Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4150 - 4199) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4200 - 4249 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 4250 - 4299)
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4200, 4201, 4202, 4203, 4204, 4205, 4206, 4207, 4208, 4209, 4210, 4211, 4212, 4213, 4214, 4215, 4216,
4217, 4218, 4219, 4220, 4221, 4222, 4223, 4224, 4225, 4226, 4227, 4228, 4229, 4230, 4231, 4232, 4233,
4234, 4235, 4236, 4237, 4238, 4239, 4240, 4241, 4242, 4243, 4244, 4245, 4246, 4247, 4248, 4249

Page last updated Nov 23, 2012
WORKING: historical information (esp. 4223 / 4241)

NGC 4200 (= PGC 39124)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 12 14 44.3, Dec +12 10 51)
Based on a recessional velocity of 2375 km/sec, NGC 4200 is about 110 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.5 by 0.9 arcmin, it is about 50 thousand light years across. Listed as a member (VCC 122) of the Virgo Cluster, but if the distance is correct, it lies beyond the Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4200
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4200
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4200

NGC 4201 (= PGC 39120)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 12 14 41.9, Dec -11 35 00)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4201 (Leavenworth list II (#455), 1860 RA 12 07 58, NPD 100 48.0) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, brighter middle and nucleus". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 12 07 31. The corrected position precesses to RA 12 14 43.1, Dec -11 34 44, on the northeastern edge of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. Apparent size 0.9 by 0.8 arcmin.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4201
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4201
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4201

NGC 4202 (= PGC 39495)
Discovered (Feb 6, 1878) by
David Todd (18)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc) in Virgo (RA 12 18 08.5, Dec -01 03 50)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4202 (Todd (#18), 1860 RA 12 08, NPD 90 24) is "faint, irregular, cometary, faint star 1 arcmin to northeast". The position precesses to RA 12 15 10.4, Dec -01 10 43, but there is nothing there. This is not entirely surprising, as Todd didn't make careful measurements of the positions of his nebular discoveries, which were merely incidental to his search for a trans-Neptunian planet; and in fact the galaxy he observed lies 3/4 of a degree to the east of his position, which would normally make its identification as NGC 4202 more a reasonable guess than anything else. However, per Corwin, Todd's published article includes a sketch of the region that positively identifies the galaxy (and the 14th-magnitude star an arcmin to its northeast), so despite the large error in the NGC position, the identification is certain. Apparent size 1.2 by 0.7 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4202
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4202
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4202

NGC 4203 (= PGC 39158)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1787) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/SB0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 15 05.0, Dec +33 11 51)
Apparent size 3.5 by 3.2 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4203
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4203
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4203

NGC 4204 (= PGC 39179)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 15 14.2, Dec +20 39 32)
Apparent size 3.6 by 2.9 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4204
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4204
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4204

NGC 4205 (= PGC 39143)
Discovered (Oct 4, 1861) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Draco (RA 12 14 55.3, Dec +63 46 56)
Apparent size 1.7 by 0.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4205
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4205
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4205

NGC 4206 (=
IC 3064 = PGC 39183)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4206)
Discovered (Sep 14, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3064)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)bc) in Virgo (RA 12 15 16.7, Dec +13 01 22)
(See IC 3064 for a discussion of the double listing.) Based on a recessional velocity of 700 km/sec, NGC 4206 is about 33 million light years away; but it is thought to be a member (VCC 145) of the Virgo Cluster, and for galaxies in that direction the motion of the Local Group toward the Virgo Cluster reduces their recessional velocities, making their Hubble expansion distances too small. So redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 75 million light years are undoubtedly more accurate, and a 65 million light year "average" does suggest Virgo Cluster membership. Given that, the galaxy's apparent size of 5.2 by 0.75 arcmin corresponds to about 100 thousand light years.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4206
Above, a 6 arcmin high closeup of NGC 4206
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy (see NGC 4216 for an even wider view)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4206

