Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Feb 6, 2015
WORKING: historical information

NGC 4300 (= PGC 39972)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude galaxy (type Sa?) in Virgo (RA 12 21 41.3, Dec +05 23 05)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 492) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4300
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4300
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4300

NGC 4301 (= PGC 40087)
Discovered (Apr 21, 1851) by
Bindon Stoney
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)cd) in Virgo (RA 12 22 27.2, Dec +04 33 57)
(The identification of NGC 4301 was long in question, PGC 39951 having been given that designation for most of its history; but the identification listed here is now considered essentially certain. However, the historical discussion is relatively complex, and will therefore be put off until the next iteration of this page.) Apparent size 1.6 by 1.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 552) of the Virgo Cluster. Often called NGC 4303A since in the general area of NGC 4303 (= M61), and the long history of misidentification.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4301, often instead called NGC 4303A
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4301
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of NGC 4303
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4301, often instead called NGC 4303A; also shown is part of spiral galaxy NGC 4303, also known as M61

PGC 39951 (not =
NGC 4301)
Not an NGC object but long (and occasionally still) misidentified as NGC 4301
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0/a(r)?) in Virgo (RA 12 21 34.1, Dec +04 46 46)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 0482) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 39951, long (and sometimes still) misidentified as NGC 4301
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 39951
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 39951, long (and sometimes still) misidentified as NGC 4301

NGC 4302 (= PGC 39974)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 21 42.2, Dec +14 35 54)
Apparent size 5.3 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 497) of the Virgo Cluster. Apparently very close to 4298, but their lack of obvious interaction suggests there is no physical connection between them, so they are probably millions of light years apart. Their distances are more uncertain than the estimated difference in their distance, but odds are that the smaller galaxy is the closer of the two.
Color-corrected SDSS image of spiral galaxies NGC 4298 and 4302
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide color-corrected closeup of NGC 4302 and 4298
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered near the pair
Color-corrected SDSS image of region near spiral galaxies NGC 4298 and 4302

NGC 4303 (= PGC 40001 =
M61)
Discovered (May 5, 1779) by Barnaba Oriani
Discovered (May 11, 1779) by Charles Messier and recorded as M61
Also observed (Apr 17, 1786) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 7, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.7 spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Virgo (RA 12 21 54.9, Dec +04 28 22)
Listed as a member (VCC 508) of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, 60 million light years away. Apparent size 6.5 by 5.9 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4303, also known as M61
Above, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 4303
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4303, also known as M61
Below, an NOAO image of M61 (Image Credit Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4303, also known as M61
Below, a more nearly true-color view of the galaxy (Image Credit Hillary Mathis, N.A.Sharp/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4303, also known as M61
Below, a HST partial image of M61 (Image data HST/ESA/NASA, processing by Robert Gendler)
HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 4303, also known as M61

NGC 4304 (= PGC 40055)
Discovered (Apr 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(s)bc pec?) in Hydra (RA 12 22 12.7, Dec -33 29 05)
Apparent size 3.0 by 2.4 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4304
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4304
Below, a more detailed monochrome image (Image Credits: Shapley-Ames Catalog)
Shapley-Ames Catalog image of spiral galaxy NGC 4304 (original is black stars on white background; reversed here to match sky view)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4304

NGC 4305 (= PGC 40030)
Discovered (May 2, 1829) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(r)a) in Virgo (RA 12 22 03.6, Dec +12 44 27)
(Per Corwin, the arcmin error in the NGC position is probably due to an error in the reduction of the measured position, a common problem at a time when all calculations were done by hand, and not as rare as might be hoped even in the current era of electronic computation.) Apparent size 2.2 by 1.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 522) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4305
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4305
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4306
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4305, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4306

NGC 4306 (= PGC 40032)
Discovered (Apr 16, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Virgo (RA 12 22 04.2, Dec +12 47 15)
Apparent size 1.6 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 523) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4306
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4306
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4305
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4306, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4305

NGC 4307 (= PGC 40033)
Discovered (1881) by
Christian Peters
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb) in Virgo (RA 12 22 05.2, Dec +09 02 31)
Apparent size 3.5 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 524) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4307
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4307
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3211
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4307, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3211

IC 3211 (= PGC 40034 = "NGC 4307A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since often incorrectly called NGC 4307A
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S(r)d?) in Virgo (RA 12 22 07.3, Dec +08 59 26)
(See IC 3211 for anything more about this object.)

