Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Apr 9, 2016
Checked Corwin positions, original NGC entries

NGC 450 (= PGC 4540)
Discovered (Oct 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 11.8 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)cd?) in Cetus (RA 01 15 30.5, Dec -00 51 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 450 (= GC 254 = WH III 440, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 08 24, NPD 91 36.0) is "very faint, large".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1760 km/sec, NGC 450 is about 80 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 60 to 75 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 3.0 by 2.4 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across. Since NGC 450 is more than six times closer than PGC 4545, the apparent companion is merely an optical double.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 450
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 450
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its apparent companion, PGC 4545
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 450 and its far more distant apparent companion, spiral galaxy PGC 4545

PGC 4545
Listed here because an apparent companion of
NGC 450
A 15th magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Cetus (RA 01 15 35.0, Dec -00 50 52)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11430 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 4545 is about 530 million light years away. But for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 510 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it left the galaxy, about 520 million years ago (the difference between the numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.1 by 0.5 arcmin, PGC 4545 is about 160 thousand light years across. Since it is more than six times more distant than NGC 450 (which see for images), the pair is merely an optical double.

NGC 451 (=
IC 1661 = PGC 4594)
Discovered (Nov 10, 1881) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 451)
Discovered (1890's?) by Edward Barnard (and later listed as IC 1661)
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Pisces (RA 01 16 12.4, Dec +33 03 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 451 (Stephan list XII (#12), 1860 RA 01 08 25, NPD 57 40.5) is "very faint, very small, round, very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 451, also showing NGC 449 and the three stars listed as NGC 453
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 451, also showing NGC 449 and 453
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, with glare from 6th magnitude star HD 7578
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 451

NGC 452 (= PGC 4596)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Pisces (RA 01 16 14.8, Dec +31 02 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 452 (= GC 252 = JH 96, 1860 RA 01 08 29, NPD 59 42.7) is "very faint, extended, 9th magnitude star to northwest, small (faint) star to northeast, very near".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.5 by 0.8 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 452, also showing NGC 444
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 452, also showing NGC 444
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 452

NGC 453
Recorded (Nov 10, 1881) by
Édouard Stephan
Three stars in Pisces (RA 01 16 17.4, Dec +33 01 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 453 (Stephan list XII (#13), 1860 RA 01 08 29, NPD 57 42.4) is "very faint, very small, round, very faint star involved".
Physical Information: See NGC 451 for an image of the triplet.

NGC 454 (= PGC 4461 + PGC 4468)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A pair of interacting galaxies in Phoenix
PGC 4461 = A magnitude 12.8 irregular galaxy (type Irr pec?) at RA 01 14 22.0, Dec -55 24 00
PGC 4468 = A magnitude 12.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0 pec?) at RA 01 14 24.9, Dec -55 23 49
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 454 (= GC 253 = JH 2397, 1860 RA 01 08 35, NPD 146 08.6) is "very faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: NGC 454 is a pair of colliding galaxies. Based on a recessional velocity of 3630 km/sec, the pair is about 170 million light years away. Given that, the 1.7 by 1.5 arcmin apparent size of irregular galaxy PGC 4461 corresponds to 85 thousand light years' extent, and the 1.0 by 0.5 arcmin apparent size of lenticular galaxy PGC 4468 corresponds to 50 thousand light years' extent.
DSS image of image of region near interacting galaxy pair NGC 454
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 454
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the pair of interacting galaxies
DSS image of irregular galaxy PGC 4461 and lenticular galaxy PGC 4468, which comprise NGC 454
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST image of the pair
(Image Credit NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/M. Stiavelli (STScI))
(This image only shows the northern portion of the irregular galaxy, which extends well to the south)
HST image of interacting galaxy pair NGC 454

NGC 455 (= PGC 4572 =
Arp 164)
Discovered (Oct 27, 1864) by Albert Marth
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 15 57.7, Dec +05 10 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 455 (= GC 5161, Marth #39, 1860 RA 01 08 45, NPD 85 33) is "faint, very small, almost stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.6 by 1.2 arcmin with faint extensions of perhaps another arcmin primarily along a north-northwest/south-southeast axis. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with diffuse filaments.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 455, also known as Arp 164
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 455
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 455, also known as Arp 164