NGC 4207 (= PGC 39206)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Virgo (RA 12 15 30.1, Dec +09 35 08)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 152) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4207
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4207
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4207

NGC 4208 (=
NGC 4212 = PGC 39224)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4208)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4212)
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 15 39.2, Dec +13 54 07)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4208 (GC 2799 = JH 1142 = WH II 107, 1860 RA 12 08 19, NPD 75 19.4) is "very faint, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle (perhaps = h1144)", h1144 being NGC 4212. The first IC added "Not seen by Spitaler, to be struck out", so Dreyer suspected the questionable nature of NGC 4208 right from the start, and was convinced of of it more than a century ago. The position for NGC 4208 precesses to RA 12 15 26.8, Dec +13 53 53, about 3 arcmin west of the galaxy, so the identification would have been straightforward if there were only a single nebula in the region, but a pair of errors by William and John Herschel led to two entries in the GC, and as a result in the NGC. Per Corwin, Dreyer explained in his later study of William Herschel's papers that although II 107 and II 108 (which became NGC 4212) were observed in a single sweep, implying that there were two nebulae in the region, Herschel could have measured two different positions for the same nebula if he checked his setting circles against a reference star after making the first observation, and reset them before making the second observation. The result would be that II 108, being recorded after the setting circles were adjusted, was an accurate measurement, while II 107, having been done beforehand, was not. Decades later John Herschel made five observations of the region, obtaining the same position as his father's II 108 on four occasions, but (as suggested by Dreyer in the NGC notes) making a 10s blunder in the RA on the fifth occasion, thereby apparently confirming the existence of his father's nonexistent II 107. As stated in the NGC notes, Dreyer suspected that NGC 4208 might not exist due to the inexplicable failure of d'Arrest and of the observers at Birr Castle (who had the advantage of using the largest telescope in the world, Lord Rosse's 72-inch Leviathan) to observe the western member of the supposed pair. By the time the IC was published, Spitaler's additional failure to see the western object convinced Dreyer that NGC 4208 was an erroneous observation of NGC 4212, and should be deleted. Given that, the galaxy should always be referred to as NGC 4212 (which see for anything else), and it is in most places; but there are other places (such as the NED) where a search for NGC 4212 leads to a listing for the deleted NGC 4208; so the confusion about this object seems destined to march on, despite Dreyer's having solved the problem early on.

NGC 4209 (perhaps =
NGC 4185)
Recorded (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel
An unknown object in Coma Berenices (near RA 12 15 26.9, Dec +28 29 53)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4209 (GC 2800 = WH II 375, 1860 RA 12 08 22, NPD 60 43.4) is "faint, pretty small". The position precesses to RA 12 15 26.9, Dec +28 29 53 (as listed above), but there is nothing there. Per Corwin, the position of NGC 4209 was poorly recorded, and it could be a 13th-magnitude star at RA 12 15 25.8, Dec +28 28 07 (as suggested by Steinicke), which is about 2 arcmin south of the NGC position, or a duplicate recording of NGC 4185 (which is a couple of minutes due west of the NGC position for 4209), along the same lines as NGC 4208 and 4212, but with a much larger error. But neither solution is particularly convincing, and whether NGC 4209 is a duplicate of another NGC entry or merely a star, it appears to add nothing of value to the catalog.

NGC 4210 (= PGC 39184)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1790) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)b) in Draco (RA 12 15 15.8, Dec +65 59 10)
Apparent size 2.0 by 1.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4210
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4210
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4210

NGC 4211 (= PGC 39221, and with
PGC 39195 = Arp 106)
Discovered (Apr 30, 1881) by Édouard Stephan (11a-18)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a pec) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 15 35.8, Dec +28 10 39)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.8 arcmin. With its companion and its extended tail, about 2.0 by 1.0 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4211 and lenticular galaxy PGC 39195 (also known as NGC 4211B), which comprise Arp 106
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4211 and PGC 39195
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4211 and lenticular galaxy PGC 39195 (also known as NGC 4211B), which comprise Arp 106

PGC 39195 (= "NGC 4211B", and with
NGC 4211 = Arp 106)
Not an NGC object, but often called NGC 4211B due to its proximity to NGC 4211
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a pec) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 15 37.3, Dec +28 10 10)
Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin, plus an extended tail due to its interaction with NGC 4211 (which see for images.)