NGC 4308 (= PGC 40011)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1868) by
Truman Safford (106)
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 21 56.8, Dec +30 04 27)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4308
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4308
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4308

NGC 4309 (= PGC 40051)
Discovered (1881) by
Christian Peters
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 22 12.3, Dec +07 08 41)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 534) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4309
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4309
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 40059
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4309, also showing elliptical galaxy PGC 40059, which is sometimes called NGC 4309A

PGC 40059 (="NGC 4309A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 4309A
A 15th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0) in
Virgo (RA 12 22 14.7, Dec +07 09 59)
Apparent size 0.3 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 538) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 40059, which is sometimes called NGC 4309A; also shown is part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4309
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 40059 and part of NGC 4309 (which see for a wider view)

NGC 4310 (=
NGC 4338 = PGC 40086)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4310)
Discovered (May 19, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4338)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB0+(r)?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 26.4, Dec +29 12 29)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4310 (GC 2882 = JH 1205 = WH II 378, 1860 RA 12 15 25, NPD 60 00.6) is "faint, considerably large, a little extended, northern of 2", the other being NGC 4311. Apparent size 2.0 by 1.0 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4310
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4310
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4310

NGC 4311
Recorded (Apr 19, 1827) by
John Herschel
An almost certainly nonexistent object in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 26.3, Dec +29 12 16)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4311 (GC 2883 = JH 1206, 1860 RA 12 15 25, NPD 60 01.1) is "faint, southern of 2", the other being NGC 4310. A comparison of this entry to the one for NGC 4310 shows that NGC 4311 should be only half an arcmin south of NGC 4310 (Herschel's original notes actually said "south-following", meaning a little southeast, and put the two objects only a third of an arcmin apart), but as can be seen in the images of NGC 4310 there is nothing else there or anywhere near there. Per Corwin, Herschel observed the region twice, recording only NGC 4310 (as his JH 1205) on the first occasion, and observing two objects only on the second occasion. It is hard to imagine what Herschel saw (or thought he saw) on that date; perhaps there appeared to be some faint irregularity of the relatively bright image of NGC 4310 that looked like a second object (a remote possibility would be a fortuitous observation of a supernova in the galaxy, but there would be no way to prove such a thing). All that is certain is that the entry for NGC 4311 represents an unidentifiable or nonexistent object.

NGC 4312 (= PGC 40095)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)ab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 31.4, Dec +15 32 17)
Apparent size 4.6 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 559) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4312
Above, a 5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4312
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4312

NGC 4313 (= PGC 40105)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)ab?) in Virgo (RA 12 22 38.3, Dec +11 48 04)
Apparent size 3.8 by 0.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 570) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4313
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4313
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4313

NGC 4314 (= PGC 40097)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 31.8, Dec +29 53 45)
Apparent size 4.2 by 3.7 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4314
Above, a 4.8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4314
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4314

