Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Jan 12, 2015
WORKING 4555: Add pix, identification clarifications

NGC 4550 (= PGC 41943)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0°?) in Virgo (RA 12 35 30.6, Dec +12 13 15)
Apparent size 3.5 by 1.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1619) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4550
Above, a 3.6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4550
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4551
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4550, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 4551

NGC 4551 (= PGC 41963)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Virgo (RA 12 35 38.0, Dec +12 15 50)
Apparent size 2.2 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1630) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4551
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4551
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing NGC 4550
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4551, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4550

NGC 4552 (=
M89 = PGC 41968)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M89
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.8 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Virgo (RA 12 35 39.9, Dec +12 33 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4552 (= GC 3097 = JH 1348, M89, 1860 RA 12 28 36, NPD 76 40.3) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, gradually much brighter middle". The position precesss to RA 12 35 40.3, Dec +12 33 23, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physcial Information: Apparent size 3.8 by 3.3 arcmin; fainter outer regions cover about 8.8 by 7.2 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1632) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4552, also known as M89
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4552
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4552, also known as M89

NGC 4553 (= PGC 42018)
Discovered (Apr 22, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA(r)0+) in Centaurus (RA 12 36 07.5, Dec -39 26 21)
Apparent size 2.4 by 1.5 arcmin.
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4553
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4553
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4553

NGC 4554
Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel (V)
A lost or nonexistent object in Virgo (RA 12 35 41.9, Dec +11 11 11)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4554 (Temple list V, 1860 RA 12 28 37, NPD 78 02.5) is "very faint". The second IC adds "Not found by Frost on plate of 4 hours exposure". The position precesses to RA 12 35 41.9, Dec +11 11 11 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there. Corwin suggests that the 13th- and 14th-magnitude pair of stars at RA 12 35 59.5, Dec +11 15 55 (about 6 arcmin northeast of the NGC position) might be what Tempel observed, then points out that for that to be true Tempel's recorded offsets from NGC 4567/8 (which are well to the left of the field of view shown below) would have to be off in both direction and size. Since that isn't likely, the double star is almost certainly not NGC 4554, and the entry almost certainly represents a lost or (more likely) nonexistent object.
SDSS image of region centered on Tempel's position for the probably nonexistent NGC 4554; the stars that are sometimes listed as NGC 4554 but are almost certainly not that object are boxed-in for reference
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on Tempel's position for NGC 4554
(The stars that are sometimes listed as NGC 4554 but are almost certainly not NGC 4554 are "boxed-in" for reference)

NGC 4555 (= PGC 41975 =
IC 3545)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4555)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1903) by Max Wolf (and later listed as IC 3545)
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 41.0, Dec +26 31 26)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4555 (GC 3099 = JH 1350 = WH II 343, 1860 RA 12 28 43, NPD 62 42.3) is "bright, pretty small, irregularly round, very suddenly much brighter middle equivalent to 12th magnitude star". The position precesses to RA 12 35 40.0, Dec +26 31 23, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain (see IC 3545 for a discussion of the duplicate listing and the reason that PGC 1777936 is shown in the wide-field image). Apparent size 2.1 by 1.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4555
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4555
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing PGC 1777936
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4555, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 1777936, which is related to the duplicate listing for NGC 4555

WORKING HERE: The region near NGC 4556 contains a number of frequently misidentified galaxies; for that reason it will take some time to sort out everything, and complete posts for NGC 4556 - 4563

NGC 4556 (= PGC 41980, and not = [a number of misidentifications])
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 45.6, Dec +26 54 33)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4556 (GC 3100 = JH 1351 = WH II 380, 1860 RA 12 28 46, NPD 62 18.8) is "faint, pretty large". The position precesses to RA 12 35 42.7, Dec +26 54 53, just northwest of the galaxy and there is nothing else near enough to cause any confusion, so the identification is certain. Despite that (per Corwin) there were some ghastly blunders involving NGC 4563 in modern catalogs that resulted in misidentifications involving IC 3556, NGC 4536 and 4556 (more to follow per Corwin). Apparent size 1.5 by 1.1 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4556
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4556
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing (need correct IDs)
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4556, also showing (several other galaxies, usually misidentified; need correct IDs)

