Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Jan 9, 2015
WORKING: Historical/physical data

NGC 4450 (= PGC 41024)
Discovered (Mar 14, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)ab) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 28 29.3, Dec +17 05 03)
Apparent size 5.4 by 4.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1110) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS photomosaic of spiral galaxy NGC 4450
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4450
Below, a detail of the central portion of the galaxy
(Image Credit Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona, used per Creative Commons license)
Cropped Caelum Observatory image of spiral galaxy NGC 4450
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS photomosaic of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4450

NGC 4451 (= PGC 41050)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Virgo (RA 12 28 40.5, Dec +09 15 32)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1118) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4451
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4451
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4451

NGC 4452 (= PGC 41060)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 28 43.3, Dec +11 45 18)
Listed as a member (VCC 1125) of the Virgo Cluster. The disk of NGC 4452 looks unusually thin because we see it exactly edge-on. Most spirals have relatively thin disks, but we see them at an angle, making the disk appear thicker. One unusual aspect of NGC 4452 is that its disk has relatively little dust, so its stellar contents are not obscured by dust lanes. In addition, it has a very small central bulge, or nucleus. The nucleus is usually much thicker than the disk, but in this case it barely pokes above or below the plane of the disk. The negligible bulge of its nucleus and the lack of any dust lanes suggests that NGC 4452 might not exhibit a spiral structure even if seen from above (since such structures are outlined by the light of hot young stars recently formed from clouds of gas and dust within the spiral arms). NGC 4425's recessional velocity of 165 km/sec is too small in comparison to peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities to estimate its distance; but redshift-independent distance estimates place it about 50 to 55 million light years away, on the near side of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, the nearest large cluster to us. Given that and its apparent size of 2.55 by 0.8 arcmin, it is about 40 thousand light years across.
HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4452
Above, a 2.6 arcmin wide HST view of NGC 4452 (Image Credit: ESA/Hubble/NASA)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4452
Below, the same view with labels for PGC 40995 and 41035; and PGC 169360, 169366 and 169367
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4452, labeled to show various PGC objects

NGC 4453 (= PGC 41072)
Discovered (Jan 28, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Virgo (RA 12 28 46.8, Dec +06 30 44)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1130) of the Virgo Cluster, but actually much further away.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4453
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4453
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4453

NGC 4454 (= PGC 41083)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SB0/a(r)) in Virgo (RA 12 28 50.6, Dec -01 56 20)
Apparent size 2.4 by 2.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4454
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4454
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4454

NGC 4455 (= PGC 41066)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)d?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 28 44.0, Dec +22 49 16)
Apparent size 2.6 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4455
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4455
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4455

NGC 4456 (= PGC 40925)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc) in Hydra (RA 12 27 52.2, Dec -30 05 52)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4456
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4456
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4456

NGC 4457 (= PGC 41101)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB0/a(s)) in Virgo (RA 12 28 58.9, Dec +03 34 16)
Apparent size 4.1 by 4.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1145) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4457
Above, a 5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4457
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4457

NGC 4458 (= PGC 41095), part of
Markarian's Chain
Discovered (Apr 12, 1784) by William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Virgo (RA 12 28 57.7, Dec +13 14 32)
Listed as a member (VCC 1146) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies that lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities. Apparent size 1.6 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4458
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4458
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4461
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4458, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4461

NGC 4459 (= PGC 41104)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0+(r)) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 00.0, Dec +13 58 43)
Apparent size 4.5 by 3.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1154) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS photomosaic of lenticular galaxy NGC 4459
Above, a 5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4459
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy (and a nearby 9.5 magnitude star)
SDSS photomosaic of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4459

NGC 4460 (= PGC 41069)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1788) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB0+(s)?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 28 45.5, Dec +44 51 52)
Apparent size 4.2 by 1.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4460
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4460
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4460

NGC 4461 (= PGC 41111, and probably =
NGC 4443)
Part of Markarian's Chain

Discovered (April 12, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4461)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1850) by George Stoney (and later listed as NGC 4443)
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0+(s)?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 02.9, Dec +13 11 04)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4461 (GC 3013 = JH 1290 = WH II 122 = WH II 174, 1860 RA 12 21 58, NPD 76 02.5) is "pretty faint, small, round, brighter middle, following (eastern) of 2", the other being NGC 4458. The position precesses to RA 12 29 03.3, Dec +13 11 01, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. (See NGC 4443 for a discussion of the double listing.) Listed as a member (VCC 1158) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies that lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities. Apparent size 3.4 by 1.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4461
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4461
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4458
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4461, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4458