NGC 456 (in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Aug 1, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
An open cluster and emission nebula in Tucana (RA 01 13 47.5, Dec -73 17 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 456 (= GC 255 = JH 2399, Dunlop 7, 10?, 1860 RA 01 09 51, NPD 164 02.2) is "pretty faint, pretty large, irregularly round, mottled but not resolved, 1st of several".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.5 by 2.8 arcmin.
DSS image of NGC 456, an open cluster and emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 460
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 456, also showing NGC 460
Below, another view of the same 12 arcmin wide region
(Image Credit F. Winkler/Middlebury College, MCELS Team, NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of NGC 456, an open cluster and emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 460
Below, a 30 arcmin wide region centered on NGC 456, also showing NGC 460 (Image Credit as above)
NOAO image of region near NGC 456, an open cluster and emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 460

NGC 457 (= OCL 321)
Discovered (Oct 18, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 6.4 open cluster (type I3r) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 19 29.0, Dec +58 17 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 457 (= GC 256 = JH 97 = WH VII 42, 1860 RA 01 10 20, NPD 32 25.0) is a "cluster, bright, large, pretty rich, stars of 7th, 8th and 10th magnitudes".
Physical Information: Apparent size 20 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 457
Above, a 24 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 457

NGC 458 (an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 10 open cluster in Tucana (RA 01 14 53.2, Dec -71 32 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 458 (= GC 257 = JH 2401, Dunlop 60?, 1860 RA 01 10 41, NPD 162 17.2) is "pretty faint, large, round, very gradually brighter middle". The second Index Catalog notes "probably a cluster, extremely small, close, no nebulosity seen by D.S. (DeLisle Stewart)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near NGC 458, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 458
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of NGC 458, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 459 (= PGC 4665)
Discovered (Oct 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Pisces (RA 01 18 08.2, Dec +17 33 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 459 (= GC 258 = WH III 205, 1860 RA 01 10 41, NPD 73 04.9) is "extremely faint".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 459
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 459
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 459

NGC 460 (in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Possibly observed (Aug 1, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Discovered (Apr 11, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 open cluster and emission nebula in Tucana (RA 01 14 38.1, Dec -73 18 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 460 (= GC 259 = JH 2402, Dunlop 8, 10?, 1860 RA 01 10 49, NPD 164 02.7) is "faint, pretty large, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, 2nd of several".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 arcmin?
DSS image of NGC 460, an open cluster and emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 456
Above, a 12 arcmin region centered on NGC 460, also showing NGC 456, which see for other views
Corwin lists a companion nebula southeast of NGC 460 at RA 01 14 53.0, Dec -73 19.8

NGC 461 (= PGC 4636)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c) in Sculptor (RA 01 17 20.6, Dec -33 50 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 461 (= GC 260 = JH 2400, 1860 RA 01 10 54, NPD 124 06.2) is "pretty bright, round, gradually a little brighter middle (perhaps 1° wrong?)", the last comment supposing that the NPD might be off by a degree..
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 461
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 461
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 461

NGC 462 (= PGC 4667)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.7 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Pisces (RA 01 18 11.0, Dec +04 13 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 462 (= GC 5162, Marth #40, 1860 RA 01 10 55, NPD 86 30) is "extremely faint, very small, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 462
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 462
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 462

NGC 463 (= PGC 4719)
Discovered (Dec 16, 1871) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.1 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 18 58.2, Dec +16 19 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 463 (= GC 5163, Stephan list III (#1), 1860 RA 01 11 31, NPD 74 24.6) is "extremely faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparently interacting with a smaller companion (seen on the northeastern edge of the galaxy). Apparent size 1.0 by 0.4 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 463
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 463
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 463

NGC 464
Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A pair of stars in Andromeda (RA 01 19 26.7, Dec +34 57 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 464 (Tempel list V (#??), 1860 RA 01 11 41, NPD 55 46.5) is "small".
Physical Information:
DSS image of region near the double star listed as NGC 464
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 464