NGC 4557
Recorded (Apr 22, 1886) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
Three 14th-, 15th- and 16th-magnitude stars in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 49.7, Dec +27 03 14)
Per Dreyer, NGC 4557 (Bigoudan (list II #55), 1860 RA 12 28 53, NPD 62 11.5) is a "nebulous star". The position precesses to RA 12 35 49.6, Dec +27 02 11, an arcmin south of a scattering of faint stars, including the triplet listed above. Per Corwin, Bigourdan's offset relative to NGC 4558 clearly places the object close to the triplet, and the description makes its identification as a stellar object certain. He adds that Wolf clearly observed it as the central of three stars, and therefore uses that star's position for the NGC object, but since Bigourdan must not have resolved the stars he considers the triplet to be object, not just the central star. Corwin notes that the MCG and PGC identifications are wrong (and as a result, so are a number of listings for NGC 4557); for that reason, see NGC 4558.
SDSS image of region near the stars listed as NGC 4557, also showing lenticular galaxy NGC 4558, which is often misidentified as NGC 4557, lenticular galaxy IC 3556, which is often misidentified as NGC 4558, lenticular galaxy IC 3559 and spiral galaxy IC 3560
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4557, also showing NGC 4558, IC 3556, 3559 and 3560

NGC 4558 (= PGC 41995 = PGC 42019, and not =
NGC 4557 or IC 3556)
Discovered (Apr 19, 1827) by John Herschel
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 52.6, Dec +26 59 30)
See Corwin. (Often misidentified as NGC 4557; in addition, IC 3556 is often misidentified as NGC 4558.) Apparent size 0.85 by 0.75 arcmin.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4558, which is often misidentified as NGC 4557
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4558
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy (also showing a number of others)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4558, which is often misidentified as NGC 4557 (also showing a number of other galaxies, labeled with the most likely NGC/IC identifications as of this posting)

NGC 4559 (= PGC 42002)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 57.8, Dec +27 57 35)
Based on a recessional velocity of 815 km/sec, NGC 4559 is about 38 million light years away. Although peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities could be a substantial part of the recessional velocity, the distance is in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 25 to 50 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 10.7 by 4.4 arcmin, the galaxy is about 120 thousand light years across. (Several IC objects (e.g., IC 3550, 3551, 3552, 3554, 3555, 3563 and 3564) are stars superimposed on NGC 4559, or emission regions within the galaxy.)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4559
Above, a 12 arcmin wide "closeup" of NGC 4559
Below, an NOAO image of the galaxy (Image Credit: Jeff Hapeman/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4559
Below, an 18 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4559

IC 3592 (= PGC 42097 = "NGC 4559A")
Not an NGC object, but sometimes called NGC 4559A due to its proximity to NGC 4559
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa??) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 36 53.2, Dec +27 51 45)
For anything else see IC 3592

IC 3593 (= PGC 42098 = "NGC 4559B")
Not an NGC object, but sometimes called NGC 4559B due to its proximity to NGC 4559
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)ab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 36 53.8, Dec +27 44 55)
For anything else see IC 3593.

IC 3550 (= "NGC 4559C")
Not an NGC object, but sometimes called NGC 4559C due to proximity to NGC 4559
An emission region in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 51.8, Dec +27 55 57)
A part of spiral galaxy NGC 4559, which see for images. For anything else see IC 3550.

NGC 4560 (=
NGC 4526 = PGC 41772)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4526)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4560)
A 9th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SAB0°?(s)) in Virgo (RA 12 34 02.8, Dec +07 41 56)
The second IC adds "Not found on plate by Schwassmann". (This entry will only contain historical information, for which see Corwin. For anything else see NGC 4526.)