NGC 4315
Recorded (Mar 22, 1878) by
Wilhelm Tempel (V-18)
Probably a 13th-magnitude star in Virgo (RA 12 22 45.3, Dec +09 18 20)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4315 (Tempel list V (#18), 1860 RA 12 15 32, NPD 79 55.0) is "very faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 12 22 39.6, Dec +09 18 23, but there is nothing there, save for scattered stars. The critical thing, as noted by Corwin, is that NGC 4315 was recorded by Tempel as being 2 seconds west and 1.5 arcmin south of NGC 4316 (as shown by the NGC entries for both objects) . He suggests that as in other cases Tempel may have reversed the sign of the difference in RA, which would put NGC 4315 east of NGC 4316. In that case the position falls very close to the 13th-magnitude star listed above, and it is generally accepted that it is probably what Tempel mistook for a nebula. Corwin also notes that the 14th-magnitude star to the southwest of the star listed above has a nearly correct RA, but since it would require a difference in declination twice as large as recorded by Tempel, it seems a far less likely candidate for what he observed. Still, some references list the fainter star as NGC 4315, so there is far from universal agreement about the identification. (See the wide-field image of NGC 4316 for a view of the probable NGC 4315.)

NGC 4316 (= PGC 40119)
Discovered (Mar 17, 1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel (V-17)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Virgo (RA 12 22 42.1, Dec +09 19 57)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4316 (Tempel list V (#17), 1860 RA 12 15 34, NPD 79 53.4) is "very faint, small, much extended, 2 knots". (A critical reference for the identification of NGC 4315.) Apparent size 2.5 by 0.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 576) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4316
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4316
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing the star thought to be NGC 4315
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4316, also showing the star thought to be NGC 4315

NGC 4317
Recorded (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A lost or nonexistent object in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 35.8, Dec +31 02 23)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4317 (GC 2887 = WH II 324, 1860 RA 12 15 35, NPD 58 11.0) is "faint, small". The position precesses to RA 12 22 35.8, Dec +31 02 23, but there is nothing there. Per Corwin, no effort to identify the position by adding or subtracting some kind of recording error produces any useful result. He also notes that although some investigators have tried to identify the entry with one star or another, if Herschel had observed a star he would have said it was "very small" or "extremely small", so even that possibility is very unlikely. So we are left with an unidentifiable or nonexistent object.

NGC 4318 (= PGC 40122)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3) in Virgo (RA 12 22 43.2, Dec +08 11 57)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4318 (GC 2889 = JH 1208, 1860 RA 12 15 37, NPD 81 01.3) is "extremely faint, 8th magnitude star 5' north". The second IC adds "According to Schwassmann, it looks on the plate like an 11th or 12th magnitude star, not nebulous". Apparent size 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 575) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4318
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4318
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing the "8th magnitude star 5' north"
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4318

NGC 4319 (=
NGC 4345 = PGC 39981)
Discovered (Dec 10, 1797) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4319)
Discovered (1886) by Gerhard Lohse (and later listed as NGC 4345)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)ab) in Draco (RA 12 21 43.9, Dec +75 19 21)
Apparent size 2.8 by 2.1 arcmin. At one time Halton Arp used a supposed interaction of NGC 4319 with its apparent companion (PGC 39975) as (incorrect) evidence that the high recessional velocities of quasars were not due to great distances, but to unusual peculiar velocities; however, the apparent companion is now known to be 15 times further away, and its large recessional velocity really is due to its great distance.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4319 and a starlike object just below its nucleus which is actually a quasar
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4319. The 'star' below the nucleus is actually a quasar, PGC 39975 (also known as Markarian 205), which is 15 times further away. Below, a closeup of the core of the galaxy and its apparent companion shows that the starlike object is actually a galaxy with a star-like core. (Image Credits: NASA, Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); Acknowledgment: R. Knacke (Penn State Erie))
HST image of the core of spiral galaxy NGC 4319 and its much more distant 'companion', spiral galaxy PGC 39975 (also known as Markarian 205)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered near the galaxy, also showing NGC 4291 and PGC 39975
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4319, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4291 and the quasar like PGC 39975

PGC 39975 (= Markarian 205)
Not an NGC object but listed here because of its historical link to
NGC 4319
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S pec?) in Draco (RA 12 21 44.1, Dec +75 18 39)
As noted in the entry for NGC 4319, a supposed interaction between that galaxy and Markarian 205 was once used as (incorrect) evidence that the large recessional velocities of quasars were not due to great distances, but to unusual peculiar velocities. That is now known to be incorrect, and the 21240 km/sec recessional velocity of PGC 39975 is actually due to its great distance. Based on a straightforward calculation, that recessional velocity implies a distance of 990 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was 910 million light years away when the light by which we see it was emitted, 940 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.125 by 0.09 arcmin, PGC 39975 is about 35 thousand light years across. It is a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 1), and one of the closest quasar-like objects known. (See NGC 4319 for images.)

