Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4450 - 4499) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4500 - 4549 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 4550 - 4599)
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Page last updated Dec 30, 2014
WORKING 4521: Remove title tags
WORKING 4537: Add historical discussion ASAP
WORKING: Add historical/physical data

NGC 4500 (= PGC 41436)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a) in Ursa Major (RA 12 31 22.0, Dec +57 57 54)
Apparent size 1.5 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4500
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4500
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4500

NGC 4501 (= PGC 41517 =
M88)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M88
Also observed (Apr 1, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.6 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)b?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 31 59.0, Dec +14 25 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4501 (= GC 3049 = JH 1312, M88, 1860 RA 12 24 55, NPD 74 48.2) is "bright, very large, very much extended". The position precesses to RA 12 31 59.2, Dec +14 25 23, nearly dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Listed as a member (VCC 1401) of the Virgo Cluster. Although in Coma Berenices, M88 is one of fifteen Messier objects that are members of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, the nearest major cluster to our galaxy. It is about 60 million light years away, and over 100 thousand light years across. (Apparent size 6.8 by 3.7 arcmin.) A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4501, also known as M88
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4501
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit Jim Quinn/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4501, also known as M88

NGC 4502 (= PGC 41531)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sd?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 32 03.2, Dec +16 41 17)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.65 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1410) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4502
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4502
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4502

NGC 4503 (= PGC 41538)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0-?) in Virgo (RA 12 32 06.1, Dec +11 10 32)
Apparent size 4.5 by 1.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1412) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4503
Above, a 4.8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4503
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3470
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4503, also showing lenticular galaxy IC 3470

NGC 4504 (= PGC 41555)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)cd) in Virgo (RA 12 32 17.4, Dec -07 33 48)
Apparent size 6.2 by 2.7 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4504
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4504
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4504

NGC 4505 (probably =
NGC 4496 = PGC 41471)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4496)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4505)
An 11th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IB(rs)m pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 31 39.3, Dec +03 56 23)
(This entry will probably contain only historical information; see NGC 4496 for anything else.)

NGC 4506 (= PGC 41546)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 32 10.5, Dec +13 25 13)
Apparent size 2.1 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1419) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4506
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4506
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4506

NGC 4507 (= PGC 41960)
Discovered (Jun 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(rs)b) in Centaurus (RA 12 35 36.6, Dec -39 54 33)
Apparent size 1.5 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 1h).
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4507
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4507 (with glare from 6th magnitude HD 109573)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4507

NGC 4508
Recorded (Apr 19, 1830) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude double star in Virgo (RA 12 32 17.4, Dec +05 49 10)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4508 (GC 3058 = JH 1317, 1860 RA 12 25 10, NPD 83 24.0) is "very small, round, suddenly brighter middle like a 13th-magnitude star". The position precesses to RA 12 32 17.7, Dec +05 49 35, just north of the double star listed above, so the identification is certain, and the object is not just "like a 13th-magnitude star", but actually is one.
SDSS image of region near the double star listed as NGC 4508
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4508

NGC 4509 (= PGC 41660)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IBm?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 33 06.8, Dec +32 05 32)
Apparent size 0.85 by 0.55 arcmin.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4509
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4509
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4509

NGC 4510 (= PGC 41489)
Discovered (Sep 9, 1866) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a pec?) in Draco (RA 12 31 47.2, Dec +64 14 02)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.95 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4510
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4510
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4510

NGC 4511 (= PGC 41560)
Discovered (Mar 17, 1790) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 32 07.9, Dec +56 28 16)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4511
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4511
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4511

NGC 4512 (=
NGC 4521 = PGC 41621)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1790) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4521)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1832) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4512)
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Draco (RA 12 32 47.6, Dec +63 56 22)
Apparent size 2.7 by 0.7 arcmin. (Historical information will be added in the next iteration of this page; for now, the most important thing is that NGC 4512 is almost certainly the same as NGC 4521, and is definitely not PGC 41601, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 4512.)
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4512
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4512
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 41601
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4512, also showing spiral galaxy PGC 41601, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 4512