NGC 4212 (=
NGC 4208 = PGC 39224)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4208)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4212)
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 15 39.2, Dec +13 54 07)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4212 (GC 2802 = JH 1144 = WH II 108, 1860 RA 12 08 32, NPD 75 19.2) is "bright, large, extended 107°, gradually then suddenly bright middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 15 39.8, Dec +13 54 05, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. (See NGC 4208 for a discussion of the duplicate listing.) Apparent size 3.2 by 2.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 157) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4212
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4212
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4212

NGC 4213 (= PGC 39223)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 15 37.5, Dec +23 58 55)
Apparent size 1.7 by 1.55 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4213
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4213
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
(Glare on the left side of the image is from 5th-magnitude 7 Comae Berenices)
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4213

NGC 4214 (=
NGC 4228 = PGC 39225)
Discovered (Apr 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4214)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4228)
A 10th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IAB(s)m) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 15 38.8, Dec +36 19 39)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4214 (GC 2804 = JH 1146 = WH I 95, 1860 RA 12 08 36, NPD 52 54.1) is "considerably bright, considerably large, irregularly extended, binuclear". The position precesses to RA 12 15 38.9, Dec +36 19 11, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. (See NGC 4228 for a discussion of the duplicate entry.) Apparent size 8.0 by 6.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4214
Above, an 8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4214
Below, a detail of the central third of the galaxy (Image Credits: NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team(STScI/AURA)-ESA. Acknowledgment: R. O’Connell (University of Virginia) and the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee)
HST detail of central third of irregular galaxy NGC 4214
Below, a closeup of starburst regions in the galaxy (Image Credits: NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI))
HST image of starburst regions in irregular galaxy NGC 4214
Below, a 15 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4214

NGC 4215 (= PGC 39251)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0+(r)?) in Virgo (RA 12 15 54.6, Dec +06 24 03)
Apparent size 2.4 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 166) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4215
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4215
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4215

NGC 4216 (= PGC 39246)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)b?) in Virgo (RA 12 15 54.0, Dec +13 08 52)
The 130 km/sec recessional velocity of NGC 4216 is far too small in comparison to peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities to provide a reliable distance estimate. Redshift-independent distance estimates range from 45 to 65 million light years, indicating that it is a member (listed as VCC 167) of the Virgo Cluster. Using a probable distance of 55 million light years, its apparent size of 8.1 by 1.8 arcmin suggests the galaxy is about 130 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4216
Above, a 9 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4216
Below, a similar NOAO image (Image Credits: Ken Siarkiewicz/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4216
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4216
Below, a 22 arcmin wide region centered near the galaxy, also showing NGC 4206 and 4222 and IC 771
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4216, also showing spiral galaxies NGC 4206, NGC 4222 and IC 771

NGC 4217 (= PGC 39241)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1788) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 15 50.6, Dec +47 05 24)
Apparent size 5.2 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4217
Above, a 5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4217
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of NGC 4226
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4217, also showing part of spiral galaxy NGC 4226

NGC 4218 (= PGC 39237)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IBm?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 15 46.0, Dec +48 07 54)
Based on a recessional velocity of 730 km/sec, NGC 4218 is about 35 million light years away, only about half as far as redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 85 million light years. Given the galaxy's apparent size of 1.2 by 0.7 arcmin, the Hubble expansion distance corresponds to a physical size of about 12 thousand light years, while a mean of the redshift-independent distances makes the galaxy about twice that size. (NED and LEDA list type as Sa, but that is clearly wrong.)
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4218
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4218
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4218