NGC 4462 (= PGC 41150)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)ab) in Corvus (RA 12 29 21.0, Dec -23 09 59)
Apparent size 3.1 by 1.1 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4462
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4462
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4462

NGC 4463 (= OCL 885)
Discovered (May 2, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 7th-magnitude open cluster (type I3p) in Musca (RA 12 29 55.2, Dec -64 47 22)
Apparent size 6.0 arcmin.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 4463
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4463

NGC 4464 (= PGC 41148)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3) in Virgo (RA 12 29 21.2, Dec +08 09 25)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1178) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4464
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4464
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of M49
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4464, also showing the northwestern edge of elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 (also known as M49)

NGC 4465 (= PGC 41157)
Discovered (Mar 31, 1886) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 23.5, Dec +08 01 34)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4465 (Bigourdan (list II #54), 1860 RA 12 22 19, NPD 81 12) is "very faint, very diffuse". The second IC adds "Not found on plate by Schwassmann". The position precesses to RA 12 29 26.2, Dec +08 01 31, only half an arcmin east of the galaxy, so the identification is certain, and Schwassmann's inability to find the object was probably due to its faintness and small size (and perhaps to its proximity to the much larger and brighter M49). Apparent size 0.5 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1182) of the Virgo Cluster, but actually a much more distant background galaxy.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4465
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4465
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing M49, NGC 4467, and PGC 41185
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4465, also showing elliptical galaxies NGC 4467 and 4472 (also known as M49), and elliptical galaxy PGC 41185 (which is often misidentified as NGC 4471)

NGC 4466 (= PGC 41170)
Discovered (Feb 26, 1851) by
Bindon Stoney
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 30.6, Dec +07 41 49)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1193) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4466
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4466
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4466

NGC 4467 (= PGC 41169)
Discovered (Apr 28, 1851) by
Otto Struve
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Virgo (RA 12 29 30.3, Dec +07 59 34)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4467 (Otto Struve, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 22 24, NPD 81 13.6) is "very faint, very small, a little extended". The second IC adds "Not found on plate by Schwassmann". The position precesses to RA 12 29 31.2, Dec +07 59 55, less than half an arcmin northeast of the galaxy, so the identification is certain, and Schwassmann's inability to find the object was probably due to its faintness and small size (and perhaps to its proximity to the much larger and brighter M49). Apparent size 0.4 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1192) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4467
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4467
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
Also shown are M49, NGC 4465 and 4471, and PGC 41185
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4467, also showing elliptical galaxy 4472 (also known as M49), spiral  galaxy NGC 4465, elliptical galaxy PGC 41185 (which is often misidentified as NGC 4471), and (above and below the label) a pair of stars, one of which is probably the actual NGC 4471

NGC 4468 (= PGC 41171)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0-?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 30.9, Dec +14 02 57)
Apparent size 1.4 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1196) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4468
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4468
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4474
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4468, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4474

NGC 4469 (= PGC 41164)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 28, 1884) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 11.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 28.1, Dec +08 45 01)
Apparent size 3.8 by 1.3? arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1190) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4469
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4469
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4469

NGC 4470 (= PGC 41189 =
NGC 4610)
Discovered (Jan 23, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4610)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4470)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 37.9, Dec +07 49 26)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4470 (GC 3020 = JH 1293 = WH II 18 = WH II 498, 1860 RA 12 22 31, NPD 81 24.1) is "faint, pretty large, irregularly round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 29 38.2, Dec +07 49 26, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain (see NGC 4610 for a discussion of the double listing). Apparent size 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1205) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4470
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4470
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4471 and IC 3417
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4470, also showing the pair of stars (above and below the label), one of which is probably NGC 4471, and the star listed as IC 3417

