Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4200 - 4249) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4250 - 4299 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 4300 - 4349)
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4250, 4251, 4252, 4253, 4254, 4255, 4256, 4257, 4258, 4259, 4260, 4261, 4262, 4263, 4264, 4265, 4266,
4267, 4268, 4269, 4270, 4271, 4272, 4273, 4274, 4275, 4276, 4277, 4278, 4279, 4280, 4281, 4282, 4283,
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Page last updated Jan 12, 2015
WORKING: Historical information

NGC 4250 (= PGC 39414)
Discovered (Apr 7, 1793) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SAB(r)0) in Draco (RA 12 17 25.9, Dec +70 48 10)
Based on a recessional velocity of 2020 km/sec, NGC 4250 is about 95 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 2.0 by 1.1 arcmin, it is about 55 thousand light years across. Its core is unusually bright compared to its disc, so it may be a starburst galaxy.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4250
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4250
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4250

NGC 4251 (= PGC 39492)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 08.4, Dec +28 10 31)
Apparent size 3.6 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4251
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4251
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4251

NGC 4252 (= PGC 39537)
Discovered (May 26, 1864) by
Albert Marth (235)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb) in Virgo (RA 12 18 30.9, Dec +05 33 36)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 289) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4252
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4252
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4252

NGC 4253 (= PGC 39525)
Discovered (Feb 3, 1788) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(s)a?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 26.4, Dec +29 48 47)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.8 arcmin. A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 1).
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4253
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4253
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4253

NGC 4254 (=
M99 = PGC 39578)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/recorded (Apr 13, 1781) by Charles Messier as M99
Also observed (Apr 21, 1832) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.9 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 49.3, Dec +14 25 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4254 (= GC 2838 = JH 1173, Méchain, M99, 1860 RA 12 11 43, NPD 74 48.2) is "a very remarkable object, (per William and John Herschel) bright, large, round, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, (per the 3rd Lord Rosse and Leavenworth), 3 branched spiral". The position precesses to RA 12 18 50.0, Dec +14 25 08, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Information: Since not observed by William Herschel, "per William and John Herschel" should be interpreted as "per the General Catalog (GC)". Also, the reference to the 3rd Lord Rosse may actually be for an observation by one of his assistants (the next iteration of this entry should include a definitive identification).
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.3 by 4.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 307) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4254, also known as M99
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4254
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4254, also known as M99
Below, a more nearly true-color view (Image Credit AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4254, also known as M99

NGC 4255 (= PGC 39592)
Discovered (June, 1865) by
Auguste Voigt
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 18 56.1, Dec +04 47 11)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 312) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4255
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4255
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4255

NGC 4256 (= PGC 39568)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1790) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)b?) in Draco (RA 12 18 42.8, Dec +65 53 54)
Apparent size 4.5 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4256
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4256
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4256

NGC 4257 (= PGC 39624)
Discovered (Apr 21, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab) in Virgo (RA 12 19 06.5, Dec +05 43 34)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.5 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 323) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4257
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4257
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4261
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4257, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4261

