Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Nov 12, 2017
Updated NGC 4993 to take advantage of HST Picture of the Week
Checked Corwin positions
WORKING: Check identifications (Corwin+), add physical data, add pix/tags

NGC 4950 (= PGC 45294)
Discovered (Jun 3, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 14th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)0) in Centaurus (RA 13 05 36.5, Dec -43 30 02)
Based on a recessional velocity of 2795 km/sec, NGC 4950 is about 130 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.7 arcmins, it is about 35 thousand light years across.
Wikisky image of NGC 4950
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4950
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy; also shown is NGC 4946
Wikisky image of region near NGC 4950

NGC 4951 (= PGC 45246)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Virgo (RA 13 05 07.7, Dec -06 29 38)
Apparent size 3.8 by 1.6 arcmin?

NGC 4952 (=
NGC 4962 = PGC 45233)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4962)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4952)
A 12th magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 04 58.4, Dec +29 07 20)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.1 arcmin?

NGC 4953 (= PGC 45349)
Discovered (Jun 26, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Centaurus (RA 13 06 10.4, Dec -37 35 09)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin?
Corwin lists an apparent companion (ABELL S0721:[S96a] 020) at RA 13 06 12.3, Dec -37 35 10
and another (PGC 2801171) at RA 13 06 07.3, Dec -37 36 04

PGC 45343
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes listed as if part of
NGC 4953
A 15th magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Centaurus (RA 13 06 08.2, Dec -37 35 47)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.4 arcmin?

NGC 4954 (=
NGC 4972 = PGC 44988)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1797) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4972)
Discovered (May 5, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4954)
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Draco (RA 13 02 19.9, Dec +75 24 15)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.6 arcmin?
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 2767790) at RA 13 02 00.5, Dec +75 24 41
another (PGC 2767690) at RA 13 02 26.2, Dec +75 23 26
and another (PGC 2767647) at RA 13 02 34.8, Dec +75 22 34

NGC 4955 (= PGC 45340)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 12th magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Hydra (RA 13 06 04.8, Dec -29 45 16)
Apparent size 1.9 by 1.3 arcmin?
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 45351) at RA 13 06 10.9, Dec -29 43 38

NGC 4956 (= PGC 45236)
Discovered (May 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 05 01.0, Dec +35 10 41)
Apparent size 1.5 by 1.5 arcmin?

NGC 4957 (= PGC 45253)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 05 12.4, Dec +27 34 11)
Apparent size 1.2 by 1.0 arcmin?

NGC 4958 (= PGC 45313)
Discovered (Mar 3, 1786) by
William Herschel
An 11th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Virgo (RA 13 05 48.9, Dec -08 01 13)
Apparent size 3.9 by 1.4 arcmin?

NGC 4959 (= PGC 45301)
Discovered (Apr 29, 1827) by
John Herschel
A 15th magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 05 41.0, Dec +33 10 44)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.8 arcmin?

NGC 4960 (=
NGC 4961 = PGC 45311)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4961)
Discovered (Apr 23, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4960)
A 14th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 05 47.6, Dec +27 44 03)
This entry will primarily deal with historical information; for anything else see NGC 4961.

NGC 4961 (=
NGC 4960 = PGC 45311)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4961)
Discovered (Apr 23, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4960)
A 14th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 05 47.6, Dec +27 44 03)
Apparent size 1.6 by 1.1 arcmin?

NGC 4962 (=
NGC 4952 = PGC 45233)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4962)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4952)
A 12th magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 04 58.4, Dec +29 07 20)
This entry will primarily contain historical information; for anything else see NGC 4952.

NGC 4963 (= PGC 45315)
Discovered (Apr 9, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 13th magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 05 52.0, Dec +41 43 19)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.8 arcmin?

NGC 4964 (= PGC 45278)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Ursa Major (RA 13 05 24.9, Dec +56 19 22)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.6 arcmin?

NGC 4965 (= PGC 45437)
Discovered (May 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBcd?) in Hydra (RA 13 07 09.3, Dec -28 13 42)
Apparent size 2.4 by 2.0 arcmin?

NGC 4966 (= PGC 45358)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 06 17.3, Dec +29 03 47)
Apparent size 1.0 by 0.5 arcmin?
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 1854607) at RA 13 06 14.9, Dec +29 03 53

NGC 4967 (= PGC 45281)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 14th magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E??) in Ursa Major (RA 13 05 36.4, Dec +53 33 51)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin?

NGC 4968 (= PGC 45426)
Discovered (Mar 25, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Hydra (RA 13 07 06.0, Dec -23 40 36)
Apparent size 1.9 by 0.9 arcmin?