NGC 4471
Recorded (Jul 29, 1861) by
Julius Schmidt
A 15th-magnitude star in Virgo (RA 12 29 42.0, Dec +07 53 45)
or a 15th-magnitude star at RA 12 29 40.7, Dec +07 54 40
Per Dreyer, NGC 4471 (GC 5655, J. Schmidt, 1860 RA 12 22 34, NPD 81 19.4) is "very faint, very small (not found by d'Arrest". The position precesses to RA 12 29 41.2, Dec +07 54 08, not quite midway between the 15th-magnitude stars listed above, but there appears to be no way to tell which is what Schmidt meant to record. There is also a 15th-magnitude galaxy (PGC 41185, which see) to the northwest of the stars that is sometimes identified as NGC 4471, but per Corwin that is almost certainly too faint for Schmidt to have seen (in visual observations stars look much brighter than "equal-brightness" nebulae, since all their light is concentrated in a single point). So odds are that NGC 4471 was one of the stars, even if there is no way to tell which one.
SDSS image of region near the stars (above and below the label), one of which is probably the actual NGC 4471, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4470, elliptical galaxies NGC 4467 and M49, and elliptical galaxy PGC 41185 (which is often misidentified as NGC 4471)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on Dreyer's position for NGC 4471
Also shown are NGC 4467, 4470, 4472 (= M49) and PGC 41185

PGC 41185 (not =
NGC 4471)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 4471
A 15th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 37.1, Dec +07 55 58)
As noted in the entry for NGC 4471, PGC 41185 is often misidentified as that NGC object, even though it is almost certainly too faint for Schmidt to have observed, since nebular objects look much fainter than stars to visual observers as a result of their light being spread over a larger area. Apparent size 0.45 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1203) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 41185, which is often misidentified as NGC 4471
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41185 (for a wide-field view see NGC 4471)

NGC 4472 (= PGC 41220 =
M49 = Arp 134)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1771) by Charles Messier and listed as M49
Also observed (April 22, 1779) by Barnabas Oriani
Probably observed (Jan 23, 1783) by William Herschel
Also observed (May 9, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.4 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 46.7, Dec +08 00 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4472 (= GC 3021 = JH 1294 (= WH I 7), Oriani, M49, 1860 RA 12 22 40, NPD 81 13.5) is "very bright, large, round, much brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 29 47.1, Dec +08 00 02, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although discovered by Messier, M49 was also observed by Oriani while following the path of the Comet of 1779. In 1844, Admiral William Smyth's Bedford Catalogue conflated the two observations and listed the nebula as having been discovered by Oriani in 1771. This error was copied in John Herschel's GC, and since the New General Catalog was an expansion of the GC, was also repeated in the NGC (though in a sense also giving Messier credit for the discovery, since his appellation of M49 was also used). William Herschel's probable observation of 1783 was ignored by Dreyer in compiling the NGC because Herschel's position was uncertain, and he mistook the object he observed for M61; however, in a much later and very thorough analysis of all of Herschel's unpublished observations, Dreyer concluded that (WH) I 7 must be identical to M49, hence my addition of that observation (in parentheses) to Dreyer's listing for NGC 4472.
Physical Information: Apparent size 10.2 by 8.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1226) of the Virgo Cluster. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E+2. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of an elliptical galaxy with nearby fragments.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, also known as M49, and as Arp 134
Above, a 12 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4472
Below, the same image with labels, to show NGC 4465, 4467, 4471 and PGC 41185
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, also known as M49, and as Arp 134; also shown are NGC 4465, NGC 4467, PGC 41185 (often mistakenly listed as NGC 4471), and the northernmost of two stars, one of which is probably NGC 4471
Below, a 24 arcmin wide region centered on M49, showing the aforementioned objects and NGC 4470
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, also known as M49, and as Arp 134; also shown are NGC 4465, NGC 4467, NGC 4470, PGC 41185 (often mistakenly listed as NGC 4471), and the two stars (above and below the label), one of which is probably NGC 4471

NGC 4473 (= PGC 41228), part of
Markarian's Chain
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E5) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 48.7, Dec +13 25 47)
Apparent size 4.5 by 2.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1231) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies that lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4473 and the star listed as IC 3420
Above, a 5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4473 and the star listed as IC 3420
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3420
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4473 and the star listed as IC 3420

NGC 4474 (= PGC 41241)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 53.3, Dec +14 04 07)
Apparent size 2.4 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1242) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4474
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4474
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4468
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4474, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4468