NGC 465 (an OCL in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Aug 1, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by DeLisle Stewart
A magnitude 11.5 open cluster in Tucana (RA 01 15 42.0, Dec -73 19 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 465 (= GC 261 = JH 2404, Dunlop 9?, 1860 RA 01 11 42, NPD 164 04.6) is "pretty bright, pretty large, irregular figure, 3rd of several". The second Index Catalog notes (per DeLisle Stewart) "Many stars, but no nebulosity, perhaps open cluster".
Discovery Notes: Although Herschel and Dreyer thought thought Dunlop's #9 might have been an observation of this object, current opinion is that it was not; but that Dunlop 8 and 12 probably were observations of the future NGC 465.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near NGC 465, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, also showing NGC 460
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 465, also showing NGC 460
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of the open cluster
DSS image of NGC 465, an open cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud

NGC 466 (= PGC 4632)
Discovered (Oct 3, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude lenticular 12.7 galaxy (type SA0/a(rs)?) in Tucana (RA 01 17 13.3, Dec -58 54 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 466 (= GC 262 = JH 2403, 1860 RA 01 11 43, NPD 149 38.8) is "very faint, pretty small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 466
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 466
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 466

NGC 467 (= PGC 4736)
Discovered (Oct 8, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.8 lenticular galaxy (type SA0(s)? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 19 10.2, Dec +03 18 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 467 (= GC 263 = JH 99 = WH I 108, 1860 RA 01 11 57, NPD 87 26.2) is "pretty bright, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.7 arcmin? Given its distorted shape, possibly interacting with the galaxy to its southeast (PGC 1249151).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 467
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 467
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing PGC 1249151
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 467

PGC 1249151
Not an NGC object but listed here since possibly interacting with
NGC 467
A magnitude 16(?) spiral galaxy (type S?) in Pisces (RA 01 19 15.6, Dec +03 17 23)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.15 arcmin; nothing else available. Possibly interacting with NGC 467, and if so, at the same distance. (Listed in NED as GALEXMSC J011915.55+031724.1)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 1249151
Above, a 0.8 arcmin SDSS image of PGC 1249151; see NGC 467 for more images

NGC 468 (=
NGC 472 = PGC 4833)
(Generally presumed to be, but not = IC 92)

Discovered (Nov 22, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 468)
Discovered (Aug 29, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 472)
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pisces (RA 01 20 28.7, Dec +32 42 33)
Historical Misidentification as IC 92: Per Dreyer, NGC 468 (= GC 265 = JH 98, 1860 RA 01 12 03, NPD 58 01.9) is "very faint, extremely small, stellar". The position precesses to RA 01 19 51.8, Dec +32 42 19, but there is nothing there. However, about half a century before this writing the MCG identified NGC 468 as equal to IC 92, which lies about 4 arcmin north northwest of the NGC position, and that identification was universally accepted until 2015.
Corrected Identification as NGC 472: The MCG is known to have a number of mistaken identifications of NGC objects which have poor positions, often choosing unsuitable candidates simply because they happen to be closest to the NGC position. So while working on IC 92 and its identification as NGC 468, I wondered whether there might be a better candidate, and noticed that there was a substantially brighter galaxy 37 seconds due east of the NGC position for NGC 468, namely NGC 472. Since most historical observers were more likely to make errors in right ascension than in declination, I wondered whether what Herschel actually observed was NGC 472. But although this seemed a reasonable possibility it was merely an educated guess, so I asked Dr. Corwin what he thought of the idea. The following day (Mar 21, 2015) he sent me a detailed discussion of the matter that he will be posting on his own website in his notes on NGC objects with problems with their identification, past or present. The point most relevant to this brief entry is that Herschel swept the sky using an eyepiece arrangement with two wires for observing the right ascension of objects passing through the field of view, with a recorded separation of 36.5 seconds of time on the night in question, and mistakenly reduced the recording of his observation based on the wrong wire. Correcting for that error, the modern position of his observation is J2000 RA 01 20 30.2, Dec +32 41 45, which is less than 0.9 arcmin south southeast of the NGC 472, making the identification of NGC 468 as a duplicate of NGC 472 certain. (The reader should note that if all we had was an educated guess, we would know that NGC 468 is a duplicate of some other object, but which object would still be just a guess. So there is a great difference between Dr. Corwin's proof of the identification and my mere supposition.)
Physical Information: Since NGC 468 was misidentified for so long, all of its supposed observations actually belong to a completely different object (IC 92). For that reason, see NGC 472 for correct physical information and images of NGC 468.
SDSS image of region near the NGC position for NGC 468, also showing IC 92 and NGC 472, the principal candidates for what Herschel observed, and the corrected position for NGC 468; also shown is IC 94, but it is not relevant to the discussion in this entry
Above, an 18 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the NGC position and correct position of NGC 468
Also shown are NGC 472 (= correct NGC 468) and IC 92 (not = NGC 468) and the star listed as IC 94