NGC 4258 (=
M106 = PGC 39600)
Discovered (July, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Apparently neither observed nor recorded by Charles Messier
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 26, 1830) by John Herschel
Appended (1947) to the Messier Catalog by Helen Sawyer Hogg as M106
A magnitude 8.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 18 57.8, Dec +47 18 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4258 (= GC 2841 = JH 1175 = WH V 43, 1860 RA 12 12 02, NPD 41 55.1) is "very bright, very large, very much extended 0°, suddenly brighter middle and bright nucleus". The position precesses to RA 12 18 58.4, Dec +47 18 14, right on the galaxy listed above and the description, though not exact, is reasonable; so the identification is certain.
Additional Notes (about its listing as M106): Although Méchain discovered the nebula and estimated its position in 1781, his discovery came after Messier submitted his Catalog for publication, and with no immediate deadline for determining an exact position, as of the date of Méchain's letter of May 6, 1783 to Bernoulli he had still not gotten around to it. Perhaps the nebula would have been added to a later edition of Messier's Catalog, but none was ever published, and neither John Herschel (when he compiled his General Catalog) nor Dreyer (when he compiled his New General Catalog) appears to have been aware of Méchain's observation, for if they had been aware of it his name would almost certainly have been added to Dreyer's entry for NGC 4258. However, given the relatively early date of Méchain's discovery, when Helen Sawyer Hogg decided to add NGC 3379 to Messier's Catalog as M105, she also added NGC 4258 as M106 and NGC 6171 as M107.
Physical Information: Apparent size 18.6 by 7.2 arcmin?
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4258, also known as M106
Above, an 18 arcmin wide SDSS image of M106
Below, a closer look at the nucleus and inner disk (Bernie & Jay Slotnick/Adam Block/AOP/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4258, also known as M106
Below, a multispectral false-color image of NGC 4258 shows "anomalous" spiral arms with no counterpart in the visible spectrum, thought to be due to material being pulled into a black hole at the center of the galaxy, and subsequent emission of material at very high velocity. X-rays are shown in blue, visible light in yellow, infrared radiation in red, and radio emissions in purple. (Image Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/Univ. of Maryland/A.S. Wilson et al.; Optical: Palomar Observatory. DSS; IR:JPL-Caltech; VLA: NRAO/AUI/NSF/NASA)
A multispectral image of spiral galaxy NGC 4258, also known as M106
Below, a composite NOAO/HST image of the core of the galaxy (Credit Image Data Hubble Legacy Archive,
Adrian Zsilavec, Michelle Qualls, Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF; Processing André van der Hoeven)

Composite NOAO and HST image of the core of spiral galaxy NGC 4258, also known as M106
Below, a HST image of the galaxy, rotated to allow for more detail
(Image Credit NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), and R. Gendler (for the HHT). Acknowledgment: J. GaBany)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 4258, also known as M106
Below, a composite Chandra/HST image, rotated as above to allow for more detail
(Image Credit X-ray: NASA/CXC/Caltech/P.Ogle et al; Optical: NASA/STScI; IR: NASA/JPL-Caltech; Radio: NSF/NRAO/VLA)
Composite Chandra/HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 4258, also known as M106

NGC 4259 (= PGC 39657)
Discovered (Dec 27, 1827) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 19 22.1, Dec +05 22 37)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 342) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4259
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4259
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3153 and part of NGC 4268
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4259, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3153 and part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4268

NGC 4260 (= PGC 39656)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a) in Virgo (RA 12 19 22.2, Dec +06 05 54)
Apparent size 2.7 by 1.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 341) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4260
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4260
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3155
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4260, also showing lenticular galaxy IC 3155

NGC 4261 (= PGC 39659)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4) in Virgo (RA 12 19 23.1, Dec +05 49 28)
Apparent size 5.5 by 3.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 345) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4261, also showing part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4264
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4261 and part of NGC 4264
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4264 and part of NGC 4257
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4261, also showing lenticular galaxy 4264 and part of spiral galaxy NGC 4257

NGC 4262 (= PGC 39676)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0-(s)?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 30.6, Dec +14 52 40)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 355) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4262
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4262
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4262

NGC 4263 (=
NGC 4265 = PGC 39698)
Discovered (Mar 27, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4263)
Discovered (May 6, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 4265)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)b pec) in Corvus (RA 12 19 42.2, Dec -12 13 32)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4263 (GC 2846 = WH III 535, 1860 RA 12 12 26, NPD 101 28.5) is "very faint, pretty large, irregular figure". The second IC notes "4263 no doubt = 4265. Howe saw only one". The position precesses to RA 12 19 39.0, Dec -12 15 10, less than 2 arcmin southwest of the galaxy, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain. (See NGC 4265 for a discussion of the double listing.) Apparent size 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4263
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4263
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4263

NGC 4264 (= PGC 39687)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 19 35.6, Dec +05 50 49)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 358) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4264
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4264
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4261
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4264, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4261