NGC 4475 (= PGC 41225)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAbc) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 47.7, Dec +27 14 36)
Apparent size 1.7 by 0.9 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4475
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4475
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4475

NGC 4476 (= PGC 41255)
Discovered (Apr 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Virgo (RA 12 29 59.0, Dec +12 20 55)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1250) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4476
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4476
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4478
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4476, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4478

NGC 4477 (= PGC 41260), part of
Markarian's Chain
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 30 02.0, Dec +13 38 13)
Apparent size 3.7 by 3.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1253) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies that lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (RL)SB0/a.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4477
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4477
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4479, IC 3423 and 3426
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4477, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4479 and the stars listed as IC 3423 and 3426

NGC 4478 (= PGC 41297)
Discovered (Apr 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Virgo (RA 12 30 17.3, Dec +12 19 43)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1279) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4478
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4478
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4476
(The western edge of M87 is also visible at far left)
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4478, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4476 and at far left, the western edge of elliptical galaxy M87

NGC 4479 (= PGC 41302)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 30 18.3, Dec +13 34 41)
Apparent size 1.6 by 1.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1283) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4479
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4479
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4477 and IC 3426
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4479, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4477 and the star listed as IC 3426

NGC 4480 (= PGC 41317)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c) in Virgo (RA 12 30 26.7, Dec +04 14 45)
Apparent size 2.2 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1290) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4480
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4480
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4480

NGC 4481 (= PGC 41222)
Discovered (Oct 7, 1866) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Draco (RA 12 29 48.6, Dec +64 02 00)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4481
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4481
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4481

NGC 4482 (= PGC 41272 =
IC 3427)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4482)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3427)
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4) in Virgo (RA 12 30 10.3, Dec +10 46 45)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4482 (GC 3033 = WH III 40, 1860 RA 12 23 33, NPD 78 29.0) is "extremely faint, pretty large". The second IC adds "Not found by Frost, but it has been observed by Bigourdan, at RA 12 23 04". (The 30 second error in Herschel's RA was also noted by Dreyer in his study of Herschel's papers.) The corrected position precesses to RA 12 30 10.0, Dec +10 44 32, about two arcmin due south of the galaxy, but there is nothing else nearby and the description seems perfect, so the identification is considered certain. (See IC 3427 for a discussion of the double listing.) Apparent size 1.7 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1261) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4482
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4482
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4482

NGC 4483 (= PGC 41339)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 30 40.6, Dec +09 00 56)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1303) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4483
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4483
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of IC 3430
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4483, also showing part of irregular galaxy IC 3430

NGC 4484 (= PGC 41087)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 28 52.7, Dec -11 39 06)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4484 (GC 3034 = JH 1300, 1860 RA 12 23 37, NPD 100 51.9) is "pretty faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle". The second IC adds "RA 2 minutes too great (per Howe). (h. only one observation)", "h." being shorthand for John Herschel. The corrected position precesses to RA 12 28 51.4, Dec -11 38 24, less than an arcmin north of the galaxy, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is considered certain. Apparent size 1.5 by 1.5 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4484
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4484
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4484

NGC 4485 (= PGC 41326, and with
NGC 4490 = Arp 269)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1788) by William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IB(s)m pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 30 31.3, Dec +41 42 03)
Apparent size 2.4 by 1.8 arcmin. Interacting with NGC 4490, with which it comprises Arp 269.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4485
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4485
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide HST view (Image Credits: Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikpedia Commons)
(For other images see NGC 4490)
HST detail of irregular galaxy NGC 4485, which is part of Arp 269