NGC 469 (= PGC 4753)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SBd?) in Pisces (RA 01 19 33.0, Dec +14 52 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 469 (= GC 5164, Marth #41, 1860 RA 01 12 09, NPD 75 52) is "extremely faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4100 km/sec, NGC 469 is about 190 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin, it is about 40 thousand light years across. Note: PGC 3127780, the apparent companion just north of NGC 469, is over 700 million light years away, so it is merely an optical double.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 469
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 469; the bright star is 8th magnitude HD 7981
The image also shows a distant cluster of galaxies to the east of NGC 469
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its apparent companion, PGC 3127780
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 469 and an optical companion, lenticular galaxy PGC 3127780
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy cluster east of NGC 469
SDSS image of galaxy cluster east of spiral galaxy NGC 469
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered between NGC 469, 471 and 475
SDSS image of region centered between NGC 469, NGC 471 and NGC 475

PGC 3127780
Not an NGC object, but listed here because an apparent companion of
NGC 469
A magnitude 17 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pisces (RA 01 19 33.1, Dec +14 52 35)
Physical Information: Although an apparent companion of NGC 469 (which see for images), PGC 3127780 is nearly four times further away, so it is merely an optical double. Based on a recessional velocity of 16175 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 3127780 is about 750 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 710 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it left it, about 725 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and the galaxy's apparent size of 0.45 by 0.25 arcmin, PGC 3127780 is about 90 thousand light years across. For images, see NGC 469.

NGC 470 (= PGC 4777; often misidentified as part of
Arp 227)
Discovered (Dec 13, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 11.8 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)b?) in Pisces (RA 01 19 44.8, Dec +03 24 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 470 (= GC 264 = WH III 250, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 01 12 31, NPD 87 19.6) is "pretty bright, large, irregularly round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.9 by 1.7 arcmin? Often stated as being part of Arp 227, but since that is an example of a galaxy with concentric rings, the designation only applies to NGC 474.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 470, often misidentified as part of Arp 227
Above, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 470; see NGC 474 for other images

NGC 471 (= PGC 4793)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 01 19 59.6, Dec +14 47 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 471 (= GC 5165, Marth #42, 1860 RA 01 12 34, NPD 75 57.0) is a "nebulous 12th magnitude star".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 471, also showing NGC 475
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 471, also showing NGC 475
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 471
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered between NGC 469, 471 and 475
SDSS image of region centered between NGC 469, NGC 471, and NGC 475
Corwin lists a companion to NGC 471 at RA 01 20 00.1, Dec +14 47 01

NGC 472 (= PGC 4833 =
NGC 468)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 468)
Discovered (Aug 29, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 472)
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pisces (RA 01 20 28.7, Dec +32 42 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 472 (= GC 266, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 12 41, NPD 58 02.0) is "extremely faint, very small, 9th or 10th magnitude star 14 seconds of time to west, very difficult". The position precesses to RA 01 20 30.1, Dec +32 42 11, less than half an arcmin southeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
About The Duplicate Entry: The duplicate entry with NGC 468 (which see for a discussion of the matter) was not discovered until March of 2015, so although duplicate entries would usually be discussed at the smaller-numbered NGC entry, the fact that all previous observations of NGC 468 apply to the wrong galaxy makes that inappropriate. Therefore, physical data and images of NGC 468/472 are posted here.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 5310 km/sec, NGC 472 is about 245 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.65 arcmin, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 472, which is a duplicate entry for NGC 468
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 472, also showing the star listed as IC 94
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 472, which is a duplicate entry for NGC 468