NGC 4265 (=
NGC 4263 = PGC 39698)
Discovered (Mar 27, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4263)
Discovered (May 6, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 4265)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)b pec) in Corvus (RA 12 19 42.2, Dec -12 13 32)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4265 (Swift list III (#63), 1860 RA 12 12 28, NPD 101 28.8) is "very faint, pretty small, round". The second IC notes "4263 no doubt = 4265. Howe saw only one". The position precesses to RA 12 19 41.0, Dec -12 15 28, a little over 2 arcmin south of the galaxy, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain. The only problem is the duplicate listing, which is a bit odd, as Swift's position is nearly identical to Herschel's, so he should have realized he was looking at the same object. But for whatever reason he didn't (see the note at the end of this entry), so Dreyer assumed there were two nebulae in the region and dutifully created two entries. It was only after Howe stated that he could only find one nebula in the area that Dreyer realized the two entries must be the same. Normal practice is to call duplicate listings by the name corresponding to the earlier observation, so the galaxy is usually called NGC 4263 (which see for anything else); but Dreyer suggested using NGC 4265 instead, so there may be some places where the object is listed as the later entry. (Note: Per Corwin, Swift may have ignored Herschel's observation because the notes for John Herschel's GC state that his father was unable to find the object in a subsequent effort to observe it, and suggested that it might have been a comet.)

NGC 4266 (= PGC 39699)
Discovered (May 26, 1864) by
Albert Marth (236)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 19 42.1, Dec +05 32 17)
Apparent size 1.8 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 362) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4266
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4266
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4270
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4266, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4270

NGC 4267 (= PGC 39710)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/SB0) in Virgo (RA 12 19 45.3, Dec +12 47 54)
Apparent size 3.0 by 2.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 369) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4267
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4267
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4267

NGC 4268 (= PGC 39712)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1862) by
Eduard Schönfeld
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 19 47.1, Dec +05 17 03)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 371) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4268
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4268
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4273 and 4277
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4268, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4273 and lenticular galaxy NGC 4277

NGC 4269 (= PGC 39719)
Discovered (Mar 4, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 19 49.2, Dec +06 00 55)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 373) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4269, also showing lenticular galaxy IC 3155
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4269, also showing IC 3155
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair, also showing part of NGC 4260
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4269, also showing lenticular galaxy IC 3155 and part of spiral galaxy NGC 4260

NGC 4270 (= PGC 39718)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 19 49.4, Dec +05 27 48)
Apparent size 2.0 by 0.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 375) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4270
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4270
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4266 and IC 3153
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4270, also showing spiral galaxies NGC 4266 and IC 3153

NGC 4271 (= PGC 39683)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Ursa Major (RA 12 19 32.7, Dec +56 44 14)
Apparent size 1.5 by 1.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4271
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4271
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4271

NGC 4272 (= PGC 39715)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 47.6, Dec +30 20 20)
Apparent size 1.7 by 1.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4272
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4272
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4272

NGC 4273 (= PGC 39738)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c) in Virgo (RA 12 19 56.0, Dec +05 20 37)
Apparent size 2.3 by 1.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 382) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4273
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4273
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy;
also shown are IC 3153, NGC 4268 and 4277, and part of NGC 4281
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4273, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3153, lenticular galaxies NGC 4268 and 4277, and part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4281

NGC 4274 (= PGC 39724)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)ab) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 50.8, Dec +29 36 49)
Apparent size 6.8 by 2.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4274
Above, a 7 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4274
Below, another view of the galaxy (Image Credits: Steve & Sherry Bushey/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4274 overlaid on the SDSS image above to fill in missing areas
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4274

NGC 4275 (= PGC 39728)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 19 52.6, Dec +27 37 16)
Apparent size 1.1 by 1.0 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4275
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4275
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4275

NGC 4276 (= PGC 39765)
Discovered (1881) by
Christian Peters
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Virgo (RA 12 20 07.7, Dec +07 41 29)
Apparent size 1.6 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 393) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4276
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4276
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4276

NGC 4277 (= PGC 39759)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 20 03.6, Dec +05 20 31)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 386) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4277
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4277
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4268, 4273 and 4281
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4277, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4273 and lenticular galaxies NGC 4268 and 4281

NGC 4278 (= PGC 39764)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1-2) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 20 06.7, Dec +29 16 49)
Apparent size 4.1 by 3.8 arcmin. A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 1).
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4278
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4278
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4283
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4278, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4283