NGC 4969 (= PGC 45425 + "PGC 3553148" (= SDSSJ130703.47+133813.2))
Discovered (Apr 27, 1887) by
Edward Swift (6-52)
Treated as a pair of galaxies in Virgo (RA 13 07 03.1, Dec +13 38 14)
PGC 45425 = A 14th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) at RA 13 07 02.8, Dec +13 38 14
"PGC 3553148" = a 15th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) at RA 13 07 03.5, Dec +13 38 13
Apparent size of the brighter galaxy 0.7 by 0.6 arcmin? of the companion, 0.3 by 0.3 arcmin? Swift's assessment of the brightness of the object indicates that the brighter component was at the limit of his ability to detect it, so the fainter component was certainly too faint for him to notice, or to affect his observation. But it appears to usually be considered a part of the NGC "object", and is apparently an actual companion of the brighter galaxy, so it seems appropriate to mention it here.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxies NGC 4969 and its fainter companion
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4969 and its fainter companion

NGC 4970 (=
IC 4196 = PGC 45466)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4970)
Discovered (Feb 27, 1898) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 4196)
A 12th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Hydra (RA 13 07 33.7, Dec -24 00 31)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.0 arcmin?
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 794446) at RA 13 07 36.7, Dec -24 01 27

NGC 4971 (= PGC 45406)
Discovered (Apr 23, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 06 55.0, Dec +28 32 53)
Apparent size 1.0 by 1.0 arcmin?

NGC 4972 (=
NGC 4954 = PGC 44988)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1797) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4972)
Discovered (May 5, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4954)
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Draco (RA 13 02 19.9, Dec +75 24 15)
The second IC lists a corrected position (per Rumker) of RA 12 59 32, NPD 35 33.9 and adds "= Howe III.19". (This entry will primarily contain historical information; for anything else see NGC 4954.)

NGC 4973 (=
IC 847 = PGC 45280)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4973)
Discovered (May 11, 1890) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 847)
A 14th magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Ursa Major (RA 13 05 32.2, Dec +53 41 07)
The second IC lists a corrected position (per Rumker) of RA 12 59 56, NPD 35 35.4 and adds "= IC 847"; so the identity of the two listings has been known for more than a century. Apparent size 0.7 by 0.7 arcmin?

NGC 4974 (= PGC 45321)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Ursa Major (RA 13 05 55.9, Dec +53 39 33)
Apparent size 1.4 by 1.2 arcmin?

NGC 4975 (= PGC 45492)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1830) by
John Herschel
A 14th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 13 07 50.2, Dec -05 01 03)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.7 arcmin?
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 45473) at RA 13 07 35.9, Dec -04 59 27

NGC 4976 (= PGC 45562)
Discovered (Mar 31, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 10th magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Centaurus (RA 13 08 37.5, Dec -49 30 22)
Apparent size 5.6 by 3.0 arcmin?

NGC 4977 (= PGC 45339)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 14th magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Ursa Major (RA 13 06 04.4, Dec +55 39 22)
Apparent size 2.0 by 2.0 arcmin?

NGC 4978 (= PGC 45494)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1827) by
John Herschel
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 07 50.5, Dec +18 24 56)
Apparent size 1.5 by 0.8 arcmin?

NGC 4979 (=
IC 4198 = PGC 45484)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4979)
Discovered (Jun 20, 1895) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 4198)
A 14th magnitude galaxy (type SB?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 07 42.8, Dec +24 48 38)
Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7 arcmin?

NGC 4980 (= PGC 45596)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 13th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Hydra (RA 13 09 10.1, Dec -28 38 30)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.7 arcmin?

NGC 4981 (= PGC 45574)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Virgo (RA 13 08 48.7, Dec -06 46 39)
Apparent size 2.8 by 1.9 arcmin?

NGC 4982
Recorded (1878) by
Wilhelm Tempel (V)
A group of four stars in Virgo (RA 13 08 46.3, Dec -10 35 20)

NGC 4983 (= PGC 45542)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 14th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Coma Berenices (RA 13 08 27.3, Dec +28 19 14)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.7 arcmin?

NGC 4984 (= PGC 45585)
Discovered (Feb 8, 1785) by
William Herschel
An 11th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Virgo (RA 13 08 57.2, Dec -15 30 58)
Apparent size 3.6 by 2.5 arcmin?

NGC 4985 (= PGC 45522)
Discovered (Apr 9, 1787) by
William Herschel
A 14th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 08 12.1, Dec +41 40 35)
Apparent size 1.3 by 1.2 arcmin?

NGC 4986 (= PGC 45538)
Discovered (May 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 08 24.5, Dec +35 12 23)
Apparent size 1.7 by 0.9 arcmin?

NGC 4987 (= PGC 45502)
Discovered (Apr 26, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 13th magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 07 59.1, Dec +51 55 45)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.7 arcmin?

NGC 4988 (= PGC 45671)
Discovered (Jun 3, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Centaurus (RA 13 09 54.4, Dec -43 06 21)
Apparent size 1.7 by 0.5 arcmin?

NGC 4989 (= PGC 45606)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 13 09 16.0, Dec -05 23 47)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.9 arcmin?
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 45621) at RA 13 09 17.2, Dec -05 25 10

NGC 4990 (= PGC 45608)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 13 09 17.3, Dec -05 16 22)
Apparent size 1.0 by 0.8 arcmin?

NGC 4991 (= PGC 45604)
Discovered (Apr 30, 1864) by
Albert Marth (246)
A 15th magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Virgo (RA 13 09 15.1, Dec +02 20 51)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.4 arcmin?