PGC 41601 (not =
NGC 4512)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 4512
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBcd?) in Draco (RA 12 32 32.8, Dec +63 52 39)
Apparent size 2.0 by 1.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 41601
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41601
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4512
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 41601, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 4512; also shown is the lenticular galaxy that is actually NGC 4512

NGC 4513 (= PGC 41527)
Discovered (Oct 16, 1866) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SA0) in Draco (RA 12 32 01.6, Dec +66 19 59)
Apparent size 2.8 by 1.7 arcmin (including the outer ring).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4513
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4513
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy (also note ring galaxy PGC 41524
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4513, also showing ring galaxy PGC 41524

PGC 41524
Not an NGC object but listed here since an unusual object near
NGC 4513
A 16th-magnitude ring galaxy (type (R)) in Draco (RA 12 32 04.9, Dec +66 24 10)
PGC 41524's recessional velocity of 14490 km/sec places it (taking the Universal expansion into account) around 640 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 655 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin, its ring was about 95 thousand light years across at that time. The galaxy's appearance is undoubtedly the result of a collision with another galaxy that passed directly through its nucleus and carried it off (though which galaxy is unknown, as none of those apparently near it appear to be good candidates for such a collision). The collision caused a shock wave passing radially outward through the remaining part of the galaxy, compressing clouds of gas and dust to form a circular ring of hot, bright new stars, which were lighting up the ring that we see at the moment in time currently viewed from our location. As the shock wave continued to expand, the ring expanded with it, new hot bright stars replacing the rapidly aging and dying stars that emitted the light we now see; but since such stars typically last only a few millions or tens of millions of years, all the stars in the ring currently seen have been dead for more than 600 million years. (There are also undoubtedly a much greater number of fainter stars, such as Sunlike stars, that would have formed at the same time, and will still be shining ten billion years or more from now, but they are too faint to see at such vast distances.)
SDSS image of ring galaxy PGC 41524
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41524; also see the top of the wide-field image of NGC 4513

NGC 4514 (= PGC 41610)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 32 42.9, Dec +29 42 44)
Apparent size 1.3 by 1.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4514
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4514
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4514

NGC 4515 (= PGC 41652)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0-?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 33 04.9, Dec +16 15 56)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1475) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4515
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4515
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4515

NGC 4516 (= PGC 41661)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 33 07.5, Dec +14 34 29)
Apparent size 2.2 by 1.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1479) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4516
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4516
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4516

NGC 4517 (= PGC 41618 =
NGC 4437)
Discovered (Feb 22, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4517)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1828) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4437)
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)cd?) in Virgo (RA 12 32 45.6, Dec +00 06 56)
(See NGC 4437 for a discussion of the duplicate listing.) Apparent size 11 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4517
Above, a 12 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4517
Below, a 20 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4517

PGC 41578 (= "NGC 4517A")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4517A since in general region of
NGC 4517
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)dm?) in Virgo (RA 12 32 28.1, Dec +00 23 25)
Apparent size 4.0 by 2.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 41578, also known as NGC 4517A
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41578
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 41578, also known as NGC 4517A

NGC 4518 (= PGC 41674)
Discovered (Dec 27, 1827) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB02/3(r)/a) in Virgo (RA 12 33 11.7, Dec +07 51 08)
Apparent size 1.35 by 0.65 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1484) of the Virgo Cluster, but not an actual member, as much further away.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4518, also showing part of spiral galaxy PGC 41666, which is sometimes called NGC 4518B
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4518, also showing part of PGC 41666
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4518 and spiral galaxy PGC 41666 (which is sometimes called NGC 4518B)

PGC 41666 (= "NGC 4518B")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4518B since near
NGC 4518
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb(r)?) in Virgo (RA 12 33 10.5, Dec +07 50 04)
Apparent size 0.85 by 0.25 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1480) of the Virgo Cluster, but not an actual member, as much further away.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 41666, which is sometimes called NGC 4518B, also showing part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4518
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41666, also showing NGC 4518 (which see for a wider image)

