Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Oct 7, 2016
WORKING: historical/physical information

NGC 4400
Discovered (Apr 13, 1850) by
George Stoney
An emission region in Canes Venatici (RA 12 25 55.9, Dec +33 30 57)
Part of NGC 4395. Dreyer lists NGC 4400 as reported by Stoney's employer, William Parsons, but notes that most of his discoveries were actually made by his assistants.
SDSS image of emission nebulae NGC 4400 and 4401
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4400 and 4401
Below, a labeled image of NGC 4395 showing the HII regions listed as NGC 4399, 4400, and 4401
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4395, showing emission regions NGC 4399, 4400 and 4401

NGC 4401
Discovered (Jul 29, 1827) by
John Herschel
An emission region in Canes Venatici (RA 12 25 57.9, Dec +33 31 38)
Part of galaxy NGC 4395, and close to NGC 4400, which see for images.

NGC 4402 (= PGC 40644)
Discovered (Mar 5, 1862) by
Arthur von Auwers
A 12th-magnitude edge-on spiral galaxy (type Sb) in Virgo (RA 12 26 07.8, Dec +13 06 47)
NGC 4402's recessional velocity of 230 km/sec is too small to be a reliable indicator of distance, as peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities could be a substantial portion of the value; and in fact the 10 million light years distance corresponding to its velocity is far smaller than redshift-independent distance estimates of about 50 million light years. Using the more likely distance of 50 million light years, NGC 4402's apparent size of 3.9 by 1.1 arcmins suggests that it is about 55 thousand light years across. Listed as a member (VCC 873) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4402 and the star listed as IC 3333
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4402 and the star listed as IC 3333
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4402 and the star listed as IC 3333; also shown is the northern edge of elliptical galaxy NGC 4406, also known as M86

NGC 4403 (= PGC 40656)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(r)ab pec) in Virgo (RA 12 26 12.8, Dec -07 41 05)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.5 arcmin. Perhaps in a pair with NGC 4404, which has a similar recessional velocity.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4403 and lenticular galaxy NGC 4404
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4403 and 4404
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4403 and lenticular galaxy NGC 4404

NGC 4404 (= PGC 40666)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0-(r) pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 16.1, Dec -07 40 49)
Apparent size 1.2 by 1.0 arcmin. Perhaps in a pair with NGC 4403 (which see for images), which has a similar recessional velocity.

NGC 4405 (=
IC 788 = PGC 40643)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4405)
Discovered (May 19, 1893) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 788)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA0/a?(rs)) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 26 07.1, Dec +16 10 52)
Apparent size 1.6 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 874) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4405
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4405
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4405

NGC 4406 (= PGC 40653 =
M86), part of Markarian's Chain
Discovered (May 5, 1779) by Johann Koehler
Rediscovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M86
Also observed (Mar 13, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.9 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 11.5, Dec +12 56 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4406 (= GC 2961 = JH 1253, M86, 1860 RA 12 19 06, NPD 76 16.7) is "very bright, large, round, gradually brighter middle and nucleus, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 26 11.9, Dec +12 56 45, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 8.9 by 5.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 881) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies which lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities. (See NGC 4438 for a discussion of a probable "recent" collision or near-miss involving M86 and that galaxy.) Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E+3.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4406, also known as M86, and as a part of Markarian's Chain of Virgo Cluster galaxies
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image of M86
Below, a 24 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4387 & 4402 & IC 3333
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4406, also known as M86, and as a part of Markarian's Chain of Virgo Cluster galaxies; also shown are NGC 4387 and NGC 4402, and the star listed as IC 3333