NGC 4561 (= PGC 42020 =
IC 3569)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4561)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by Royal Frost (and later listed as IC 3569)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)dm) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 36 08.1, Dec +19 19 18)
See Corwin about the double listing. Apparent size 1.5 by 1.3 arcmin?

NGC 4562 (= PGC 41955)
Discovered (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel (V)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 34.5, +25 50 58)
Sometimes incorrectly referred to as NGC 4565A, and pointlessly so, since it has a perfectly good NGC designation of its own and isn't even particularly close to NGC 4565.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4562
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4562
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4562

NGC 4563 (= PGC 42030, and not =
NGC 4536, NGC 4556 or IC 3556)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 36 12.6, Dec +26 56 30)
Despite a good position, modern blunders resulted in conflation with IC 3556, NGC 4556 and NGC 4536 (see Corwin). Apparent size 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin?

NGC 4564 (= PGC 42051)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E6???) in Virgo (RA 12 36 26.9, Dec +11 26 23)
Apparent size 3.5 by 1.5 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1664) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4565 (= PGC 42038)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)b?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 36 20.5, Dec +25 59 16)
Apparent size 15.8 by 2.1 arcmin? NGC 4565 is about 30 million light-years from our Milky Way galaxy. Dust scattered throughout the disk obscures its light, but the nuclear bulge is clearly visible above and below the dust lanes. A little over 100,000 light-years in diameter, NGC4565 is thought to be nearly identical to our own galaxy, and as a result, it is presumed that our galaxy would look very much like this if seen from the same angle.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4565
Above, an 18 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4565
Below, a closeup of the galaxy (Image Credits: Bruce Hugo & Leslie Gaul, Adam Block, NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4565

NGC 4562 (= PGC 41955 = "NGC 4565A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes incorrectly called NGC 4565A
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 34.5, +25 50 58)
One of three galaxies incorrectly referred to as "NGC 4565A", "4565B" and "4565C". (Incorrectly and pointlessly, because each of them has a perfectly good designation of its own, and none of them are particularly close to NGC 4565.) For anything else see NGC 4562.

IC 3546 (= PGC 41976 = "NGC 4565B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes incorrectly called NGC 4565B
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc???) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 41.6, Dec +26 13 21)
One of three galaxies incorrectly referred to as "NGC 4565A", "4565B" and "4565C". (Incorrectly and pointlessly, because each of them has a perfectly good designation of its own, and none of them are particularly close to NGC 4565.) For anything else see IC 3546.

IC 3543 (= PGC 41974 = "NGC 4565C")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes incorrectly called NGC 4565C
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd??) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 41.3, Dec +26 17 12)
One of three galaxies incorrectly referred to as "NGC 4565A", "4565B" and "4565C". (Incorrectly and pointlessly, because each of them has a perfectly good designation of its own, and none of them are particularly close to NGC 4565.) For anything else see IC 3543.

NGC 4566 (= PGC 42007)
Discovered (Apr 2, 1791) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc??) in Ursa Major (RA 12 36 00.2, Dec +54 13 14)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin?

NGC 4567 (= PGC 42064, and with
NGC 4568 = the Siamese Twins)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)bc) in Virgo (RA 12 36 32.7, Dec +11 15 28)
Apparent size 3.1 by 2.2 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1673) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxies NGC 4567 and 4568, the Siamese Twins
Above, a 5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4567 and 4568
Below, another view of the pair (Image Credits: Bill & Marian Wallace/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxies NGC 4567 and 4568, the Siamese Twins
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxies NGC 4567 and 4568, the Siamese Twins

NGC 4568 (= PGC 42069, and with
= the Siamese Twins)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)bc) in Virgo (RA 12 36 34.2, Dec +11 14 19)
Apparent size 4.6 by 2.2 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1676) of the Virgo Cluster. (See its "twin", NGC 4567, for images.)