NGC 4519 (= PGC 41719)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)d) in Virgo (RA 12 33 30.2, Dec +08 39 18)
Apparent size 3.4 by 2.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1508) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4519
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4519
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 41706
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4519, also showing spiral galaxy PGC 41706, which is sometimes called NGC 4519A

PGC 41706 (= "NGC 4519A")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4519A since near
NGC 4519
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sd?) in Virgo (RA 12 33 24.7, Dec +08 41 26)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1501) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 41706, which is also known as NGC 4519A; also shown is part of spiral galaxy NGC 4519
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41706, also showing NGC 4519 (which see for a wider image)

NGC 4520 (= PGC 41748 =
IC 799)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4520)
Discovered (Apr 21, 1889) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 799)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0- pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 33 49.9, Dec -07 22 29)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.5 arcmin. Herschel's position precedes the galaxy, while Swift's follows it, leading Swift to feel he found a new object; hence the duplicate listing. Per Corwin, the stars involved with the image probably confused the issue; but there is no doubt that the two listings refer to the same object (more to follow in the next iteration of this page).
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4520
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4520
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4520

NGC 4521 (= PGC 41621 =
NGC 4512)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1790) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4521)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1832) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4512)
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) in Draco (RA 12 32 47.6, Dec +63 56 22)
(This entry will probably contain only historical information; for anything else see NGC 4512.)

NGC 4522 (= PGC 41729)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)cd pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 33 39.7, Dec +09 10 27)
Apparent size 3.8 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1516) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4522
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4522
Below, a detail of the galaxy (Image Credits: ESA/NASA)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 4522
Below, a more detailed view of the same image
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 4522
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4522

NGC 4523 (= PGC 41746)
Discovered (Apr 19, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)m?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 33 48.0, Dec +15 10 06)
Apparent size 2.4 by 2.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1524) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4523
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4523
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4523

NGC 4524 (= PGC 41757)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1828) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)bc) in Corvus (RA 12 33 54.4, Dec -12 01 38)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.7 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4524
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4524
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4524

NGC 4525 (= PGC 41755)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SABcd?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 33 51.1, Dec +30 16 39)
Apparent size 2.9 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4525
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4525
Below, a 12 arcmin region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4525

NGC 4526 (=
NGC 4560 = PGC 41772)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4526)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4560)
A 9th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SAB0?(s)) in Virgo (RA 12 34 02.8, Dec +07 41 56)
Apparent size 8.2 by 2.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1535) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4526
Above, an 8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4526
Below, a 16 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4526

NGC 4527 (= PGC 41789)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc) in Virgo (RA 12 34 08.8, Dec +02 39 12)
Apparent size 6.2 by 2.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1540) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4527
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4527
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4527

NGC 4528 (= PGC 41781)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 12 34 06.0, Dec +11 19 16)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1537) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4528
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4528
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4528

NGC 4529
Recorded (Mar 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Probably a lost or nonexistent object in Coma Berenices (RA 12 34 02.8, Dec +20 31 44)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4529 (GC 3078 = WH III 26, 1860 RA 12 27 02, NPD 68 41.9) is "extremely faint, large". The position precesses to RA 12 34 02.8, Dec +20 31 44 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there. Per Corwin, Herschel made two observations of III 26, neither of which are near any galaxy he could have seen. To make matters even more uncertain, Herschel's notes state that he could neither convince himself that he had seen something, nor that he hadn't. The brightest object within a considerable distance is PGC 41639, so Corwin supposes that is the best guess as to what Herschel saw; but since a guess is all that it can be, it is probably best to list NGC 4529 as lost or nonexistent.
SDSS image of region near Dreyer's position for the probably nonexistent NGC 4529
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on Dreyer's position for NGC 4529