NGC 473 (= PGC 4785)
Discovered (Oct 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type SAB0(r)a?) in Pisces (RA 01 19 55.1, Dec +16 32 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 473 (= GC 267 = WH III 206, 1860 RA 01 12 41, NPD 74 14.9) is "extremely faint, small" (the attribution to Herschel is in the wrong column, but its format makes its correct meaning clear).
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.2 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 473
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 473 (the "bright" star is a 9th magnitude object)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 473

NGC 474 (= PGC 4801, and =
Arp 227)
Discovered (Dec 13, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 11.5 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SA0(rs)? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 20 06.7, Dec +03 24 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 474 (= GC 269 = WH III 251, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 01 12 53, NPD 87 19.3) is "pretty bright, small, suddenly much brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 470.
Physical Information: Apparent size 7.1 by 6.3 arcmin (the central galaxy is smaller, but has a huge outer ring). Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with concentric rings (NGC 470 is often misidentified as being part of Arp 227, but it is not; it just happens to be in the same view of view).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 474, which is also known as Arp 227, and NGC 470, which is often mistakenly listed as part of Arp 227
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered between NGC 474 and 470
Below, a 9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 474 (also known as Arp 227) and its outer rings
Below, an 18 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 470 and 474
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 474, which is also known as Arp 227, and NGC 470, which is often mistakenly listed as part of Arp 227
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of NGC 474 (= Arp 227) and its apparent neighbor, NGC 470
(Image Credit & © Jean-Charles Cuillandre (CFHT), Hawaiian Starlight; used by permission)
Canada-France Hawaii Telescope image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 474, which is also known as Arp 227, and NGC 470, which is often mistakenly listed as part of Arp 227

NGC 475 (=
IC 97 = PGC 4796)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 475)
Also observed (date?) by Christian Peters (and later listed as NGC 475)
Discovered (Oct 12, 1888) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 97)
A magnitude 15.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pisces (RA 01 20 02.0, Dec +14 51 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 475 (= GC 5166, Marth #43, Peters (#??), 1860 RA 01 12 54, NPD 75 52.0) is "extremely faint, small". (See IC 97 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 16115 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 475 is about 750 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 705 million light years away when the light by which we see it was emitted, about 725 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.6 by 0.45 arcmins, the galaxy is about 125 thousand light years cross.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 475, also showing NGC 471
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 475, also showing NGC 471
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 475
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered between NGC 469, 471 and 475
SDSS image of region centered between NGC 469, NGC 471 and NGC 475

NGC 476 (= PGC 4814)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 01 20 19.9, Dec +16 01 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 476 (= GC 5167, Marth #44, 1860 RA 01 12 54, NPD 74 42) is "extremely faint, very small, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 476
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 476
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 476

NGC 477 (= PGC 4915)
Discovered (Oct 18, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c) in Andromeda (RA 01 21 20.3, Dec +40 29 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 477 (= GC 268 = JH 100 = WH III 577, 1860 RA 01 13 20, NPD 50 14.3) is "very faint, pretty small, very little extended, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 477
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 477
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 477

NGC 478 (= PGC 4803)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type Sd? pec) in Cetus (RA 01 20 08.9, Dec -22 22 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 478 (Leavenworth list II (#302), 1860 RA 01 13 39, NPD 113 06.5) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, suddenly brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin? (The irregular region on the northeast side of the galaxy is listed as PGC 815136, presumably based on the idea that it is a smaller galaxy that collided with the larger one; but whether that is true is not made clear by the images below.)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 478, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a SDSS image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide DSS image (to fill in missing areas) centered on NGC 478
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 478