NGC 4569 (= PGC 42089 =
M90, and with IC 3583 = Arp 76)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M90
A magnitude 9.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)ab?) in Virgo (RA 12 36 50.0, Dec +13 09 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4569 (= GC 3111, M90, 1860 RA 12 29 46, NPD 76 03.9) is "pretty large, brighter middle and nucleus". The position precesses to RA 12 36 49.8, Dec +3 09 49, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The recessional velocity of NGC 4569 is -235 km/sec (in other words, it is approaching us instead of moving away from us, as most galaxies are). Such a velocity normally applies only to objects very close to us, and most early estimates of its distance put it relatively close to or even within the outer reaches of our Local Group. However, it is listed as a member (VCC 1692) of the Virgo Cluster, which is about 60 million light years away, and the reason for its odd radial velocity is probably that the Local Group happens to be moving in the direction of that cluster at about 600 km/sec, so that most of the galaxies in that region have unusually low or even negative recessional velocities. (There is also a large range of motions within massive clusters such as the Virgo Cluster (so-called peculiar velocities, or real motions of the galaxies relative to each other, as opposed to the apparent motion associated with the expansion of the Universe), and even without the motion of the Local Group some of the members of the Virgo Cluster moving toward us relative to the Cluster as a whole would still have small or negative radial velocities.) Even redshift-independent distance estimates, perhaps partly influenced by earlier views concerning its distance, are mostly in the range of 30 to 35 million light years; but as noted above, as a member of the Virgo Cluster, it must be about 60 million light years away, and although the current 'best' guess is just under that, the uncertainty overlaps the rounded off value. This entry therefore adopts 60 million light years as the distance, in which case the galaxy's apparent size of 9.5 by 4.4 arcmin would make it about 165 thousand light years across. NGC 4569 is listed in Arp's Atlas of Peculiar Galaxies, as part of Arp 76. The closeup of the galaxy omits its apparent companion, but the mid-range and wide-field images also show IC 3583.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4569, also known as M90, and as the major component of Arp 76
Above, a 10 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 4569, also known as M90
Below, a 16 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3583
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4569, also known as M90, and of IC 3583, with which it comprises Arp 76
Below, another view of M90 (Image Credit Paul & Daniel Koblas/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4569, also known as M90, and the major component of Arp 76
Below, another view of the galaxy and IC 3583 (Image Credit AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4569, also known as M90, and IC 3583, with which it comprises Arp 76

NGC 4570 (= PGC 42096)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Virgo (RA 12 36 53.2, Dec +07 14 49)
Apparent size 3.7 by 1.2 arcmin?

NGC 4571 (= PGC 42100 =
IC 3588)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4571)
Discovered (Nov 23, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3588)
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(r)d) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 36 56.4, Dec +14 13 03)
Refer to Corwin re the double listing. Apparent size 3.6 by 3.2 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1696) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4572 (= PGC 41991)
Discovered (Dec 10, 1797) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Draco (RA 12 35 45.5, Dec +74 14 46)
The first IC notes "RA is 12 30 30 (per Bigourdan), which agrees better with William Herschel (12 30 18) than with John". Per Corwin (which see), Bigourdan's position actually refers to a star southeast of the galaxy. Apparent size 1.5 by 0.3 arcmin?

NGC 4573 (= PGC 42167)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0/a(rs)) in Centaurus (RA 12 37 43.7, Dec -43 37 17)
Apparent size 2.5 by 1.9 arcmin?

NGC 4574 (= PGC 42166)
Discovered (Apr 20, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c) in Centaurus (RA 12 37 43.5, Dec -35 31 05)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.1 arcmin?

NGC 4575 (= PGC 42181)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)bc pec?) in Centaurus (RA 12 37 51.1, Dec -40 32 15)
Apparent size 2.0 by 1.2 arcmin?