NGC 4407 (=
NGC 4413 = PGC 40705)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4413)
Discovered (May 4, 1829) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4407)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(rs)ab?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 32.1, Dec +12 36 37)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4407 (GC 2968 = JH 1255, 1860 RA 12 19 11, NPD 76 35) is the "following (eastern) of 2 nebulae". The second IC adds "Not found by Frost on plate of 4 hours exposure". The position precesses to RA 12 26 17.0, Dec +12 38 27, a little less than 4 arcmin northwest of NGC 4413, and about 7 arcmin east of NGC 4388, which would make it the eastern of two nebulae only if it is actually NGC 4413 (which as the title for this entry shows, is thought to be the case). More to follow in the next iteration of this page, but suffice it to say that the reader should see NGC 4413 for anything else.
SDSS image of region centered on the position of NGC 4407, showing spiral galaxies NGC 4388 and 4413, the latter being what Herschel probably observed
Above, a 20 arcmin wide region centered on Herschel's position for NGC 4407, showing NGC 4388, which is probably the galaxy that NGC 4407 "follows", and NGC 4413, which is thought to be NGC 4407.

NGC 4408 (= PGC 40668)
Discovered (Apr 21, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 26 17.1, Dec +27 52 16)
Based on a recessional velocity of 7525 km/sec, NGC 4408 is about 350 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.7 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4408
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4408
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy; also shown is part of IC 3353
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4408, also showing the western edge of spiral galaxy IC 3353

NGC 4409 (=
NGC 4420 = PGC 40775)
Discovered (Jan 24, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4420)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4409)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 58.4, Dec +02 29 39)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4409 (GC 2970 = WH III 17, 1860 RA 12 19 17, NPD 86 44.0) is "very faint, pretty small, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 26 26.3, Dec +02 29 27, but there is nothing there. There is, however, a notable galaxy half a minute of time to the east, namely NGC 4420 (which see for anything other than historical information). Per Corwin, Herschel apparently observed that galaxy on two occasions, but each time his measurement of its position was poor. On the first occasion he measured a position well to the east of the galaxy (which indirectly led to the listing for NGC 4420), and a month later a position well to its west (the one under discussion here). Later, his son John Herschel observed the region and found only one nebula, which became NGC 4420; not having found anything else he suspected that both of his father's observations referred to that nebula, and as a result Dreyer mentioned the possible equality of the two entries in his description for NGC 4420. Note: Given the equivalence of the two entries, either NGC designation could be used for the galaxy; and a confusing result is that various references use different designations. The preference for NGC 4420 as the designation on this page is based on its earlier discovery, and (due to John Herschel's more accurate position) its more certain identification with the galaxy.

NGC 4410 (= PGC 40694 + PGC 40697)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1828) by
John Herschel
A pair of interacting galaxies in Virgo
PGC 40694 = A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab pec?) at RA 12 26 28.3, Dec +09 01 11
PGC 40697 = A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0 pec?) at RA 12 26 29.6, Dec +09 01 08
PGC 40694 has an apparent size of 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin. It is listed as a member (VCC 904) of the Virgo Cluster. PGC 40697 has an apparent size of 0.5 by 0.5 arcmin. It is also listed as a member (VCC 907) of the Virgo Cluster. However, neither is actually a member of the Cluster, as they are much further away. The pair is part of an interacting group of galaxies, as shown in the wide-field view below. As a result of their interaction, PGC 40694 is sometimes called NGC 4410A, PGC 40697 is sometimes called NGC 4410B, and the other galaxies involved in the interaction are sometimes called NGC 4410C and 4410D. Based on a recessional velocity of 7320 km/sec, NGC 4410 is about 340 million light years away (far beyond the Virgo Cluster). Given that and its members' apparent sizes, each component is about 50 thousand light years across. The NGC 4410 group of galaxies, which spans nearly 7 arcmin, must be about 700 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 40694 and lenticular galaxy PGC 40697, which comprise NGC 4410
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of the galaxy pair listed as NGC 4410
Below, a not quite 7 arcmin wide image of the NGC 4410 group
SDSS image of the NGC 4410 group, consisting of spiral galaxy PGC 40694 and lenticular galaxy PGC 40697, which comprise NGC 4410, and elliptical galaxy IC 790 and spiral galaxy PGC 40736
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4410, also showing IC 790 and PGC 40736
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 40694 and lenticular galaxy PGC 40697, which comprise NGC 4410; also shown are the other members of the interacting group, elliptical galaxy IC 790 and spiral galaxy PGC 40736

IC 790 (= PGC 40713 = "NGC 4410C")
Not an NGC object but often called NGC 4410C since part of an interacting group with NGC 4410
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E5 pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 35.4, Dec +09 02 09)
See IC 790 for anything else.

