Celestial Atlas
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4150, 4151, 4152, 4153, 4154, 4155, 4156, 4157, 4158, 4159, 4160, 4161, 4162, 4163, 4164, 4165, 4166,
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Page last updated Dec 30, 2014
WORKING: Add positions/physical data (per Steinicke)

NGC 4150 (= PGC 38742)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0(r)?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 10 33.6, Dec +39 24 21)
Recessional velocity of 225 km/sec is too small, in comparison to peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities, to be a reliable indicator of distance. And in fact, the resulting distance estimate of 10 million light years is far smaller than redshift-independent distance estimates of 30 to 65 million light years. Assuming a more reasonable distance of roughly 50 million light years, the apparent size of 2.3 by 1.6 arcmin suggests it is about 30 thousand light years across. The core of the galaxy is exceptionally bright. Recent studies have shown that the reason is that it contains large numbers of hot, bright young stars. This is very unusual in elliptical or lenticular galaxies, which contain very little gas and dust, from which new stars can be made. The explanation appears to be, as shown in the bottom photograph for this object, that it has recently (within the last billion or two years) "cannibalized" or merged with another galaxy (probably about a twentieth of its size and mass), which contained substantial amounts of gas and dust, which are the source material for the new stellar population. The "metal" (non-hydrogen and helium) content of the new stars is very low, indicating that the merged galaxy had not created many stars, or any significant amount of heavy atoms from the death of such stars, prior to its merger with NGC 4150.
SDSS image of NGC 4150
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4150
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region around NGC 4150
Below, images showing the dusty center of the galaxy
(Image Credits: ESA, R.M. Crockett (University of Oxford, U.K.), S. Kaviraj (Imperial College London and University of Oxford, U.K.), J. Silk (University of Oxford), M. Mutchler (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore), R. O'Connell (University of Virginia, Charlottesville), and the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee, NASA)
HST images of the dusty center of NGC 4150

NGC 4151 (= PGC 38739), the "Eye of Sauron" Galaxy
Discovered (Mar 17, 1787) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(rs)ab?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 10 32.6, Dec +39 24 21)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 995 km/sec, NGC 4151 is about 45 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with widely discordant redshift-independent distance estimates of 15 to 95 million light years. Fortunately, a recent measurement (published in Nov 2014) using infrared interferometry to accurately measure the apparent size of a dusty ring surrounding the supermassive black hole in its center and compare that to the physical size determined from the interaction of the dusty ring with the black hole has provided a distance, thought to be accurate to within 10%, of 62 million light years (making this one of the best-known galaxy distances, and providing a new "yardstick" for the distance of similar galaxies.) Using that distance and the galaxy's apparent size of ? arcmin (note: this is not the size of the dusty ring used to determine the galaxy's distance, which is only about 100 light years across), NGC 4151 is about ? thousand light years across. Because of its bright central core, NGC 4151 is listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 1.5).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4151
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4151
Below, a multispectral ? arcmin wide image of the central part of the galaxy, showing the region that led to its classification as a Seyfert Galaxy and its fanciful name. The dusty region surrounding the central core is not the "ring" used to measure the distance of the galaxy. That is in the very center of the bright core and is far too small to be imaged by any standard method, so its size could only be measured by interferometry. (Credit X-ray NASA/CXC/CfA/J.Wang et al.; Optical Isaac Newton Group Telescopes, La Palma/Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope; Radio NSF/NRAO/VLA).
Composite image of the central core of spiral galaxy NGC 4151, also known as the Eye of Sauron Galaxy

NGC 4152
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4153 (=
NGC 4147)
Discovered (Mar 14, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4147)
Discovered (Feb 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4153)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4154 (=
NGC 4149)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4149)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1790) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4153)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4155 (= PGC 38761)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1885) by
Lewis Swift (1-21)
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 10 45.6, Dec +19 02 28)
(Note: An NED search for NGC 4155 incorrectly shows NGC 4152; use the PGC listing to access the correct information.) Based on a recessional velocity of 7380 km/sec, NGC 4155 is about 340 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.1 by 1.0 arcmin, it is about 110 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of NGC 4155
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4155
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near NGC 4155