NGC 4486 (= PGC 41361 =
M87 = Arp 152)
Discovered (May 5, 1779) by Johann Koehler
Rediscovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M87
Also observed (Mar 10, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.6 elliptical galaxy (type E1? peculiar) in Virgo (12 30 49.4, Dec +12 23 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4486 (= GC 3035 = JH 1301, M87, 1860 RA 12 23 44, NPD 76 50.1) is "very bright, very large, round, much brighter middle, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 4476 and 4478. The position precesses to RA 12 30 49.2, Dec +12 23 28, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 8.3 by 6.6? arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1316) of the Virgo Cluster. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E+0-1. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with a jet.
Slightly cropped image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87
Above, an approximately 9.5 arcmin wide closeup of M87
(Image Credit & © above & below: J.-C. Cuillandre (CFHT), Coelum, Hawaiian Starlight; used by permission)
Below, an 11.3 by 12.5 arcmin wide view of the galaxy, also showing (at upper right) PGC 41327
CFHT image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87; also shown (at upper right) is PGC 41327, also known as NGC 4486B
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide HST image of the core of NGC 4486, showing a jet of high-speed material
HST closeup of core and jet of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87
Below, a 0.5 arcmin closeup of the jet (Image Credit above and below Hubble Legacy Archive)
Extreme HST closeup of core and jet of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87
Below, an 18 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
Also shown are NGC 4478, IC 3443, PGC 41327 and PGC 41377
SDSS photomosaic of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87; also shown are NGC 4478, IC 3443, PGC 41377 (also known as NGC 4486A) and PGC 41327 (also known as NGC 4486B)

PGC 41377 (= "NGC 4486A")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4486A due to its proximity to
NGC 4486
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Virgo (RA 12 30 57.7, Dec +12 16 16)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1327) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 41377, also known as NGC 4486A
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41377
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing M87 and IC 3443
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy PGC 41377, also known as NGC 4486A; also shown are elliptical galaxy IC 3443 and part of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87

PGC 41327 (= "NGC 4486B")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4486B due to its proximity to
NGC 4486
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0) in Virgo (RA 12 30 32.0, Dec +12 29 26)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1297) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 41327, also known as NGC 4486B
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41327
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of M87
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy PGC 41327, also known as NGC 4486B; also shown is part of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87

NGC 4487 (= PGC 41399)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1789) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd) in Virgo (RA 12 31 04.3, Dec -08 03 13)
Apparent size 4.0 by 2.8 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4487
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4487
Below, a slightly wider view of the galaxy
(Image Credits: Lawrence Johnson and Kathy Ortega/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4487
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4487

NGC 4488 (= PGC 41363)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a(s) pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 30 51.3, Dec +08 21 35)
Apparent size 5.0 by 1.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1318) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4488
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4488
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4488

NGC 4489 (= PGC 41365)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 30 52.2, Dec +16 45 33)
Apparent size 1.7 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1321) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4489
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4489
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4489

NGC 4490 (= PGC 41333, and with
NGC 4485 = Arp 269)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1788) by William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)d pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 30 36.1, Dec +41 38 34)
Apparent size 6.4 by 3.2 arcmin. Interacting with NGC 4485, with which it comprises Arp 269.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4490 and irregular galaxy NGC 4485, which comprise Arp 269
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4490 and 4485
Below, a HST detail superimposed on the image above (Image Credits: Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikisky)
HST partial image of spiral galaxy NGC 4490 and irregular galaxy NGC 4485, which comprise Arp 269, superimposed on an SDSS image to show the region covered by the HST image
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4490 and irregular galaxy NGC 4485, which comprise Arp 269

NGC 4491 (= PGC 41376)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 30 57.1, Dec +11 29 00)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1326) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4491
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4491
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4491

NGC 4492 (= PGC 41383 =
IC 3438)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4492)
Discovered (Jan 23, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3438)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 30 59.7, Dec +08 04 41)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4492 (GC 3040 = JH 1305 = WH II 499, 1860 RA 12 23 53, NPD 81 08.9) is "pretty faint, pretty large, very gradually a little brighter middle, 2 stars near". The position precesses to RA 12 30 59.9, Dec +08 04 39, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain (see IC 3438 for a discussion of the double listing.) Apparent size 2.7 by 2.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1330) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4492
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4492
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4492

NGC 4493 (= PGC 41409)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Virgo (RA 12 31 08.3, Dec +00 36 51)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4493 (GC 5658 = Marth 241, 1860 RA 12 23 57, NPD 88 37) is "very faint, very small, irregularly round". The position precesses to RA 12 31 06.9, Dec +00 36 34, on the southwestern side of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. The only question is whether the fainter galaxy to the southeast (PGC 1170468) should be considered part of the NGC object. Since the description is "irregularly round" the fainter galaxy might have affected Marth's observation, but the position is almost exactly on the brighter galaxy, and would presumably be between the two galaxies if the fainter one had a significant affect, so probably only the brighter galaxy should be considered part of NGC 4493. Apparent size 1.0 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4493 and compact galaxy PGC 1170468
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4493 and PGC 1170468
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4493 and compact galaxy PGC 1170468

PGC 1170468
Not an NGC object but listed here due to its proximity to
NGC 4493
A 16th-magnitude compact galaxy (type C) in Virgo (RA 12 31 11.0, Dec +00 36 24)
Apparent size 0.4 by 0.3 arcmin. As noted in the entry for NGC 4493 (which see for images), it is conceivable (though unlikely) that PGC 1170468 was part of what Marth observed, hence its placement here.