PGC 40736 (= "NGC 4410D")
Not an NGC object but often called NGC 4410D since part of an interacting group with
NGC 4410
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa(s)) in Virgo (RA 12 26 44.3, Dec +09 02 54)
Apparent size 0.75 by 0.55 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 934) of the Virgo Cluster, but actually far beyond it. Part of an interacting group with NGC 4410 and IC 790.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 40736, also known as NGC 4410D due to its membership in an interacting group of galaxies
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 40736
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4410 and IC 790
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 40736, also known as NGC 4410D due to its membership in an interacting group of galaxies; also shown are its interacting group members, elliptical galaxy IC 790 and galaxy pair NGC 4410

NGC 4411 (= PGC 40695 =
IC 3339)
Discovered (1881) by Christian Peters (and later listed as NGC 4411)
Discovered (Jan 23, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3339)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)cd?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 30.0, Dec +08 52 18)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4411 (Peters, 1860 RA 12 19 23, NPD 80 21.4) is "faint, pretty large". The second IC adds "I assume that Bigourdan 298, RA 12 19 40, NPD 80 21, very faint, large, 2.5 arcmin, is identical with this". Dreyer's assumption was wrong, and since he thought NGC 4411 was at Bigourdan's position, Peters' and Schwassmann's positions led to the duplicate IC entry. Peters' position precesses to RA 12 26 30.2, Dec +08 52 03, while Bigourdan's position precesses to RA 12 26 47.2, Dec +08 52 58. The latter position falls right on PGC 40745, which was therefore (incorrectly) thought to be NGC 4411 for a long time. Peters' position falls right on PGC 40695, which must therefore be the correct identification for NGC 4411 (and the duplicate entry, IC 3339). Since Bigourdan's nebula was incorrectly identified as NGC 4411 for a long time, it has retained the faux-NGC entry of "NGC 4411B", while the correct NGC 4411 is often called NGC 4411A. Apparent size 2.35 by 2.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 905) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4411, also showing the star listed as IC 3343
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4411, also showing IC 3343
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3343 and PGC 40745
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4411, also showing the star listed as IC 3343 and spiral galaxy PGC 40745, which is also known as NGC 4411B

PGC 40745 (= "NGC 4411B", and not =
NGC 4411)
Not an NGC object but usually called NGC 4411B due to historical confusion about NGC 4411
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)cd) in Virgo (RA 12 26 47.2, Dec +08 53 04)
As discussed in the entry for NGC 4411, PGC 40745 was long misidentified as that NGC entry; however, despite being larger and brighter than NGC 4411, it has neither an NGC number nor (thanks to Dreyer's thinking that it was NGC 4411) an IC entry. Instead, once it was realized that it was not NGC 4411, it was given the faux-NGC designation of NGC 4411B. Apparent size 2.8 by 2.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 939) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 40745, also known as NGC 4411B
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 40745
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4411 and IC 3343
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 40745, also known as NGC 4411B; also shown are spiral galaxy NGC 4411 and the star listed as IC 3343

NGC 4412 (= PGC 40715)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)b pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 36.0, Dec +03 57 53)
Apparent size 1.6 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 921) of the Virgo Cluster. Listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4412
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4412
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4412