NGC 4320 (= PGC 40160)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S? pec) in Virgo (RA 12 22 57.8, Dec +10 32 57)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4320 (GC 5637, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 15 48, NPD 78 40.5) is "faint, very small, southwestern of 2", the other being NGC 4325. The second IC adds "Not found by Frost on plates of 4 hours exposure", but as shown in the images below the object does exist. The position precesses to RA 12 22 55.2, Dec +10 32 53, only half an arcmin west of the nucleus, so the identification is certain. Apparent size 1.0 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 599) of the Virgo Cluster. Apparently binuclear, this object is probably a near-end product of the merger of two galaxies.
SDSS image of peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 4320
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4320
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4325
SDSS image of region near peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 4320, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4325

NGC 4321 (=
M100 = PGC 40153)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/recorded (Apr 13, 1781) by Charles Messier as M100
Also observed (May 6, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 54.9, Dec +15 49 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4321 (= GC 2890 = JH 1211, Méchain, M100, 1860 RA 12 15 50, NPD 73 24.0) is "a most remarkable object, pretty faint, very large, round, very gradually then pretty suddenly bright middle and mottled but not resolved nucleus; (per Leavenworth) 2-branched spiral". The position precesses to RA 12 22 55.7, Dec +15 49 24, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 7.5 by 6.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 596) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4321, also known as M100; also shown are NGC 4323 and NGC 4328, and the star that is probably NGC 4322
Above, a 16 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4321, also showing NGC 4323 and 4328
(Also shown is the star that is probably NGC 4322)
Below, an 8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the central portion of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4321, also known as M100
Below, a false-color image of the central portion of M100 (Image Credit FORS Team, 8.2-meter VLT, ESO)
ESO false-color image of spiral galaxy NGC 4321, also known as M100
Below, a visible-light image (Image Credit IDA/Danish 1.5 m/R. Gendler, J.-E. Ovaldsen, C. C. Thöne and C. Féron, ESO)
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4321, also known as M100
Below, a HST image of the core of the galaxy (North not on top) (Image Credit J. Trauger, JPL and NASA/ESA)
HST image of core of spiral galaxy NGC 4321, also known as M100

NGC 4322
Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Probably a 13th-magnitude star in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 41.9, Dec +15 54 12)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4322 and 4323 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 15 50±, NPD 73 20±) are "2 (objects), very faint, north of M100". With such an uncertain specification of the position and nothing to distinguish between the two objects, which entry corresponds to which celestial object is bound to be uncertain. Per Corwin, Tempel's notes translate as "...on my drawing there are three other very faint nebulae in the vicinity, two north of and close to (GC)2890 [NGC 4321], and the third south of (GC)2894 [NGC 4328]." Corwin proposes that the 13th-magnitude star northwest of NGC 4321 should be NGC 4322 (as listed above), and the 14th-magnitude galaxy northeast of NGC 4321 should be NGC 4323 (as listed as that entry), so that the listings are in order of RA, as is the general rule for the NGC (see the widefield view of NGC 4323 for an image of both objects). Most references treat both NGC 4322 and 4323 as the galaxy to the northeast, but as Corwin points out, since Tempel specified that he saw two objects to the north of NGC 4321, no matter which listing corresponds to what object they cannot refer to the same object.