NGC 4279 (probably = PGC 39812)
Discovered (May 6, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0+(r)?) in Virgo (RA 12 20 24.9, Dec -11 39 58)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4279 (Swift list III (#64), 1860 RA 12 13 08, NPD 100 55.7) is "most extremely faint, very small, round". The second IC adds "not found by Howe (2 nights)". The position precesses to RA 12 20 21.0, Dec -11 42 21, almost 3 arcmin south-southwest of the nearest nebula, so it isn't surprising that Howe didn't find it; but there isn't anything else nearly as close to Swift's position as the galaxy listed above, so its identity is considered reasonably certain (but see NGC 4280 for more about identifications in this region). Apparent size 1.1 by 0.7 arcmin.
DSS image of the lenticular galaxy that is probably NGC 4279
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4279
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4280 and 4285
DSS image of region near the lenticular galaxy that is probably NGC 4279, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4285 and the trio of stars listed as NGC 4280

NGC 4280
Recorded (May 6, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Probably three 14th-, 15th- and 16th-magnitude stars in Virgo (RA 12 20 31.9, Dec -11 39 09)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4280 (Swift list III (#65), 1860 RA 12 13 13, NPD 100 55.2) is "most extremely faint, very small, round". The second IC adds "4285 is fainter than 4280 (Howe, 2 nights)". The position precesses to RA 12 20 26.0, Dec -11 41 51, but there is nothing there. However, given the wide-field image below and the IC notes for NGC 4279, 4280 and 4285 we can surmise what happened when Howe observed the area. Instead of the three objects (III-64, III-65 and III-66) recorded by Swift and listed by Dreyer as the corresponding NGC objects, he found only two nebulae, one of which was at almost the same position given by Swift (III-66 = NGC 4285), but the other well to the north of Swift's other positions. Seeing nothing but some faint stars between the two nebulae, he assumed that the western galaxy was Swift's III-65, and Swift's III-64 was an unobservable object to the west of that. Hence the IC note for NGC 4279 stating that Howe could not find it, and the ones for NGC 4280 and 4285 stating that the western galaxy was the brighter one. If that interpretation were correct, then NGC 4279 would be "lost or nonexistent", the western galaxy would be NGC 4280, and the eastern would be NGC 4285 (which is the only certainty here, since it is the only one of Swift's three positions that is reasonably accurate). However, current thinking is that the western galaxy is Swift's III-64 (and therefore NGC 4279), the eastern is his III-66 (and therefore NGC 4285), and something between the two is Swift's III-65 (and therefore NGC 4280). But there is nothing between the two galaxies save for the three faint stars listed above, so that is the current identification of NGC 4280. (Looking at the image below, it seems obvious that either III-64 or III-65 could be assigned to the western galaxy, making it either NGC 4279 or 4280, so whether Howe's identifications or the current ones are correct cannot be decided with certainty; hence my decision to state the identities for the two entries as "probably" the currently accepted ones.)
DSS image of the three stars that are probably NGC 4280, also showing the lenticular galaxy that is probably NGC 4279 and the spiral galaxy that is certainly NGC 4285; also shown are Swift's positions for the three objects
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region showing NGC 4279, 4280 and 4285, and Swift's positions

NGC 4281 (= PGC 39801)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 20 21.6, Dec +05 23 11)
Apparent size 3.0 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 408) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4281
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4281
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4277 and part of NGC 4273
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4281, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4277 and the eastern edge of spiral galaxy NGC 4273

NGC 4282 (= PGC 39809)
Discovered (May 26, 1864) by
Albert Marth (237)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 20 24.2, Dec +05 34 24)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 411) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4282
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4282
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of NGC 4287
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4282, also showing part of spiral galaxy NGC 4287

NGC 4283 (= PGC 39800)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 20 20.6, Dec +29 18 39)
Apparent size 1.5 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4283
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4283
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4278 and 4286
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4283, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4278 and lenticular galaxy NGC 4286