NGC 4413 (= PGC 40705 =
NGC 4407)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4413)
Discovered (May 4, 1829) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4407)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(rs)ab?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 32.1, Dec +12 36 37)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4413 (GC 2974 = JH 1259 = WH II 169, 1860 RA 12 19 26, NPD 76 37.0) is "extremely faint, small, gradually brighter middle, 2 stars north and northwest". The position precesses to RA 12 26 32.0, Dec +12 36 27, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain (see NGC 4407 for a discussion of the double entry). Apparent size 2.6 by 1.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 912) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4413
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4413
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4413

NGC 4414 (= PGC 40692)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)c?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 26 27.1, Dec +31 13 25)
Apparent size 4.4 by 3.0 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4414
Above, a 4.8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4414
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4414

NGC 4415 (= PGC 40727)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 26 40.5, Dec +08 26 10)
Apparent size 1.4 by 1.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 929) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4415
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4415
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4415

NGC 4416 (= PGC 40743)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1825) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)cd?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 46.7, Dec +07 55 08)
Apparent size 1.7 by 1.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 938) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4416
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4416
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4416, partially overlaid with a DSS image to remove glare from HD 108302

NGC 4417 (= PGC 40756)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 50.4, Dec +09 35 04)
Apparent size 3.3 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 944) of the Virgo Cluster. Note: NGC 4417 is sometimes erroneously listed as a duplicate of NGC 4437; per Corwin this is due to a typographical error in Dorothy Carlson's 1940 list of corrections to the NGC (which should have read NGC 4437 = NGC 4517, not 4417).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4417
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4417
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4417

NGC 4418 (= PGC 40762 =
NGC 4355)
Discovered (Jan 1, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4418)
Discovered (Feb 5, 1878) by David Todd (and later listed as NGC 4355)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(s)a) in Virgo (RA 12 26 54.6, Dec -00 52 40)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4418 (GC 2976 = JH 1261 = WH III 492, 1860 RA 12 19 45, NPD 90 06.7) is "(per) William Herschel very faint, considerably large, much extended, (per) John Herschel faint, small, round, star near". The position precesses to RA 12 26 55.4, Dec -00 53 14, within half an arcmin of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. However, despite Todd's much poorer measurement, more often than not the galaxy is listed as NGC 4355 (which see for anything else, including a discussion of the double listing).

NGC 4419 (= PGC 40772)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 26 56.4, Dec +15 02 52)
Apparent size 3.3 by 1.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 958) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4419
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4419
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4419

NGC 4420 (= PGC 40775 =
NGC 4409)
Discovered (Jan 24, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4420)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4409)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 58.4, Dec +02 29 39)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4420 (GC 2978 = JH 1263 = WH II 23, 1860 RA 12 19 51, NPD 86 43.7) is "faint, pretty large, a little extended, mottled but not resolved (equal to III 17?)", III 17 being NGC 4409. The position precesses to RA 12 27 00.3, Dec +02 29 46, less than half an arcmin east of the nucleus of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. The duplicate entry for NGC 4409 is (as discussed at that entry) the result of two more or less equally poor measurements of the nebula's position by William Herschel; it was John Herschel's measurement of the only nebula he could find in the region that yielded the essentially exact position for NGC 4420. Note: Given the equivalence of the two entries, either NGC designation could be used for the galaxy; and a confusing result is that various references use different designations. The preference for NGC 4420 as the designation on this page is based on its earlier discovery, and (due to John Herschel's more accurate position) its more certain identification with the galaxy. Apparent size 2.0 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 957) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4420
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4420
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4420

NGC 4421 (= PGC 40785)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 27 02.5, Dec +15 27 39)
Apparent size 3.0 by 2.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 966) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4421
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4421
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4421

NGC 4422 (= PGC 40813)
Discovered (Apr 25, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Virgo (RA 12 27 12.0, Dec -05 49 49)
Apparent size 1.3 by 1.3 arcmin.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4422
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4422
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4422

NGC 4423 (= PGC 40801)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sdm?) in Virgo (RA 12 27 09.1, Dec +05 52 49)
Apparent size 2.3 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 971) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4423
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4423
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4423