PGC 41639 (=
NGC 4529??)
Listed here since often (but very uncertainly) identified as NGC 4529
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 32 51.7, Dec +20 11 01)
As noted in the entry for NGC 4529, that object is probably lost or nonexistent; but PGC 41639 is often listed as the NGC object, albeit (usually) with a warning about how uncertain the identification is. Apparent size 2.0 by 0.35 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 41639, which is often listed as the probably nonexistent NGC 4529
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41639
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4527, which is often listed as the probably nonexistent NGC 4529

NGC 4530 (=
β Canum Venaticorum)
Recorded (July, 1828) by John Herschel
A 4th magnitude star in Canes Venatici (RA 12 33 44.5, Dec +41 21 27)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4530 (GC 3079 = JH 1332, 1860 RA 12 27 03, NPD 47 52.8) is a "nebulous star 4th magnitude, extremely questionable (8 Canum Venaticorum)". Given the identification in its description as 8 (= β) Canum Venaticorum, the identity of the object is certain regardless of how accurate the position might be; but as noted by Dreyer, whether there is any nebulosity was considered very uncertain right from the start, and save for the glare of the star there is no evidence for anything of "nebulous" character.
SDSS image of region near Beta Canum Venaticorum, which is the star listed as NGC 4530
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4530 (the artifacts are typical of SDSS images of bright stars)

NGC 4531 (= PGC 41806)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Virgo (RA 12 34 15.8, Dec +13 04 33)
Apparent size 3.1 by 2.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1552) of the Virgo Cluster. A Seyfert galaxy?
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4531
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4531
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4531

NGC 4532 (= PGC 41811)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IBm?) in Virgo (RA 12 34 19.3, Dec +06 28 02)
Apparent size 2.9 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1554) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4532
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4532
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4532

NGC 4533 (= PGC 41816)
Discovered (1877) by
Wilhelm Tempel (I-45)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAd?) in Virgo (RA 12 34 22.1, Dec +02 19 31)
Apparent size 2.1 by 0.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1557) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4533
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4533
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4533

NGC 4534 (= PGC 41779)
Discovered (May 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)dm?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 34 05.4, Dec +35 31 06)
Apparent size 2.9 by 2.2 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4534
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4534
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4534

NGC 4535 (= PGC 41812)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c) in Virgo (RA 12 34 20.2, Dec +08 11 51)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4535 (GC 3080 = WH II 500, 1860 RA 12 27 15, NPD 81 01.7) is "pretty faint, very large, mottled but not resolved". The second IC adds "Large spiral nebula, 8 points measured by Schwassmann". The position precesses to RA 12 34 21.5, Dec +08 11 57, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain. Listed as a member (VCC 1555) of the Virgo Cluster. Apparent size 7.0 by 5.0 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4535
Above, an 8 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4535
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing , also showing PGC 1343342
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4535, also showing spiral galaxy PGC 1343342, which is also known as NGC 4535A

PGC 1343342 (= "NGC 4535A")
Not an NGC object but sometimes called NGC 4535A since near
NGC 4535
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Virgo (RA 12 34 13.9, Dec +08 16 25)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.25 arcmin. (Note: Although apparently a nearby companion, PGC 1343342 is much further away than NGC 4535, so it is merely an optical double.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 1343342
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 1343342; for a wide-field view see NGC 4535

NGC 4536 (= PGC 41823, and not =
IC 3556)
Discovered (Jan 24, 1784) by William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc) in Virgo (RA 12 34 26.9, Dec +02 11 14)
Apparent size 7.4 by 2.9 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1562) of the Virgo Cluster. (Per Corwin, there is a careless mistake in the UGC which equates NGC 4536 and IC 3556; this will be dealt with in the next iteration of this page, but is the reason for the disclaimer in the title for this entry.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4536
Above, a 7 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4536
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4536

NGC 4537 (probably =
NGC 4542 = PGC 41864)
Discovered (Feb 17, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4542)
Discovered (Mar 16, 1884) by Lewis Swift (1-22) (and later listed as NGC 4537)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 34 49.1, Dec +50 48 20)
(This entry will only contain historical information; for anything else see NGC 4542. For now, suffice it to say that NGC 4537 is almost certainly a duplicate entry for NGC 4542, and is not PGC 41848 or PGC 41909.)