NGC 4219 (= PGC 39315)
Discovered (Jun 3, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)bc pec) in Centaurus (RA 12 16 27.4, Dec -43 19 21)
Apparent size 3.7 by 1.1 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4219
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4219
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4219

PGC 39484 (= "NGC 4219A")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4219A since in general region of
NGC 4219
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c?) in Centaurus (RA 12 17 59.6, Dec -43 32 26)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.6 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 39484, also known as NGC 4219A
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 39484
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 39484, also known as NGC 4219A

NGC 4220 (= PGC 39285)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0+(r)) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 16 11.8, Dec +47 52 59)
Apparent size 3.9 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4220
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4220
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4220

NGC 4221 (= PGC 39266)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1832) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0+(r)) in Draco (RA 12 16 00.0, Dec +66 13 53)
Apparent size 2.2 by 1.7 arcmin, plus a large ring surrounding the galaxy.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4221
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4221, showing a faint ring surrounding the galaxy
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4221

NGC 4222 (= PGC 39308)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 16 22.6, Dec +13 18 25)
(Often mistakenly equated with IC 3087, which is actually a double star.) The 230 km/sec recessional velocity of NGC 4222 is far too small in comparison to peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities to provide a reliable distance estimate. Redshift-independent distance estimates cluster around 70 million light years, indicating that it is a member of the Virgo Cluster (it is listed as VCC 187). Given that and its apparent size of 3.2 by 0.45 arcmin, the galaxy is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4222
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4222
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy (see NGC 4216 for a wider view)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4222

NGC 4223 (=
IC 3102 = PGC 39412)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4223)
Discovered (Oct 30, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3102)
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0+(s)?) in Virgo (RA 12 17 25.8, Dec +06 41 22)
Traditionally misidentified as NGC 4241 (see the history of these objects below). Apparent size 3.3 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 234) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4223, traditionally misidentified as NGC 4241
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4223
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4223, traditionally misidentified as NGC 4241

This Entry Is Under Construction, But Will Do For Now
The confused history of
NGC 4223 (= IC 3102) and 4241 (= IC 3115)
As noted at the entries for NGC 4223 and 4241, NGC 4223 was long misidentified as NGC 4241, and each has a duplicate in the IC catalog, testifying to a long history of confusion about which observations corresponded to which galaxies. Even now it is common for NGC 4223 to be misidentified as NGC 4241, and as a result of the misuse of that NGC number, for NGC 4241 to be identified as IC 3115 (which is at least accurate, since that is a duplicate listing of the actual NGC 4241). To see how the problem arose and was resolved, we start with the NGC listings for the two entries:
     Per Dreyer, NGC 4223 (GC 2812 = JH 1152 = WH II 137, 1860 RA 12 09 18±, NPD 82 31.5) is "pretty faint, pretty large, round, mottled but not resolved (RA uncertain by 10m)" (the statement uncertain by 10m, copied from the GC, is probably a typographical error for 10 seconds of time, as 10 minutes of time is more than 2 degrees and would have made any identification completely impossible). Meanwhile, NGC 4241 (GC 2829 = JH 1165 = WH III 480, 1860 RA 12 10 18, NPD 82 32.8) is "very faint, large, very gradually brighter middle, 7th magnitude star to south". Note that NGC 4241 is stated as being fainter than NGC 4223 in the NGC descriptions, and by inference in William Herschel's catalog, "II 137" meaning #137 in a list of faint nebulae, and "III 480" meaning #480 in a list of very faint nebulae. So if there are two galaxies in the area, NGC 4223 should be brighter and 10 to 15 arcmin to the west of the fainter nebula, and NGC 4241 should be fainter and 10 to 15 arcmin to the east of the brighter one. And as shown in the image below, that is exactly the case. So things should have been far simpler than they turned out to be. Unfortunately, John Herschel's GC contained an error that was copied into the NGC by Dreyer, and although Dreyer discovered the error when going over William Herschel's papers in the early 1900's, by then more accurate observations of the two galaxies had led to IC entries for each of them, and he decided to simply strike out NGC 4223 without really resolving the existing or ensuing confusion. (Properly covering the history will require a considerable enlargement of this entry, so for now I will let the individual entries, the text above and the image below speak for themselves, and complete this discussion in the next iteration of this page.)
SDSS image of region between spiral galaxy NGC 4241, often misidentified as NGC 4223, and the actual lenticular galaxy NGC 4223
Above, a 12 wide region centered between NGC 4223 and NGC 4241