NGC 4424 (= PGC 40809)
Discovered (Feb 27, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 27 11.4, Dec +09 25 17)
NGC 4424's recessional velocity of 435 km/sec is too small, in comparison to peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities, to ensure an accurate distance estimate. The distance corresponding to the recessional velocity is 20 million light years, which is less than half of redshift-independent distance estimates of 50 to 55 million light years. Presuming the more likely distance of around 50 million light years, the galaxy's apparent size of 3.6 by 1.8 arcmins would make it about 50 thousand light years across. Listed as a member (VCC 979) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4424, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3366 (the small galaxy just below the nucleus of NGC 4424)
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4424, also showing IC 3366
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3366
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4424, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3366 (the small galaxy just below the nucleus of NGC 4424)

NGC 4425 (= PGC 40816)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 27 13.3, Dec +12 44 05)
Apparent size 2.8 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 984) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4425
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4425
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4425

NGC 4426 (=
NGC 4427)
Recorded (Apr 21, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4426)
Recorded (Apr 22, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as NGC 4427)
A pair of 15th-magnitude stars in Coma Berenices (RA 12 27 10.5, Dec +27 50 22)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4426 (GC 5649, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 20 10, NPD 61 23.3) is a "cluster, faint, small". The position precesses to RA 12 27 09.9, Dec +27 50 10, but there is nothing there save for the pair of stars listed above, slightly to the northeast of the NGC position. The second IC adds (per Max Wolf, list IV) "4426-27 are only 2 stars 36 arcsec apart, north and south", so the identity of the two entries (and the fact that they are a pair, rather than a cluster) has been known for more than a century. Note: Wolf's description might seem to imply that one star is NGC 4426 and the other NGC 4427, but the descriptions make it clear that each entry corresponds to all the then observable stars near the NGC positions, which means both members of the pair.
SDSS image of region near the pair of stars listed as NGC 4426, and also as NGC 4427
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair of stars listed as NGC 4426

NGC 4427 (=
NGC 4426)
Recorded (Apr 21, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4426)
Recorded (Apr 22, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as NGC 4427)
A pair of 15th-magnitude stars in Coma Berenices (RA 12 27 10.5, Dec +27 50 22)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4427 (Bigourdan (list II #53), 1860 RA 12 20 10, NPD 61 23) is "very faint, perhaps 2 or 3 faint stars in nebulosity". The position precesses to RA 12 27 09.9, Dec +27 50 28, but there is nothing there save for the pair of stars listed above, just southeast of the NGC position. The second IC adds (per Max Wolf, list IV) "4426-27 are only 2 stars 36 arcsec apart, north and south", so the identity of the two entries (and the fact that they are a pair, rather than a cluster or nebula) has been known for more than a century. Note: Wolf's description might seem to imply that one star is NGC 4426 (which see for an image of the pair) and the other NGC 4427, but the descriptions make it clear that each entry corresponds to all the then observable stars near the NGC positions, which means both members of the pair.

NGC 4428 (= PGC 40860)
Discovered (Mar 16, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c) in Virgo (RA 12 27 28.1, Dec -08 10 05)
Apparent size 1.7 by 0.7 arcmin. Some references (including Steinicke) state that NGC 4428 is accompanied by a 17th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) at RA 12 27 30.1, Dec -08 09 54, of apparent size 0.2 by 0.2 arcmin, but NED has no record of its existence. The best images available show only an apparently stellar object northeast of NGC 4428's nucleus, so the supposed galaxy is probably merely a foreground star; but better images will be required to say for certain. At about the same distance as NGC 4430, so they may be a physical pair.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4428
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4428
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4428
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4428 and its possible companion, NGC 4433
DSS image of region between spiral galaxies NGC 4428 and 4433

NGC 4429 (= PGC 40850)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA0+(r)) in Virgo (RA 12 27 26.3, Dec +11 06 27)
Apparent size 7.0 by 3.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1003) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4429
Above, an 8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4429
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4429