PGC 41848 (not =
NGC 4537)
Not an NGC object but listed here for reasons to be discussed in the entry for NGC 4537
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 34 29.8, Dec +50 40 17)
Apparent size 0.75 by 0.45 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 41848
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41848
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 41848

PGC 41909 (not =
NGC 4537)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 4537
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SBab) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 34 59.3, Dec +50 51 05)
PGC 41909 is a good example of the problems caused by misidentification of celestial objects, and the resulting misattribution of physical data. Aside from its often being misidentified as NGC 4537 (which see for more about that), its PGC designation was mis-assigned to yet another object (namely quasi-stellar object SDSS J123503.39+505049.1, about 40 arcsec to its east) in a catalog of isolated galaxies. Because of this, the redshift and corresponding recessional velocity of the QSO were listed as those of PGC 41909 in one of the most-frequently-referenced databases of extragalactic objects, and from there the incorrect data may have spread to any number of other websites and/or databases. To see the effect of that mistake, my original post for this object follows:
   "Based on a recessional velocity of 67960 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 41909 is about 3160 million light years away. However, for objects at this distance we should take into account the Universal expansion during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 2460 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 2720 million years ago (the 260 million year difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.85 by 0.5 arcmin, PGC 41909 is about 600 thousand light years across. This is an exceptional size even for a giant galaxy, and makes me wonder whether the historical problems with the identification (and/or misidentification) of galaxies in this region led to the recessional velocity for a different galaxy being incorrectly assigned to this one. Supporting this idea is type Ia Supernova 2009do, which appeared to take place in this galaxy but had a redshift z of only 0.043, corresponding to a recessional velocity of 12900 km/sec, a distance of about 570 million light years, a light-travel time of about 585 million years, and a physical size of about 140 thousand light years. Since these smaller numbers are more typical of objects such as PGC 41909, the higher recessional velocity almost certainly belongs to a different object."
   In other words, anyone using the wrong (much larger) recessional velocity would have thought that this was a much larger, far more distant object than it is, and if the error were not noticed, might spread still more misinformation about the galaxy across the Internet. In this case the problem was noticed and (at least in the one database) soon corrected. But any database that still contains the incorrect redshift will yield conclusions about the characteristics of PGC 41909 that are completely wrong. This is not an isolated example. There are misidentifications of objects in almost every database, either as a result of early or later errors in attribution, or of more innocent blunders such as typographical errors. Every such misidentification can lead to misattribution of its or some other object's properties, and incorrect conclusions similar to those noted above. (It is this sort of thing that makes efforts to properly identify celestial objects sufficiently important to justify the years of effort involved in pursuing such projects.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 41909, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 4537; also shown (as J123503+505049) is the QSO whose recessional velocity was mis-assigned to PGC 41909
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41909; for a wider view see NGC 4542
(Also shown is the QSO SDSS J123503.39+505049.1, whose recessional velocity was mis-assigned to PGC 41909)

SDSS J123503.39+505049.2
Not an NGC object but listed here since mentioned in the entry for
PGC 41909
A 19th-magnitude quasi-stellar object (type QS02) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 35 03.4, Dec +50 50 49)
A quasi-stellar object whose approximate recessional velocity was mistakenly assigned to PGC 41909 (which see for images) in a catalog of isolated galaxies, as discussed in the entry for that galaxy. Based on its recessional velocity of 68030 km/sec, SDSS J123503.39+505049.2 was (taking the Universal expansion into account) about 2460 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 2720 million years ago. Given that and its apparent size of 0.2 by 0.15 arcmin, the QSO is about 145 thousand light years across.