NGC 4224 (= PGC 39328)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 16 33.9, Dec +07 27 44)
Apparent size 2.5 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 199) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4224
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4224
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4224

NGC 4225 (= PGC 39337)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R')S0/a?) in Corvus (RA 12 16 38.3, Dec -12 19 37)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4225
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4225
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4225

NGC 4226 (= PGC 39312)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 16 26.3, Dec +47 01 32)
Apparent size 1.0 by 0.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4226
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4226
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of NGC 4217
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4226, also showing part of spiral galaxy NGC 4217

NGC 4227 (= PGC 39329)
Discovered (Jan 2, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 16 33.7, Dec +33 31 20)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.9 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4227
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4227
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4229
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4227, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4229

NGC 4228 (=
NGC 4214 = PGC 39225)
Discovered (Apr 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4214)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4228)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4228 (GC 2818 = JH 1157, 1860 RA 12 09 32, NPD 52 53.7) is "very faint, large, round, gradually brighter middle (possibly = h1146)", h1146 being NGC 4214 (which see for anything other than the historical discussion here). The NGC Notes add "Not found by d'Arrest, once looked for". The position precesses to RA 12 16 34.3, Dec +36 19 36, but there is nothing there, save for NGC 4214, which lies about a quarter of a degree to the west. Per Corwin, d'Arrest's failure to find NGC 4228 led him to suggest the equality with NGC 4214, and similar suggestions were made on numerous subsequent occasions, so the equality of the two entries has been long suspected and generally agreed upon. The cause of the duplication was almost certainly a measurement error of about a minute of time in John Herschel's first observation of the object (which became JH 1157, then NGC 4228), and a correct measurement in a much later second observation (which became JH 1146, then NGC 4214).

NGC 4229 (= PGC 39341)
Discovered (Jan 2, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 16 38.7, Dec +33 33 40)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4229
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4229; for a wide-field view see NGC 4227

NGC 4230 (probably not = OCL 874)
Discovered (Apr 5, 1837) by
John Herschel
A loose cluster of stars in Centaurus (RA 12 17 09, Dec -55 17 12)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4230 (GC 2820 = JH 3386, 1860 RA 12 09 41, NPD 144 31.3) is a "cluster, faint, pretty large, irregular figure, stars from 13th to 15th magnitude". The position precesses to RA 12 17 06.8, Dec -55 18 00, well within the 5 to 7 arcmin apparent size of the cluster, so the identification ought to be certain; but the cluster is so loosely scattered that it is hard to notice (and may not even be a cluster, but merely an accidental enhancement of the background). Per Corwin, its size agrees with a 6 arcmin size estimated by Herschel, and its brightest member, a 12th magnitude star that he took as its center agrees with his position (and is therefore near the center of the image below). So despite being a relatively insignificant object, it would probably be a more or less undisputed entry in the NGC, save for the more common identification of a brighter cluster (OCL 847), about 12 arcmin northeast of Herschel's position (inadvertently stated as being 12 arcmin southeast in Corwin's NGC notes) as NGC 4230. So although I am inclined to agree with Corwin about the "true" identity of NGC 4230, the more commonly used listing is discussed immediately below.
DSS image of star cluster NGC 4230 according to Herschel's position
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on Herschel's position for NGC 4230
Below, a 20 arcmin wide region showing NGC 4230 and OCL 874
(6 arcmin wide circles centered on each cluster are used to show their positions)
DSS image of region between star cluster NGC 4230 according to Herschel's position, and open cluster OCL 874, which is usually identified as NGC 4230