NGC 4494 (= PGC 41441)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 31 24.1, Dec +25 46 31)
Apparent size 4.8 by 3.5 arcmin. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E1-2.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4494
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4494
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3455
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4494, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3455

NGC 4495 (= PGC 41438)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 31 22.7, Dec +29 08 12)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4495
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4495
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4495

NGC 4496 (= PGC 41471, and probably =
NGC 4505)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4496)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4505)
An 11th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IB(rs)m pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 31 39.3, Dec +03 56 23)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4496 (GC 3045 = JH 1309 = WH II 36, 1860 RA 12 24 30, NPD 85 17.8) is "faint, considerably large, binuclear or a double nebula". The position precesses to RA 12 31 38.5, Dec +03 55 46, within the brighter member of what appears to be a double galaxy, so the identification is certain. Given the NGC description as a double galaxy, NGC 4496 should perhaps be considered equal to the pair of galaxies, but as it happens they are merely an optical double (having recessional velocities that differ by nearly 3000 km/sec), so the brighter northern galaxy is generally considered to be "the" NGC object, while being given both that appellation and NGC 4496A, and the fainter southern galaxy (PGC 41473) is generally listed as "NGC 4496B". Per Corwin, the 3rd edition of the Reference Catalog of nearby galaxies (known as the RC3) lists three objects as NGC 4496, but as far as I can tell only the one listed here actually exists, so hopefully the reader won't run across any incorrect references to the others. Apparent size 3.9 by 3.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1375) of the Virgo Cluster. (Note: NGC 4496 is listed as a spiral galaxy and its apparent companion as an irregular galaxy, but in the images below it looks like this is the reverse of their appearance; so the galaxy types listed here are based on that appearance, rather than existing references. Also, although their recessional velocities imply that they are at very different distances, redshift-independent distance estimates place them at the same distance, in which case they are an interacting pair, and both members of the Virgo Cluster. In other words, this pair needs to be restudied, to clear up the considerable confusion about its true nature.)
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4496 and spiral galaxy PGC 41473 (also known as NGC 4496B)
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4496 and PGC 41473
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4496 and spiral galaxy PGC 41473 (also known as NGC 4496B)

PGC 41473 (= "NGC 4496B")
Often called NGC 4496B due to proximity to
NGC 4496
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc(rs)?) in Virgo (RA 12 31 40.8, Dec +03 55 36)
As noted in the entry for NGC 4496, PGC 41473 should perhaps be considered part of that NGC entry, but standard usage is to assign that only to its much brighter companion. Apparent size 0.8 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1376) of the Virgo Cluster but actually much further away. Although an apparent companion of NGC 4496 (which see for images), their recessional velocities differ by nearly 3000 km/sec, so they are merely an optical double (but see the note at the end of the entry for NGC 4496).

NGC 4497 (= PGC 41457 =
IC 3452)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4497)
Discovered (Nov 8, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3452)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SAB0+(s)?) in Virgo (RA 12 31 32.6, Dec +11 37 30)
(Herschel and Schwassmann's positions are both excellent, so the identification is certain, and the double listing is due to simple oversight.) Apparent size 1.9 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1379) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4497
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4497
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4497

NGC 4498 (= PGC 41472)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)d) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 31 39.5, Dec +16 51 10)
Apparent size 2.9 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1379) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4498
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4498
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4498

NGC 4499 (= PGC 41537)
Discovered (Jun 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Centaurus (RA 12 32 04.9, Dec -39 58 57)
Apparent size 2.0 by 1.3 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4499
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4499
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4499
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4400 - 4449) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4450 - 4499     → (NGC 4500 - 4549)