NGC 4323 (= PGC 40171, but not =
NGC 4322)
Discovered (1882) by Wilhelm Tempel
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 23 01.7, Dec +15 54 19)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4322 and 4323 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 15 50±, NPD 73 20±) are "2 (objects), very faint, north of M100". With such an uncertain specification of the position and nothing to distinguish between the two objects, which entry corresponds to which celestial object is bound to be uncertain. As a result, as discussed at the entry for NGC 4322, the two listings are often treated as duplicate listings of PGC 40171; but per that discussion that cannot be the case, and it is probably most appropriate for that galaxy to be identified only as NGC 4323. Apparent size 1.1 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 608) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4323 and an outer arm of spiral galaxy NGC 4321, which is also known as M100
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4323 and an outer arm of NGC 4321
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4321, also showing NGC 4321, 4322 and 4328
SDSS image of lenticular galaxies NGC 4323 and 4328, spiral galaxy NGC 4321 (also known as M100), and the star that is probably NGC 4322

NGC 4324 (= PGC 40179)
Discovered (Mar 4, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 23 06.0, Dec +05 15 00)
Apparent size 2.9 by 1.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 613) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4324
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4324
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4324

NGC 4325 (= PGC 40183, and probably =
NGC 4368)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4368)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4325)
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3) in Virgo (RA 12 23 06.6, Dec +10 37 18)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.95 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 616) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4325
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4325
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4320
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4325, also showing peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 4320

NGC 4326 (= PGC 40192)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)ab?) in Virgo (RA 12 23 11.6, Dec +06 04 21)
Apparent size 1.4 by 1,1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 623) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4326
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4326
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4333 and 4339
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4326, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4333 and elliptical galaxy NGC 4339

NGC 4327
Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Probably an unknown star in Coma Berenices (RA 12 23 10.6, Dec +15 46 24)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4327 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 16 05±, NPD 73 27±) is "very faint, south of (WH) II 84", WH II 84 being NGC 4328. The position precesses to RA 12 23 10.6, Dec +15 46 24 (whence the position listed above), but there is nothing there save for a few very faint stars. Per Corwin, given Tempel's propensity for mistaking faint stars for nebulae, one of them is probably what Tempel observed, and he and others have made various guesses as to which of the stars might be NGC 4327. However, all Tempel said about the position was "south of (JH) 2894" (which is the same as (WH) II 84), and the NGC position is merely a guess based on that statement, so I cannot imagine any way of determining which (if any) of the modern guesses about the identity of NGC 4327 is correct. Hence my decision to list the object as "probably an unknown star", and not risk giving the impression of any certainty about which star it might (or might not) be.
SDSS image of region south of NGC 4328, which is the presumed location of NGC 4327
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image of the region (south of NGC 4328, shown at top center) that presumably contains the object listed as NGC 4327. NGC 4321 (M100) is also shown, at upper right.

NGC 4328 (= PGC 40209)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 23 20.0, Dec +15 49 13)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 634) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4328
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4328
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4321 and 4323
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4328, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4323, and spiral galaxy NGC 4321 (also known as M100)

NGC 4329 (= PGC 40212)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E5?) in Corvus (RA 12 23 20.7, Dec -12 33 29)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.6 arcmin.
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4329
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4329
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4329

NGC 4330 (= PGC 40201)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1852) by
Bindon Stoney
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Virgo (RA 12 23 17.0, Dec +11 22 07)
Apparent size 4.5 by 0.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 630) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4330
Above, a 4.8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4330
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4330

NGC 4331 (= PGC 40085)
Discovered (Dec 12, 1797) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type Im?) in Draco (RA 12 22 35.7, Dec +76 10 07)
Apparent size 2.2 by 0.4 arcmin.
DSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4331
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4331
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4331

NGC 4332 (= PGC 40133)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1790) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a) in Draco (RA 12 22 46.7, Dec +65 50 39)
Apparent size 2.1 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4332
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4332
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4332

NGC 4333 (= PGC 40217)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)ab) in Virgo (RA 12 23 22.2, Dec +06 02 28)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 637) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4333
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4333
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4326 and 4339
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4333, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4326 and elliptical galaxy NGC 4339