NGC 4430 (= PGC 40851)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Virgo (RA 12 27 26.2, Dec +06 15 46)
Apparent size 2.6 by 2.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1002) of the Virgo Cluster. (Note: Although apparently close to NGC 4432, merely an optical double, as the latter galaxy is much further away.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4430
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4430
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4432
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4430, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4432

NGC 4431 (= PGC 40852)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 27 27.4, Dec +12 17 26)
Apparent size 1.7 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1010) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4431
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4431
Below, a 15 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4436 and 4440
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4431, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4436 and spiral galaxy NGC 4440

NGC 4432 (= PGC 40875)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth (240)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc) in Virgo (RA 12 27 33.0, Dec +06 14 00)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1018) of the Virgo Cluster, but actually much further away (as a result, not a real companion of NGC 4430, but merely an optical double).
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4432
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4432; for a wider view, see NGC 4430
(The dark "line" on the west side of the galaxy is a region obscured by a photomosaic artifact)

NGC 4433 (= PGC 40894)
Discovered (Mar 16, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)ab) in Virgo (RA 12 27 38.5, Dec -08 16 45)
Apparent size 2.2 by 0.9 arcmin. At about the same distance as NGC 4428 (which see), so they may be a physical pair.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4433
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4433
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4433

NGC 4434 (= PGC 40886)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0) in Virgo (RA 12 27 36.6, Dec +08 09 16)
Apparent size 1.4 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1025) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4434
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4434
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4434

NGC 4435 (= PGC 40898, and with
NGC 4438 = Arp 120, The Eyes)
Part of Markarian's Chain

Discovered (April 8, 1784) by William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type Sb0?) in Virgo (RA 12 27 40.5, Dec +13 04 47)
Apparent size 3.0 by 2.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1030) of the Virgo Cluster. Apparently a pair with NGC 4438, with which it forms Arp 120; but as discussed at the entry for NGC 4438, that galaxy's distorted shape is actually due to an ancient interaction with M86. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies which lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4435
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4435
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered between NGC 4435 and 4438
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4435 and spiral galaxy NGC 4438, also known as The Eyes, or Arp 120

NGC 4436 (= PGC 40903)
Discovered (April 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 27 41.3, Dec +12 18 57)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1036) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4436
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4436
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4431 and 4440
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4436, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4431 and spiral galaxy NGC 4440

NGC 4437 (=
NGC 4517 = PGC 41618)
Discovered (Feb 22, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4517)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1828) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4437)
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)cd?) in Virgo (RA 12 32 45.6, Dec +00 06 56)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4437 (GC 2996 = JH 1277, 1860 RA 12 20 39, NPD 89 05.7) is "faint, extremely extended 75, 10th magnitude star to the northeast, place is that of the star". The position precesses to RA 12 27 49.1, Dec +00 07 47, but there is nothing there. Per Corwin, the answer to the problem was suggested by Reinmuth, then confirmed by Dorothy Carlson in her 1940 list of corrections to the NGC: namely, the description of the nebula and star exactly fit NGC 4517 (which see for anything else), which lies 5 minutes of time to the east. Unfortunately, due to a typographical error in Carlson's list (replacing 4517 with 4417), for a long time NGC 4437 was equated with NGC 4417; but ever since Corwin pointed out the error, NGC 4437's identification as NGC 4517 has been certain.

NGC 4438 (= PGC 40914, and with
NGC 4435 = Arp 120, The Eyes)
Part of Markarian's Chain