NGC 4284 (= PGC 39775)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc) in Ursa Major (RA 12 20 12.8, Dec +58 05 36)
Apparent size 2.2 by 1.0 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4284
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4284
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4290
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4284, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4290

NGC 4285 (= PGC 39842)
Discovered (May 6, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab) in Virgo (RA 12 20 39.8, Dec -11 38 32)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4285 (Swift list III (#66), 1860 RA 12 13 28, NPD 100 52.2) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round". This is the third of three objects recorded by Swift on the same night, the first two of which are listed as being "most extremely faint", and therefore fainter than the third. The second IC notes "4285 is fainter than 4280 (Howe, 2 nights)", indicating that one of the preceding objects is actually brighter (though what it should be called is uncertain, as discussed at the entry for NGC 4280). The position precesses to RA 12 20 41.0, Dec -11 38 51, less than half an arcmin southeast of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. Apparent size 0.9 by 0.5 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4285
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4285
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing the probable NGC 4279 and 4280
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4285, also showing the lenticular galaxy that is probably NGC 4279 and the trio of stars that is probably NGC 4280

NGC 4286 (=
IC 3181 = PGC 39846)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4286)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by Max Wolf (and later listed as IC 3181)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 20 42.1, Dec +29 20 44)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.8 arcmin. (See IC 3181 for a brief discussion of the duplicate listing.)
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4286
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4286
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4283
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4286, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4283

NGC 4287 (= PGC 39860)
Discovered (May 26, 1864) by
Albert Marth (238)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Virgo (RA 12 20 48.4, Dec +05 38 26)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 434) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4287
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4287
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of NGC 4282
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4287, also showing part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4282

NGC 4288 (= PGC 39840)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1788) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 20 38.0, Dec +46 17 40)
Apparent size 2.2 by 1.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4288
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4288
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 39841
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4288, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 39841, also known as NGC 4288A

PGC 39841 (= "NGC 4288A")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4288A since in same area as
NGC 4288
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 20 40.6, Dec +46 15 19)
Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 39841
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 39841; for a wide-field image see NGC 4288

NGC 4289 (= PGC 39886)
Discovered (1877) by
Wilhelm Tempel (I-42)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)cd?) in Virgo (RA 12 21 02.4, Dec +03 43 22)
Apparent size 3.9 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 449) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4289
Above, a 4.8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4289
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4289

NGC 4290 (= PGC 39859)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 20 47.5, Dec +58 05 33)
Apparent size 2.2 by 1.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4290
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4290
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4284
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4290, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4284

NGC 4291 (= PGC 39791)
Discovered (Dec 10, 1797) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Draco (RA 12 20 17.3, Dec +75 22 16)
Apparent size 2.0 by 1.7 arcmin.
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4291
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4291
(A 'raw' HST image is available, and will be posted in the next iteration of this page)
Below, an approximately 6 arcmin wide composite of X-ray and infrared images of the galaxy
(Image Credits: X-ray: NASA/CXC/SAO/A.Bogdan et al; Infrared: 2MASS/UMass/IPAC-Caltech/NASA/NSF)
Composite X-ray and infrared image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4291
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered near the galaxy, also showing NGC 4319
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4291, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4319

NGC 4292 (= PGC 39922)
Discovered (Apr 7, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Virgo (RA 12 21 16.4, Dec +04 35 46)
Vr 2260 km/sec. Apparent size 1.6 by 1.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 462) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4292
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4292
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 213977
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4292, also showing PGC 213977, also known as NGC 4292A

PGC 213977 (= "NGC 4292A")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4292A due to proximity to
NGC 4292
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Virgo (RA 12 21 16.7, Dec +04 37 59)
Apparent size 0.45 by 0.35 arcmin. Apparently nothing else available. Since the recessional velocity and distance are unknown, whether PGC 213977 shares anything with NGC 4292 other than being in a similar direction is also unknown. However, the galaxy appears to be a more or less normal spiral, and if so its small apparent size implies that it is much further away than its apparent neighbor.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 213977, also known as NGC 4292A
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 213977; for a widefield image, see NGC 4292