NGC 4576 (= PGC 42152)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1881) by
Edward Holden (7)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Virgo (RA 12 37 33.5, Dec +04 22 03)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.8 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1721) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4577 (= PGC 42319 =
NGC 4591)
Discovered (Jan 28, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4577)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4591)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab??) in Virgo (RA 12 39 12.4, Dec +06 00 44)
Refer to Corwin for the double listing. Apparent size 1.6 by 0.8 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1780) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4578 (= PGC 42149)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0°(r)?) in Virgo (RA 12 37 30.6, Dec +09 33 20)
Apparent size 3.1 by 2.3 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1720) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4579 (=
M58 = PGC 42168)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1779) by Charles Messier and recorded as M58
Also observed (May 9, 1825) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)b?) in Virgo (RA 12 37 43.7, Dec +11 49 06)
Apparent size 6.0 by 4.8 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1727) of the Virgo Cluster.
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4579, also known as M58
Above, a closeup of NGC 4579 (Steve Mandel/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4579, also known as M58

NGC 4580 (= PGC 42174)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)a pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 37 48.3, Dec +05 22 05)
(Referred to by Corwin in a discussion of the identification of NGC 4577.) Apparent size 2.1 by 1.5 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1730) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4581 (= PGC 42199)
Discovered (Apr 20, 1882) by
Edward Holden (24)
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4???) in Virgo (RA 12 38 05.1, Dec +01 28 42)
Apparent size 1.9 by 1.1 arcmin?

NGC 4582
Recorded (May 3, 1859) by
Sidney Coolidge (15, HN 20)
A 13th-magnitude star in Virgo (RA 12 38 10.1, Dec +00 11 00)
Refer to Corwin.
SDSS image of region near the star listed as NGC 4582
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4582

NGC 4583 (= PGC 42198)
Discovered (Jan 2, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 38 04.4, Dec +33 27 31)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin?

NGC 4584 (= PGC 42223)
Discovered (Apr 21, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 38 17.8, Dec +13 06 38)
Apparent size 1.4 by 1.0 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1757) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4585 (= PGC 42215)
Discovered (Apr 21, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb??) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 38 13.2, Dec +28 56 14)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.4 arcmin?

NGC 4586 (= PGC 42241)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 38 28.3, Dec +04 19 07)
Apparent size 3.8 by 1.2 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1760) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4587 (= PGC 42253)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1882) by
Johann Palisa
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0°(r)?) in Virgo (RA 12 38 35.3, Dec +02 39 28)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.5 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1763) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4588 (= PGC 42277)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd??) in Virgo (RA 12 38 45.4, Dec +06 46 03)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.4 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1772) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4589 (= PGC 42139)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1797) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2??) in Draco (RA 12 37 24.6, Dec +74 11 31)
Apparent size 3.4 by 2.8 arcmin?

NGC 4590 (=
M68 = GCL 20)
Discovered (Apr 9, 1780) by Charles Messier
A 7th-magnitude globular cluster (type X) in Hydra (RA 12 39 28.0, Dec -26 44 32)
Apparent size 11 arcmin? Approximately 35 thousand light years away, and 100 light years in diameter.
DSS image of region near globular cluster NGC 4590, also known as M68
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 4590
Below, a HST view of the core of the cluster (Image Credits: HST, NASA, ESA)
HST image of core of globular cluster NGC 4590, also known as M68

NGC 4591 (= PGC 42319 =
NGC 4577)
Discovered (Jan 28, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4577)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4591)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab??) in Virgo (RA 12 39 12.4, Dec +06 00 44)
Refer to Corwin for a discussion of the double listing. Apparent size 1.6 by 0.8 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1780) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4592 (= PGC 42336)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)dm?) in Virgo (RA 12 39 18.6, Dec -00 31 53)
Apparent size 5.2 by 1.35 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4592
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4592
Below, a more detailed view (North at right to allow for a larger image)
(Image Credits: Hubble Legacy Archive, Acknowledgment Stephen Byrne)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 4592
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4592

NGC 4593 (= PGC 42375)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)b) in Virgo (RA 12 39 39.3, Dec -05 20 38)
Apparent size 3.9 by 2.9 arcmin?