NGC 4156
Discovered (Mar 17, 1787) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4157 (= PGC 38795)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 17, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)b?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 11 04.4, Dec +50 29 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4157 (= GC 2761 = JH 1114 = WH I 208, 1860 RA 12 04 01, NPD 38 43.9) is "pretty faint, considerably large, very much extended 60°± (double?)". The position precesses to RA 12 11 03.7, Dec +50 29 21, barely northwest of the nucleus of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 775 km/sec, NGC 4157 is only about 35 million light years away, in poor agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 50 to 75 million light years, and for objects with such small recessional velocities peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities can significantly affect the measurement, so odds are that the actual distance is close to the median of the redshift-independent distances, or around 60 to 65 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 8.8 by 1.0 arcmin, the galaxy is probably about 160 thousand light years across.
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4157, overlaid on an SDSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, an image (overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide SDSS background) centered on NGC 4157
(Image Credit & © above and below Adam Block, Mount Lemmon SkyCenter, University of Arizona; used by permission)
Below, a 9 arcmin wide version of the image above
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of spiral galaxy NGC 4157, overlaid on an SDSS background to fill in missing areas

NGC 4158
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4159
Discovered (Dec 12, 1797) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4160
Discovered (May 27, 1886) by
Guillaume Bigourdan (II-51)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4161
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4162
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4163 (=
NGC 4167)
Discovered (Apr 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4163)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4167)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4164
Discovered (Mar 22, 1878) by
Wilhelm Tempel (1-37, V)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4165 (=
IC 3035 = PGC 38885)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4165)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3035)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 12 11.8, Dec +13 14 46)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4165 (GC 5625, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 04 59, NPD 75 59.2) is "extremely faint, 10th magnitude star to northwest, h1119 (= NGC 4168) to the east". The position precesses to RA 12 12 07.6, Dec +13 14 03, a couple of arcmin southwest of the correct position, but the relative positions of the star and NGC 4168 make the identification certain. (See IC 3035 for a discussion of the duplicate listing.) Apparent size 1.2 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 47) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4165
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4165
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4164 and 4168
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4165, also showing elliptical galaxies NGC 4164 and 4168

NGC 4166
Discovered (Mar 15, 1885) by
Wilhelm Tempel (IX-10)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4167 (=
NGC 4163)
Discovered (Apr 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4163)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4167)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4168
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
The second IC notes "Not found by Frost on plates of 4 hours exposure. 4168 is, however, #223 in Schwassmann's list".

NGC 4169 (= PGC 38892, and with NGC
4173, 4174 and 4175 = The Box)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 12 18.7, Dec +29 10 46)
NGC 4169 is listed in NED as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy2). Based on a recessional velocity of 3785 km/sec, it is about 175 million light years away. Given that and its 1.8 by 0.9 arcmin apparent size, it is about 90 thousand light years across. NGC 4169, 4174 and 4175 may form a physical as well as an apparent triplet; but NGC 4173 is almost certainly a foreground object.
SDSS image of NGC 4169
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4169; also shown is part of NGC 4173
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on "The Box" (= NGC 4169, 4173, 4174 and 4175)
SDSS image of region centered on The Box (NGC 4169, 4173, 4174 and 4175)
(The image above is centered at RA 12 12 24.0, Dec +29 10 48)

NGC 4170
Discovered (May 10, 1864) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
The first IC notes "= Bigourdan 169, RA 12 05 11, NPD 60 01".

NGC 4171
Discovered (May 10, 1864) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4172
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4173 (= PGC 38897, and with NGC
4169, 4174 and 4175 = The Box)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sdm?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 12 21.5, Dec +29 12 26)
Because of its nearly edge-on presentation, it is difficult to determine the galaxy type for NGC 4173. It is clearly less dense and more irregular in appearance than "typical" spirals, but is listed as type SBd and Sdm in NED (the d and dm suffixes meaning that it is some kind of low-density spiral, and the S and SB prefixes meaning that the presence or absence of a bar is a matter of opinion). Based on a recessional velocity of 1125 km/sec, NGC 4173 is about 55 million light years away; however, that is very uncertain, as the sole redshift-independent distance estimate is just over 30 million light years. Presuming a distance of around 45 million light years, NGC 4173's apparent size of 5.0 by 0.7 arcmin suggests that it is around 65 thousand light years across. NGC 4169, 4174 and 4175 may form a physical as well as an apparent triplet; but NGC 4173 is almost certainly a foreground object, so an NED reference to its being a member of a triplet is equally certainly wrong.
SDSS image of NGC 4173
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4173; also shown is part of NGC 4169 and 4175
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on "The Box" (= NGC 4169, 4173, 4174 and 4175)
SDSS image of region centered on The Box (NGC 4169, 4173, 4174 and 4175)
(The image above is centered at RA 12 12 24.0, Dec +29 10 48)