Discovered (April 8, 1784) by William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA0/a(s) pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 27 45.6, Dec +13 00 31)
Apparent size 8.5 by 3.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1043) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies which lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities. The distorted shape of NGC 4438 has been interpreted in various ways (most obviously, as due to its apparent companion, NGC 4435); but an NOAO study shows that there is a 400 thousand light year long swath of hydrogen gas stretching between M86 and NGC 4438, suggesting that a high-speed collision (or near-miss) between the two galaxies a few tens of millions of years ago is the cause of the distortion. As a result, NGC 4438 and 4435, though both members of the Virgo Cluster and collectively known as Arp 120, are thought to be merely optical companions, and not interacting with each other.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4438 and part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4435
Above, an 8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4438; part of NGC 4435 is also shown
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered between NGC 4438 and 4435
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4435 and spiral galaxy NGC 4438, also known as The Eyes, or Arp 120
Below, an NOAO image of the pair shows more detail (Image Credits: Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4435 and spiral galaxy NGC 4438, also known as The Eyes, or Arp 120
Below, a "deep" hydrogen emission (Hα) image of the region between M86 and NGC 4438
(Image Credits: Tomer Tal and Jeffrey Kenney/Yale University and NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of H-Alpha hydrogen emission in the region between elliptical galaxy M86 and spiral galaxy NGC 4438
Below, the image above with labels added for NGC 4387, 4388, 4402, 4425 and 4435
NOAO image of H-Alpha hydrogen emission in the region between elliptical galaxy M86 and spiral galaxy NGC 4438, showing labels for all NGC objects in the region

NGC 4439 (= OCL 884)
Discovered (April 30, 1826) by
James Dunlop (300)
An 8th-magnitude open cluster (type II1p) in Crux (RA 12 28 26.3, Dec -60 06 11)
Apparent size 4.0 arcmin. A loose scattering of stars, barely distinguishable from the dense background of faint stars shown in modern images.
DSS image of region centered on open cluster NGC 4439
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4439

NGC 4440 (= PGC 40927)
Discovered (April 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)a) in Virgo (RA 12 27 53.5, Dec +12 17 36)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1047) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4440
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4440
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4436
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4440, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4436

NGC 4441 (= PGC 40836)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1790) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB0+ pec) in Draco (RA 12 27 20.2, Dec +64 48 08)
Apparent size 3.5 by 2.2 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4441
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4441
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4441

NGC 4442 (= PGC 40950)
Discovered (April 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Virgo (RA 12 28 03.9, Dec +09 48 14)
Apparent size 5.2 by 1.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1062) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4442
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4442
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4442

NGC 4443 (probably =
NGC 4461 = PGC 41111)
Discovered (April 12, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4461)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1850) by George Stoney (and later listed as NGC 4443)
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0^+(s)?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 02.9, Dec +13 11 04)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4443 (GC 2995, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 12 21 00, NPD 76 06) is "faint, small, κ in Lord Rosse's diagram". The second IC adds "Not found by Frost on plate of 4 hours exposure". The position precesses to RA 12 28 05.5, Dec +13 07 29, but there is nothing there save, several arcmin to the southwest, NGC 4435 and 4438, which are positively identified as the θ and ι of Lord Rosse's diagram, and therefore cannot be his κ. As a result, per Corwin, NGC 4443 was long associated with one of the nearby stars, despite the fact that none of them are bright enough to have been seen by Lord Rosse or his assistants (in his introductory notes Dreyer mentions that most of the NGC entries attributed to the 3rd Lord Rosse were actually made by his assistants). The tentative identification with NGC 4461 (which see for anything other than historical information) is based on the fact that Lord Rosse's sketch and positions were crudely and hurriedly made, and it isn't much of a stretch to suppose that his κ is the next galaxy northeastward in Markarian's Chain. Corwin states that the main argument against this possibility is that there are two galaxies in that position, NGC 4461 and to its northwest, NGC 4458; but the latter galaxy is smaller and fainter than the former, so if NGC 4461 was Lord Rosse's κ, the fainter galaxy may well have been thought to be merely a star. And although the identification of NGC 4443 as a duplicate of NGC 4461 must be considered uncertain, in the absence of any better explanation the idea seems to have been more or less universally accepted (though usually with a comment about the uncertainty involved).