NGC 4594 (=
M104 = PGC 42407), The Sombrero Galaxy
Discovered (May 11, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Méchain's discovery was noted by Charles Messier, but was not added to his Catalog
Discovered (May 9, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 9, 1828) by John Herschel
Appended (1921) to the Messier Catalog by Camille Flammarion as M104
A magnitude 8.0 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 39 59.3, Dec -11 37 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4594 (= GC 3132 = JH 1376 = WH I 43, 1860 RA 12 32 43, NPD 100 51.2) is "a remarkable object, very bright, very large, extremely extended 92°, very suddenly much bright middle and nucleus". The position precesses to RA 12 39 59.2, Dec -11 37 23, right on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes (as M104): Although Méchain discovered this nebula in 1781, his first known correspondence (to Bernoulli) was on May 6, 1783. Méchain probably also communicated with Messier at some earlier date, but it must have been too late for Messier to add it to his Catalog, as his only reference to Méchain's discovery was a handwritten note in his copy of the Connoissance des Temps for 1784. Its prior discovery appears to have been unknown to either of the Herschels or to Dreyer, leading to the lack of any mention of Méchain or Messier in the NGC entry. However, in 1917 Camille Flammarion noted the earlier observations, and given the fact that they were made at essentially the same time Messier finished his Catalog, suggested adding the nebula to Messier's catalog as M104; and it has been treated as such ever since.
Physical Information: Apparent size 8.6 by 4.2 arcmin? (Rather oddly, not listed as a member of the Virgo Cluster in the VCC; redshift-independent distance estimates range from 20 to 65 million light years, with a median of 30 million light years; so perhaps in front of the Cluster, instead of "at its nearer edge" as stated immediately following.) M104 lies at the nearer edge of the 60 million light year distant Virgo cluster of galaxies, and at nearly a trillion solar masses is one of the more massive galaxies in that group, even though relatively small (about 50 thousand light years across). The massive central bulge of the galaxy almost totally obscures the structure of the spiral disk, but a recent reworking of this image, seen on a separate page about M104, reduces the glare from the nucleus, better revealing the spiral structure.
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 4594, also known as the Sombrero Galaxy, M104
Above, a HST image of M104 (The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), NASA)
Below, a Spitzer/HST infrared/visible composite (Credit JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona/STScI/NASA)
Spitzer/HST false-color composite of spiral galaxy NGC 4594, also known as the Sombrero Galaxy, M104
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on M104
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4594, also known as the Sombrero Galaxy, M104
Below, a labeled view of the image above (labeling and artifact removal still in progress)
Labeled image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4594, also known as the Sombrero Galaxy, M104

NGC 4595 (= PGC 42396)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)b?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 39 51.7, Dec +15 17 52)
Apparent size 1.7 by 1.1 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1811) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4596 (= PGC 42401)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 10th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0+(r)) in Virgo (RA 12 39 56.0, Dec +10 10 35)
Apparent size 4.0 by 3.0 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1813) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4597 (= PGC 42429)
Discovered (Feb 22, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)m) in Virgo (RA 12 40 12.3, Dec -05 48 02)
Apparent size 4.1 by 1.9 arcmin?

NGC 4598 (= PGC 42427)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0??) in Virgo (RA 12 40 11.9, Dec +08 23 00)
Apparent size 1.4 by 1.1 arcmin? Listed as a member (VCC 1827) of the Virgo Cluster.

NGC 4599 (= PGC 42453)
Discovered (Feb 22, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0/a?) in Virgo (RA 12 40 26.9, Dec +01 11 48)
Apparent size 1.7 by 0.8 arcmin?
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4500 - 4549) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4550 - 4599     → (NGC 4600 - 4649)