanwhile, clouds of gas and dust, which extend over vast distances, slam into each other, are violently compressed, and form millions of young stars, many of which are extremely hot, bright objects which heat and light up the regions in which they form. Over a very long period of time the two galaxies will pass through each other, over and over, until they merge. Based on a recessional velocity of 1640 km/sec, NGC 4038 is about 75 million light years away (and of course, at the same distance as NGC 4039). Given that and its apparent size of 5 by 3 arcmin, it is about 100 thousand light years across. Note: This size is for the main structure of the galaxy, and does not include the extended clouds of stars and gas surrounding the pair.
Wikisky image of NGC 4038 and 4039, the Antennae Galaxies
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxies, with North at the top
Below, the galaxies and their 300 thousand light year long tails
Credit: Bob and Bill Twardy/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO
NOAO image of NGC 4038 and 4039, the Antennae Galaxies
Below, a HST closeup of the galaxies, emphasizing the star-forming regions
Image Credit: NASA, ESA, and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration;
Acknowledgment: B. Whitmore (Space Telescope Science Institute)

HST image of NGC 4038 and 4039, the Antennae Galaxies

NGC 4039 (= PGC 37969), one of the Antennae Galaxies
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)m pec) in Corvus (RA 12 01 54, Dec -18 53 08)
With NGC 4038, the Antennae Galaxies, so-called because of the 300 thousand light year long tails of gas and stars created by their collision. See the discussion of that galaxy for more details about the collision, and images of the galaxies. Based on a recessional velocity of 1640 km/sec, NGC 4039 is about 75 million light years away (and of course, at the same distance as NGC 4038). Given that and its apparent size of 3 by 2 arcmin, the galaxy is about 65 thousand light years across. Note: This size is for the main structure of the galaxy, and does not include the extended clouds of stars and gas surrounding the pair.

NGC 4040
Discovered (Mar 30, 1887) by
Lewis Swift (6-41)

NGC 4041
Discovered (Mar 19, 1790) by
William Herschel

NGC 4042
Discovered (Mar 18, 1865) by
Albert Marth (227)
The first IC notes "Not seen by Spitaler".

NGC 4043
Discovered (Apr 9, 1828) by
John Herschel

NGC 4044
Discovered (Jan 1, 1786) by
William Herschel

NGC 4045 (=
NGC 4046)
Discovered (Dec 20, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4045)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4046)

NGC 4046 (=
NGC 4045)
Discovered (Dec 20, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4045)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4046)

NGC 4047
Discovered (Feb 9, 1788) by
William Herschel

NGC 4048
Discovered (Mar 23, 1827) by
John Herschel

NGC 4049
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3950 - 3999) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4000 - 4049     → (NGC 4050 - 4099)