NGC 4174 = PGC 38906, and with NGC
4169, 4173 and 4175 = The Box)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 12 26.9, Dec +29 08 57)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4045 km/sec, NGC 4174 is about 190 million light years away. Given that and its 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin apparent size, it is about 45 thousand light years across. NGC 4169, 4174 and 4175 may form a physical as well as an apparent triplet; but NGC 4173 is almost certainly a foreground object.
SDSS image of NGC 4174
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4174; also shown is part of NGC 4173
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on "The Box" (= NGC 4169, 4173, 4174 and 4175)
SDSS image of region centered on The Box (NGC 4169, 4173, 4174 and 4175)
(The image above is centered at RA 12 12 24.0, Dec +29 10 48)

NGC 4175 = PGC 38912, and with NGC
4169, 4173 and 4174 = The Box)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 12 31.0, Dec +29 10 07)
Based on a recessional velocity of 4010 km/sec, NGC 4185 is about 185 million light years away. Given that and its 1.8 by 0.4 arcmin apparent size, it is about 100 thousand light years across. NGC 4169, 4174 and 4175 may form a physical as well as an apparent triplet; but NGC 4173 is almost certainly a foreground object.
SDSS image of NGC 4175
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4175; also shown is part of NGC 4174
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on "The Box" (= NGC 4169, 4173, 4174 and 4175)
SDSS image of region centered on The Box (NGC 4169, 4173, 4174 and 4175)
(The image above is centered at RA 12 12 24.0, Dec +29 10 48)

NGC 4176
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth (II-454)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4177
Discovered (Mar 27, 1786) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4178 (=
IC 3042 = PGC 38943)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1825) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4178)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3042)
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)dm) in Virgo (RA 12 12 46.2, Dec +10 51 51)
Apparent size 5.0 by 1.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 66) of the Virgo Cluster. (See IC 3042 for a discussion of the double listing.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4178
Above, a 5arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4178
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4178

NGC 4179
Discovered (Jan 24, 1784) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4180
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4181
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4182
Discovered (1881) by
Christian Peters
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4183
Discovered (Jan 14, 1788) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4184
Discovered (Mar 8, 1837) by
John Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4185
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4186
Discovered (1877) by
Wilhelm Tempel (I-38, V)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4187
Discovered (Apr 26, 1789) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4188
Discovered (1886) by
Ormond Stone (I-193)
The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 12 06 57.

NGC 4189 (=
IC 3050 = PGC 39025)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4189)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3050)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 13 47.2, Dec +13 25 29)
Based on recessional velocity of 2115 km/sec, about 95 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 105 million light years. Given that and apparent size of 2.4 by 1.7 arcmin, about 65 thousand light years in diameter.
SDSS image of NGC 4189
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4189
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region around NGC 4189

NGC 4190
Discovered (May 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4191
Discovered (Apr 19, 1830) by
John Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4192 (=
M98 = PGC 39028)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/recorded (Apr 13, 1781) by Charles Messier as M98
Also observed (Apr 3, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)ab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 13 47.8, Dec +14 53 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4192 (= GC 2786 = JH 1132, Méchain, M98, 1860 RA 12 06 40, NPD 74 19.3) is "bright, very large, very much extended 152°, very suddenly very much brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 13 48.0, Dec +14 53 59, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The "recessional" velocity of -140 km/sec (which would mean it is actually approaching our galaxy) is useless as a distance indicator (even a conflicting value of +785 km/sec is too small in comparison with peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities to be a reliable indicator of its distance), but redshift-independent distance estimates fix its distance as about 55 million light years, give or take 10 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 9.8 by 2.8 arcmin, it is about 150 thousand light years across. The galaxy is also a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 3).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4192, also known as M98
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4192
Below, a 9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4192, also known as M98

NGC 4193 (=
IC 3051 = PGC 39040)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4193)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3051)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c?) in Virgo (RA 12 13 53.4, Dec +13 10 22)
Based on recessional velocity of 2480 km/sec, about 110 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 95 to 135 million light years. Given that and apparent size of 2.65 by 0.95 arcmin, about 85 thousand light years in diameter.
Wikisky SDSS image of NGC 4193
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4193
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
Wikisky SDSS image of region around NGC 4193

NGC 4194
Discovered (Apr 2, 1791) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4195
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4196
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4197
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4198 (=
IC 778)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4198)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1888) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 778)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:

NGC 4199
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
Historical Identification:
Physical Information:
Celestial Atlas
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