NGC 4293 (= PGC 39907)
Discovered (Mar 14, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB(s)0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 21 12.9, Dec +18 22 58)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4293 (= John Herschel's GC 2867, 1860 RA 12 14 08, NPD 70 50.5) is "faint, very large, extended, little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 21 13.4, Dec +18 22 52, within 0.2 arcmin of the center of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. Based on a recessional velocity of 895 km/sec, NGC 4293 is about 40 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 27 to 55 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 5.6 by 2.6 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across. Listed as a member (VCC 460) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4293
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4293
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4293

NGC 4294 (= PGC 39925)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral (type SB(s)cd) in Virgo (RA 12 21 17.8, Dec +11 30 35)
Apparent size 3.2 by 1.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 465) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4294
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4294
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4299
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4294, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4299

NGC 4295 (= PGC 39906)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1864) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 21 09.7, Dec +28 09 56)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4295
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4295
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4295

NGC 4296 (= PGC 39943)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Virgo (RA 12 21 28.4, Dec +06 39 13)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4296 (GC 2872 = WH III 92, 1860 RA 12 14 23, NPD 82 34.0) is "very faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 12 21 31.5, Dec +06 39 22, just off the eastern edge of the galaxy in question, so the identification is certain. (As discussed at the entry for NGC 4297 (which see), a comparison of Dreyer's entries for NGC 4296 and 4297 implies that the latter galaxy must be a fainter companion of NGC 4296.) Apparent size 1.4 by 0.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 475) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxies NGC 4296 and 4297
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4296 and 4297
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxies NGC 4296 and 4297

NGC 4297 (= PGC 39940)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 21 27.4, Dec +06 40 17)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4297 (GC 2873 = WH III 93, 1860 RA 12 14 24, NPD 82 34.0) is "extremely faint, extremely small, (not found by d'Arrest)". (It is important to note that NGC 4296 (which see for images) and 4297 have nearly identical entries, the only difference being that 4297 is listed as being 1 minute of time to the east, and noticeably fainter. So if 4297 exists, it must be a galaxy very close to 4296, and somewhat fainter.) The position precesses to RA 12 21 32.5, Dec +06 39 22, which is a minute to the east of NGC 4296, but there is nothing there, so it is hardly surprising that d'Arrest couldn't find the supposed companion. As it turns out, the problem is caused by Dreyer's entry, not Herschel's observations. Herschel's entries for III-92 (NGC 4296) and III-93 (NGC 4297) list a single position for the pair, stating only that the fainter galaxy is "close by" the brighter one. Similarly, John Herschel's entries for GC 2872 (NGC 4296) and 2873 (NGC 4297) list exactly the same position (though without the note "close by", which perhaps seemed obvious given the identical position). It was only in the NGC that III-93 acquired an RA 1 minute larger, thereby putting it east of the larger galaxy. If we ignore the unexplained change in position and simply look for something "close by" NGC 4296, we find a perfectly suitable candidate just to the northwest of that galaxy, and it seems certain that it must be what Herschel recorded as III-93, so the identification of NGC 4297 with that galaxy is equally certain. Apparent size 0.5 by 0.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 473) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4298 (= PGC 39950)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)c) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 21 32.9, Dec +14 36 24)
Apparent size 3.2 by 1.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 483) of the Virgo Cluster.
Color-corrected SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4298
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4298
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4302
Color-corrected SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4298, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4302

NGC 4299 (= PGC 39968)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)dm?) in Virgo (RA 12 21 40.5, Dec +11 30 05)
Apparent size 1.7 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 491) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4299
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4299
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4294
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4299, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4294

PGC 169102
Not an NGC object but listed here because shown on wide-field image of NGC 4299
A 17th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa pec?) in
Virgo (RA 12 21 24.2, Dec +11 27 05)
Based on a recessional velocity of 45725 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 169102 is about 2130 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 1790 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 1920 million years ago (the difference between the two values being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.45 by 0.15 arcmin (including its peculiar northern extension), the galaxy and its northern extension span about 235 thousand light years.
SDSS image of peculiar spiral galaxy PGC 169102
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 169102; for now, refer to NGC 4299 for a wide-field image
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4200 - 4249) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4250 - 4299     → (NGC 4300 - 4349)