NGC 4538 (= PGC 41850)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth (242)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 34 40.8, Dec +03 19 25)
Apparent size 0.75 by 0.4 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1576) of the Virgo Cluster, but not actually a member, since much further away.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4538
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4538
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4538

NGC 4539 (= PGC 41839)
Discovered (Mar 17, 1831) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 34 34.6, Dec +18 12 10)
Apparent size 3.1 by 1.2 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4539
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4539
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4539

NGC 4540 (= PGC 41876)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 34 50.9, Dec +15 33 04)
Apparent size 2.5 by 2.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1588) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxies NGC 4540 and IC 3528
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4540 and IC 3528
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4540, also showing IC 3519 and 3528
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4540, also showing spiral galaxy IC 3528 and elliptical galaxy IC 3519

NGC 4541 (= PGC 41911)
Discovered (Jan 1, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(r)bc?) in Virgo (RA 12 35 10.7, Dec -00 13 16)
Apparent size 1.7 by 0.7 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4541
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4541
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4541

NGC 4542 (= PGC 41864 =
NGC 4537)
Discovered (Feb 17, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4542)
Discovered (Mar 16, 1884) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 4537)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 34 49.1, Dec +50 48 20)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.85 arcmin. (The duplicate listing will be discussed at the entry for NGC 4537.)
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4542
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4542
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 41909
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4542, also showing spiral galaxy PGC 41909, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 4537

NGC 4543 (= PGC 41923)
Discovered (Dec 27, 1827) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Virgo (RA 12 35 20.2, Dec +06 06 56)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.85 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1608) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4543
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4543
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4543

NGC 4544 (= PGC 41958)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1887) by
Edward Swift (6-45)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Virgo (RA 12 35 36.5, Dec +03 02 08)
Apparent size 2.1 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1624) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4544
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4544
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4544

NGC 4545 (= PGC 41838)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1790) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)cd?) in Draco (RA 12 34 34.1, Dec +63 31 29)
Apparent size 2.25 by 1.35 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4545
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4545
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4545

NGC 4546 (= PGC 41939)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0-(s)?) in Virgo (RA 12 35 29.5, Dec -03 47 35)
Apparent size 3.4 by 1.7 arcmin. (Note: Hidden within this image is the remnant of a compact galaxy which is only visible in more detailed, less overexposed images, such as posted in the Hubble Legacy Archive image database.)
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4546
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4546
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4546

NGC 4547 (= PGC 41896)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 34 51.8, Dec +58 55 02)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.9 arcmin. (There is considerable confusion about the identification of NGC 4547 and 4549, which will be dealt with in the next iteration of this page. For this iteration I am adopting Corwin's conclusions, which seem to have received more general acceptance than any earlier effort to identify the objects.)
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4547
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4547
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4549
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4547, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4549

NGC 4548 (= PGC 41934 =
M91)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and listed as M91, but "lost" for centuries
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 3, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 26.4, Dec +14 29 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4548 (= GC 3093 = JH 1345 = WH II 120, 1860 RA 12 28 23, NPD 74 43.8) is "bright, large, a little extended, a little brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: Although Messier discovered this galaxy in 1781, his measurement of its position was based on M89, and he mistakenly thought the comparison was with M58. As a result there is nothing at the position calculated by Messier, and it was thought that he must have observed some ephemeral object until 1969, when amateur William C. Williams realized that M91 would be the same as NGC 4548 if Messier made the mistaken calculation noted here. As a result, M91 was thought to be lost or nonexistent for nearly two centuries. (Explanation per SEDS.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 6.2 by 4.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1615) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4548, also known as M91
Above, a 7 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 4548
Below, a natural-color image of M91 (Image Credit AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4548, also known as M91
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4548, also known as M91

NGC 4549 (= PGC 41954)
Discovered (Apr 24, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 35 21.3, Dec +58 56 58)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.3 arcmin. (There is considerable confusion about the identification of NGC 4547 and 4549, which will be dealt with in the next iteration of this page. For this iteration I am adopting Corwin's conclusions, which seem to have received more general acceptance than any earlier effort to identify the objects.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4549
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4549
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4547
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4549, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4547
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4450 - 4499) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4500 - 4549     → (NGC 4550 - 4599)