OCL 874 (probably not =
NGC 4230)
Probably not an NGC object, but usually listed as NGC 4230
An open cluster (type IV2p) in Centaurus (RA 12 17 16.0, Dec -55 05 12)
As noted in the entry for NGC 4230, this open cluster is usually listed as NGC 4230, but per Corwin, its 8th magnitude central star (HD 106826) is too bright to be the "12th magnitude" star taken by John Herschel as the center of his cluster, and the 12 arcmin error in its declination (which was usually accurately measured by Herschel) makes it a relatively unsatisfactory candidate for NGC 4230. However, it is a more obvious and almost certainly real cluster, and its 5 arcmin apparent size is also close to the 6 arcmin estimated by Herschel as the size of his cluster, and whether it is Herschel's cluster or not, the fact that it is usually taken as such means it should be discussed in this catalog.
DSS image of open cluster OCL 874, usually but probably erroneously called NGC 4230
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on OCL 874

NGC 4231 (= PGC 39354)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA0+ pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 16 48.9, Dec +47 27 29)
Apparent size 1.2 by 1.1 arcmin. Part of a physical pair with NGC 4232.
SDSS image of spiral galaxies NGC 4231 and 4232
Above, a 2.5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4231 and 4232
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxies NGC 4231 and 4232

NGC 4232 (= PGC 39353)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 16 49.0, Dec +47 26 20)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.7 arcmin. Part of a physical pair with NGC 4231, which see for images.

NGC 4233 (= PGC 39384)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Virgo (RA 12 17 07.6, Dec +07 37 27)
Apparent size 2.4 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 220) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4233
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4233
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4233

NGC 4234 (= PGC 39388)
Discovered (Apr 7, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(s)m pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 17 09.1, Dec +03 41 00)
Apparent size 1.3 by 1.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 221) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4234
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4234
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4234

NGC 4235 (=
IC 3098 = PGC 39389)
Discovered (Jan 23, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4235)
Discovered (Oct 30, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3098)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)a) in Virgo (RA 12 17 09.7, Dec +07 11 27)
Apparent size 4.2 by 0.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 222) of the Virgo Cluster. (See IC 3098 for a discussion of the double listing.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4235
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4235
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4235

NGC 4236 (= PGC 39346)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1793) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm) in Draco (RA 12 16 43.3, Dec +69 27 49)
NGC 4236's recessional velocity of 0 km/sec is useless for determining its distance. Redshift-independent distance estimates range from 8 to 18 million light years, with a median estimate of 14 million light years. It is thought to be a member of the M81 Group of galaxies, which has an average distance of about 12 million light years, making it one of the closest groups to our Local Group. Assuming a 12 to 14 million light year distance range, NGC 4236's apparent size of 22 by 7.2 arcmin corresponds to a physical size of about 75 thousand light years.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4236
Above, a 12 by 24 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4236
Below, a 24 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4236

NGC 4237 (= PGC 39393)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1783) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 17 11.4, Dec +15 19 24)
Apparent size 2.1 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 226) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4237
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4237
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4237

NGC 4238 (= PGC 39366)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1790) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd) in Draco (RA 12 16 56.0, Dec +63 24 38)
Apparent size 1.8 by 0.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4238
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4238
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4238

NGC 4239 (= PGC 39398)
Discovered (April, 1884) by
Frederick Pechüle
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E5) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 17 14.9, Dec +16 31 54)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.7 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4239
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4239
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4239