NGC 4334 (= PGC 40218)
Discovered (Apr 24, 1830) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)ab) in Virgo (RA 12 23 24.1, Dec +07 28 24)
Apparent size 2.2 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 638) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4334
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4334
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4334

NGC 4335 (= PGC 40169)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Ursa Major (RA 12 23 01.9, Dec +58 26 40)
Apparent size 1.9 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4335
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4335
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4335

NGC 4336 (= PGC 40231 =
IC 3254)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4336)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by Royal Frost (and later listed as IC 3254)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 23 29.7, Dec +19 25 37)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4336 (GC 2901 = JH 1219 = WH II 406, 1860 RA 12 16 21, NPD 69 48.2) is "very faint, pretty large, irregularly round, possibly binuclear". The position precesses to RA 12 23 25.4, Dec +19 25 12, a couple of arcmin west of the galaxy, but there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain. Apparent size 2.0 by 0.9 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4336
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4336
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4336

NGC 4337 (= OCL 878)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 9th-magnitude open cluster (type II3p) in Crux (RA 12 24 03.2, Dec -58 07 25)
Apparent size 3.5 arcmin.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 4337
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4337

NGC 4338 (=
NGC 4310 = PGC 40086, and not = IC 3247)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4310)
Discovered (May 19, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4338)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB0+(r)?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 26.4, Dec +29 12 29)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4338 (GC 5640, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 16 25, NPD 60 00.1) is "very faint, a little extended, cometic (like a comet)". The position precesses to RA 12 23 26.0, Dec +29 13 18, but at first glance there is nothing there. However, there is a suitable candidate exactly 1 minute to the west, namely Herschel's NGC 4310 (which see for anything else), and it is almost certain that d'Arrest made a transcription error, and the two listings refer to the same object. (This opinion is supported by the fact that (per Corwin) d'Arrest observed the region on four occasions, each time finding only one galaxy (NGC 4310 on three occasions, and NGC 4338 on the other), so he probably observed the same galaxy all four times, and simply made an error in his measurements or calculations on the one night.) However, some sources incorrectly list IC 3247 as NGC 4338, hence the disclaimer in the title for this entry.

NGC 4339 (= PGC 40240)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Virgo (RA 12 23 34.9, Dec +06 04 55)
Apparent size 1.9 by 1.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 648) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4339
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4339
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4326 and 4333
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4339, also showing spiral galaxies NGC 4326 and 4333

NGC 4340 (= PGC 40245)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB(r)0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 23 35.2, Dec +16 43 22)
Based on a recessional velocity of 950 km/sec, NGC 4340 is about 45 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 65 million light years, which are in good agreement with the distance of its apparent companion, 55 million light year distant NGC 4350. Assuming a distance of 55 million light years, the galaxy's apparent size of 3.5 by 2.8 arcmin implies that it is about 55 thousand light years across. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SB(r)0+.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4340
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4340
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered between it and NGC 4350
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxies NGC 4340 and 4350

NGC 4341 (= PGC 40280 =
IC 3260)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4341)
Discovered (Apr 23, 1895) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 3260)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Virgo (RA 12 23 53.1, Dec +07 06 25)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4341 (GC 2905 = WH III 95, 1860 RA 12 16 30, NPD 82 14.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The history of discovery for the galaxies in this region is complicated by the fact that Herschel did not bother to list different positions for the three galaxies (WH III 94, 95 and 96) that he discovered. If he had, the assignment of galaxies to the corresponding NGC entries (4341, 4342 and 4343) would probably be different from the one used here; but it is the one that seems to have been more or less universally agreed upon, so for now that will have to do. (A more detailed discussion of the history will be added in the next iteration of this page.) Apparent size 1.7 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 672) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4341
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4341
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4342, IC 3259 and IC 3267
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4341, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4342 and spiral galaxies IC 3259 and 3267