NGC 4444 (= PGC 41043)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc) in Centaurus (RA 12 28 36.1, Dec -43 15 44)
Apparent size 2.8 by 2.7 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4444
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4444
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4444

NGC 4445 (= PGC 40987 =
IC 793)
Discovere (Apr 24, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4445)
Discovered (May 6, 1888) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 793)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Virgo (RA 12 28 16.1, Dec +09 26 12)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4445 (GC 5651, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 21 10, NPD 79 47.6) is "very faint, pretty large, much extended". The position precesses to RA 12 28 16.8, Dec +09 25 54, almost exactly on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. (See IC 793 for a discussion of the double listing.) Apparent size 2.8 by 0.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1086) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4445
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4445
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4445

NGC 4446 (= PGC 40962)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1887) by
Lewis Swift (6-43)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 28 06.8, Dec +13 54 44)
NGC 4446 is listed as a member (VCC 1072) of the Virgo Cluster, but is actually far beyond it. Based on a recessional velocity of 7315 km/sec, it is about 340 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin, it is about 110 thousand light years across. It and its apparent neighbor NGC 4447 have similar radial velocities, so there is a good chance they are also a physical pair.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4446 and lenticular galaxy NGC 4447
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4446 and 4447
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4446 and lenticular galaxy NGC 4447

NGC 4447 (= PGC 40979)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1887) by
Lewis Swift (6-44)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 28 12.4, Dec +13 53 59)
NGC 4447 is listed as a member (VCC 1085) of the Virgo Cluster, but is actually far beyond it. Based on a recessional velocity of 7205 km/sec, it is about 335 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin, it is about 90 thousand light years across. It and its apparent neighbor NGC 4446 (which see for images) have similar radial velocities, so there is a good chance they are also a physical pair.

NGC 4448 (= PGC 40988)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)ab) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 28 15.5, Dec +28 37 17)
Apparent size 3.9 by 1.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4448
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4448
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4448

NGC 4449 (= PGC 40973 = PGC 2236413)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1788) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude dwarf irregular galaxy (type IBm) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 28 11.3, Dec +44 05 42)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4449 (= John Herschel's GC 3002, 1860 RA 12 21 23, NPD 45 08.0) is "very bright, considerably large, much extended, double or bifid (either a double nebula, or a single nebula split into two lobes), well-resolved (clearly consisting of stars), 9th-magnitude star 5 arcmin to east". The position precesses to RA 12 28 13.4, Dec +44 05 30, about 0.6 arcmin southeast of the center of the galaxy, but for such a large and irregular object an insignificant error, so the identification is certain. Based on a recessional velocity of 205 km/sec, NGC 4449 is about 10 million light years away. For such a small distance, peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities can significantly affect the accuracy of the result, but as it happens, the value is in good agree with redshift-independent distance estimates of 10 to 14 million light years. Using the generally presumed distance of 12 million light years and its apparent size of 6.2 by 4.4 arcmin, the galaxy is about 20 thousand light years across. Its structure and size appear similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud, a satellite of our galaxy, but it is not a member of our Local Group, but of the nearby Canes Venatici group of galaxies. Radio imaging indicates that the "dwarf" is embedded in a gaseous halo nearly 200 thousand light years across, or a remarkable thousand times the volume of the visible galaxy.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4449
Above, an 8 arcmin "closeup" of NGC 4449
Below, a ground-based view of the galaxy emphasizing its HII regions
(Image Credits: John and Christie Connors/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of irregular galaxy NGC 4449
Below, a HST closeup of the galaxy, with North on the right, to show more detail
(Image Credits: ESA, A. Aloisi (STScI/ESA), and The Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration, NASA)
HST image of irregular galaxy NGC 4449
Below, an alternate version of the HST image emphasizing its HII regions
(Image Credits: Data - Hubble Legacy Archive, ESA, NASA; Processing Robert Gendler, post-processing Courtney Seligman)
HST image of emission regions in irregular galaxy NGC 4449
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy (with North on top, as usual)
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4449
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4350 - 4399) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4400 - 4449     → (NGC 4450 - 4499)