NGC 4240 (=
NGC 4243 = PGC 39411)
Discovered (May 20, 1875) by Wilhelm Tempel (I-41, V-15) (and later listed as NGC 4240)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 4243)
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Virgo (RA 12 17 24.3, Dec -09 57 06)
Apparent size 1.3 by 1.2 arcmin. (See NGC 4243 for a discussion of the double listing.)
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4240
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4240
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4240

NGC 4241 (=
IC 3115 = PGC 39483)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4241)
Discovered (Oct 30, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3115)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)cd) in Virgo (RA 12 17 59.9, Dec +06 39 15)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4241 (GC 2829 = JH 1165 = WH III 480, 1860 RA 12 10 18, NPD 82 32.8) is "very faint, large, very gradually brighter middle, 7th magnitude star to south". The position precesses to RA 12 17 26.9, Dec +06 40 30, not far from a galaxy that has therefore traditionally been listed as NGC 4241, but is actually NGC 4223. As a result, Schwassmann's accurate measurement of the position led to the double listing as IC 3115. The error in Herschel's position was actually due to a mistake by his son John that was included in his GC, and dutifully copied into the NGC by Dreyer. (The correction of the errors in the positions and assignments of NGC 4223 and 4241 and the resulting assignment of duplicate listings as IC 3102 and 3115 is a complex one and will be treated in detail here.) Based on a 735 km/sec recessional velocity, NGC 4241 is about 35 million light years away; but for galaxies in that direction, the motion of the Local Group toward the Virgo Cluster reduces the recessional velocity, and odds are that the galaxy is actually a member (VCC 267) of the Cluster, and in the range of 50 to 70 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.0 by 2.0 arcmin, it is probably about 30 to 40 thousand light years across. Note: Due to the traditional misidentification of NGC 4223 as NGC 4241, a Wikisky search for NGC 4241 shows NGC 4223; to see NGC 4241, search for its IC or PGC designation.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4241
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4241
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4241

NGC 4242 (= PGC 39423)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1788) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)dm) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 17 30.0, Dec +45 37 09)
Apparent size 5.2 by 4.0 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4242
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4242
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4242

NGC 4243 (=
NGC 4240 = PGC 39411)
Discovered (May 20, 1875) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 4240)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1886) by Lewis Swift (3-62) (and later listed as NGC 4243)
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Virgo (RA 12 17 24.3, Dec -09 57 06)
(This entry will only contain historical information; for anything else, see NGC 4240.)

NGC 4244 (= PGC 39422)
Discovered (Mar 17, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)cd?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 17 29.9, Dec +37 48 28)
Apparent size 16.6 by 1.9 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4244
Above, a 16 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4244

NGC 4245 (= PGC 39437)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 17 36.9, Dec +29 36 27)
Apparent size 2.9 by 2.2 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4245
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4245
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4245

NGC 4246 (=
IC 3113 = PGC 39479)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4246)
Discovered (Oct 30, 1899) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3113)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c) in Virgo (RA 12 17 58.1, Dec +07 11 08)
Apparent size 2.4 by 1.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 264) of the Virgo Cluster. (See IC 3113 for a discussion of the double listing.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4246
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4246
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4247
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4246, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4247

NGC 4247 (= PGC 39480)
Discovered (Feb 25, 1868) by
George Searle (265, HN 35)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(s)ab pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 17 57.9, Dec +07 16 28)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 265) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4247
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4247
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4246
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4247, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4246

NGC 4248 (= PGC 39461)
Discovered (Feb 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type I0?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 17 50.4, Dec +47 24 33)
Apparent size 2.9 by 1.2 arcmin. (type I0 sp?)
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4248
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4248
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4248; the faint glow at left is the western edge of spiral galaxy NGC 4258, also known as M106

NGC 4249 (= PGC 39481)
Discovered (May 26, 1864) by
Albert Marth (234)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S01(0)) in Virgo (RA 12 17 59.3, Dec +05 35 57)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 266) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4249
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4249
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4249
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4150 - 4199) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4200 - 4249     → (NGC 4250 - 4299)