NGC 4992 (= PGC 45593)
Discovered (Apr 4, 1831) by
John Herschel
A 13th magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Virgo (RA 13 09 05.6, Dec +11 38 03)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.7 arcmin?

NGC 4993 (=
NGC 4994 = PGC 45657)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4993)
Also observed (Mar 25, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4994)
A magnitude 12.4 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SAB0(rs)a? pec) in Hydra (RA 13 09 47.7, Dec -23 23 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4993 (= GC 3428 = WH III 766, 1860 RA 13 02 12, NPD 112 38.4) is "very faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 13 09 44.8, Dec -23 23 15, only about 0.7 arcmin west southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 2915 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4993 is about 135 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 115 to 135 million light years (the news release accompanying the HST image uses a distance of about 130 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.25 by 1.2 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 thousand light years across.
First Gravity Wave Identification: At 8:41 am EDT on August 17, 2017, the first gravitational wave whose source could be identified (by triangulating observations from the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave detectors) reached the Earth. About 130 million years earlier (the time required for gravitational waves, moving at the speed of light, to cover the distance between NGC 4993 and the Earth) a binary pair of neutron stars collided and merged in the disk of this galaxy, producing the gravitational wave observed on August 17. The collision also produced a "kilonova", as shown in the HST and CTIO images below. Since both light and gravitational waves travel at the speed of light, the light from the kilonova reached the Earth at the same time as the gravitational wave. As soon as the gravitational wave teams determined the position of the source they contacted visible-light astronomical observers, and within 11 hours of the arrival of the gravitational wave, early in the evening of the same day, the light from the kilonova was observed, as shown in the +0.5 day frame of the animated gif.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4993
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4993
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4993
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4993
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy (Image Credit NASA and ESA)
HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4993
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide image of the galaxy, showing images of the "kilonova" discussed above
(North is 21.5 degrees to the left of up; Image Credit NASA and ESA Acknowledgment: A.J. Levan (U. Warwick), N.R. Tanvir (U. Leicester), and A. Fruchter and O. Fox (STScI))
HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4993
Below, a 4.5 by 3.4 arcmin wide animated.gif of the kilonova (Image Credit P.S. Cowperthwaite / E. Berger / CfA)
Animated CTIO image of the kilonova in lenticular galaxy NGC 4993

NGC 4994 (=
NGC 4993 = PGC 45657)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4993)
Also observed (Mar 25, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4994)
A magnitude 12.4 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SAB0(rs)a? pec) in Hydra (RA 13 09 47.7, Dec -23 23 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4994 (= GC 3429 = JH 3471, 1860 RA 13 02 16, NPD 111 48.1) is "pretty faint, considerably small, round, suddenly a little brighter middle, among stars". The position precesses to RA 13 09 48.0, Dec -22 32 57, but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there. However, as noted by Corwin, the right ascension is essentially the same as for William Herschel's III 766 (= NGC 4993), and if John Herschel's NPD for NGC 4994 is changed to 112 38.1 (a sort of "single-digit" error, in that the last digit for degrees is too low by 1, and the first digit for arcmin is too high by the same amount), the position precesses to RA 13 09 48.9, Dec -23 22 57, which lies on the eastern rim of the galaxy listed above. The Herschels' descriptions are sufficiently similar that if the positions were the same there would be no doubt that they belong to the same object, and although the error in the NPD is unusual it is not at all rare, so the equality of NGC 4993 and 4994 is considered certain.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 4993 for anything else.

NGC 4995 (= PGC 45643)
Discovered (Apr 25, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Virgo (RA 13 09 40.6, Dec -07 50 00)
Apparent size 2.4 by 1.7 arcmin?
Corwin notes an apparent companion (PGC 1011507) at RA 13 09 42.2, Dec -07 53 07
and another (PGC 1012245) at RA 13 09 33.3, Dec -07 50 14

NGC 4996 (= PGC 45629)
Discovered (Mar 28, 1864) by
Albert Marth (247)
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Virgo (RA 13 09 31.9, Dec +00 51 25)
Apparent size 1.8 by 1.4 arcmin?

NGC 4997 (= PGC 45667)
Discovered (Mar 28, 1878) by
Sherburne Burnham
A 13th magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Virgo (RA 13 09 51.7, Dec -16 30 56)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.9 arcmin?

NGC 4998 (= PGC 45537)
Discovered (Apr 26, 1789) by
William Herschel
A 15th magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 08 10.2, Dec +50 39 49)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.8 arcmin?
Corwin notes an apparent companion (PGC 2379269) at RA 13 08 13.8, Dec +50 40 00
and another (SDSS J130814.18+504044.9) at RA 13 08 14.2, Dec +50 40 45
and another (PGC 2378954) at RA 13 08 10.3, Dec +50 39 14

NGC 4999 (= PGC 45632)
Discovered (Feb 24, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 12th magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Virgo (RA 13 09 33.1, Dec +01 40 23)
Apparent size 2.3 by 1.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4999
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4999
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4999
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4900 - 4949) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 4950 - 4999     → (NGC 5000 - 5049)