NGC 4342 (= PGC 40252 =
IC 3256)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4342)
Discovered (Apr 23, 1895) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 3256)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Virgo (RA 12 23 39.1, Dec +07 03 16)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4342 (GC 2906 = WH III 96, 1860 RA 12 16 30, NPD 82 14.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The history of discovery for the galaxies in this region is complicated by the fact that Herschel did not bother to list different positions for the three galaxies (WH III 94, 95 and 96) that he discovered. If he had, the assignment of galaxies to the corresponding NGC entries (4341, 4342 and 4343) would probably be different from the one used here; but it is the one that seems to have been more or less universally agreed upon, so for now that will have to do. (A more detailed discussion of the history will be added in the next iteration of this page.) Apparent size 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 657) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4342
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4342
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4341 and part of NGC 4343
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4342, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4341 and part of spiral galaxy NGC 4343

NGC 4343 (= PGC 40251)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)b?) in Virgo (RA 12 23 38.7, Dec +06 57 16)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4343 (GC 2907 = JH 1223 = JH III 94, 1860 RA 12 16 31, NPD 82 16.2) is "pretty faint, small, elongated, possibly double". The history of discovery for the galaxies in this region is complicated by the fact that Herschel did not bother to list different positions for the three galaxies (WH III 94, 95 and 96) that he discovered. If he had, the assignment of galaxies to the corresponding NGC entries (4341, 4342 and 4343) would probably be different from the one used here; but it is the one that seems to have been more or less universally agreed upon, so for now that will have to do. (A more detailed discussion of the history will be added in the next iteration of this page.) Apparent size 2.3 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 656) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4343
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4343
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of NGC 4342
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4343, also showing part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4342

NGC 4344 (= PGC 40249)
Discovered (Mar 14, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0 pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 23 37.5, Dec +17 32 30)
Apparent size 1.7 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 655) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4344
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4344
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4344

NGC 4345 (=
NGC 4319 = PGC 39981)
Discovered (Dec 10, 1797) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4319)
Discovered (1886) by Gerhard Lohse (and later listed as NGC 4345)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)ab) in Draco (RA 12 21 43.9, Dec +75 19 21)
(See NGC 4319 for anything else)

NGC 4346 (= PGC 40228)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1788) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 23 27.9, Dec +46 59 38)
Apparent size 3.2 by 1.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4346
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4346
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4346

NGC 4347
Recorded (May 5, 1881) by
Christian Peters
A 13th-magnitude star in Virgo (RA 12 23 52.4, Dec -03 14 23)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4347 (Peters, 1860 RA 12 16 42, NPD 92 27.7) has "No description". The position precesses to RA 12 23 53.1, Dec -03 14 18, practically on top of the star listed above. Corwin wonders whether NGC 4347 is a poorly measured duplicate of NGC 4348, then quotes from two of Peters' papers showing that Peters felt certain that his "nova" could not be GC 2911 (= NGC 4348), as it did not match its description, and he separately observed the latter nebula on a later occasion. Given that and the apparently accurate measurement of the star's position, it seems its identity with NGC 4347 should be considered certain. (Why Corwin raises the possibility of a duplicate listing, then proceeds to knock it down is unclear; perhaps he meant to show that the star's right to the NGC listing rests not only on its position, but also the lack of any acceptable alternative.)
DSS image of region near the star listed as NGC 4347
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the star listed as NGC 4347

NGC 4348 (= PGC 40284)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAbc?) in Virgo (RA 12 23 53.9, Dec -03 26 33)
Apparent size 3.2 by 0.7 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4348
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4348
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4348

NGC 4349 (= OCL 882)
Discovered (Apr 30, 1826) by
James Dunlop (292)
A 7th-magnitude open cluster (type I2m) in Crux (RA 12 24 06.0, Dec -61 52 13)
Apparent size 4.0 arcmin.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 4349
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4349
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4250 - 4299) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4300 - 4349     → (NGC 4350 - 4399)