NGC 479 (= PGC 4905)
Discovered (Oct 27, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc) in Pisces (RA 01 21 15.7, Dec +03 51 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 479 (= GC 5168, Marth #45, 1860 RA 01 13 59, NPD 86 52) is "extremely faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 479
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 479
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 479

NGC 480 (= PGC 4845)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 15.2 spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Cetus (RA 01 20 34.4, Dec -09 52 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 480 (Leavenworth list II (#304), 1860 RA 01 14 00, NPD 100 36.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round, (nebulous?)". Identification apparently somewhat suspect.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.2 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 480
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 480
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 480

NGC 481 (= PGC 4899)
Discovered (Nov 20, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (date?) by Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0(r) pec?) in Cetus (RA 01 21 12.5, Dec -09 12 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 481 (Swift list VI (#7), Leavenworth list II (#??), 1860 RA 01 14 00, NPD 99 56.7) is "very faint, very small, round, faint star to northwest". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected 1860 RA (per Howe) of 01 14 13.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 481
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 481
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 481

NGC 482 (= PGC 4823)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SAab?) in Phoenix (RA 01 20 20.4, Dec -40 57 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 482 (= GC 271 = JH 2405, 1860 RA 01 14 04, NPD 131 42.9) is "extremely faint, a little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.8 by 0.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 482
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 482
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 482

NGC 483 (= PGC 4961)
Discovered (Nov 11, 1827) by
John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0?) in Pisces (RA 01 21 56.3, Dec +33 31 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 483 (= GC 272 = JH 102, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 01 14 05, NPD 57 12.8) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.7 arcmin? Surrounded by a faint ring about 2 arcmin across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 483, also showing IC 1679
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 483, also showing IC 1679
Above, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, enhanced to show its outer ring
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 483, enhanced to show its outer ring

NGC 484 (= PGC 4764)
Discovered (Oct 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Tucana (RA 01 19 34.7, Dec -58 31 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 484 (= GC 273 = JH 2406, 1860 RA 01 14 07, NPD 149 15.6) is "very bright, small, a little extended, pretty suddenly much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.4 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 484
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 484
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 484

NGC 485 (= PGC 4921)
Discovered (Jan 8, 1828) by
John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Pisces (RA 01 21 27.6, Dec +07 01 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 485 (= GC 270 = JH 101, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 01 14 11, NPD 83 43.2) is "considerably faint, pretty large, round, 8th magnitude star 3 1/2 arcmin to southwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 0.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 485
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 484
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 485

WORKING HERE: Need to clean up wide-field image

NGC 486 (= PGC 1281966 + a star)
Discovered (Dec 6, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
A magnitude 15.0 spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pisces (RA 01 21 43.1, Dec +05 20 47)
and a magnitude ? star at RA 01 21 43.9, Dec +05 20 53
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 486 (= GC 275, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 01 14 29, NPD 85 24.0) is "extremely faint, extremely small, stellar, 5 arcmin north of h 103", (JH) 103 being NGC 488. "Involved" with a star, which undoubtedly aided in its detection (the description stating "stellar"), whence Corwin's listing the NGC entry as both the star and the galaxy. (Note: A Wikisky search for NGC 486 incorrectly shows PGC 4975.)
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.25 by 0.2 arcmin (from image below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 486, also showing NGC 488 and NGC 490
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 486, also showing NGC 488 and NGC 490
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 486

NGC 487 (= PGC 4958)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)a?) in Cetus (RA 01 21 55.1, Dec -16 22 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 487 (Leavenworth list I (#27), 1860 RA 01 14 30, NPD 107 06.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected 1860 RA (per Howe) of 01 15 04.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.7 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 487
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 487
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 487

WORKING HERE: SDSS images need considerable clean-up

NGC 488 (= PGC 4946)
Discovered (Dec 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.3 spiral galaxy (type SA(r)b?) in Pisces (RA 01 21 46.8, Dec +05 15 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 488 (= GC 276 = JH 103 = WH III 252, 1860 RA 01 14 31, NPD 85 28.7) is "pretty bright, large, round, suddenly very much brighter middle, 8th magnitude star 10 arcmin to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.4 by 3.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 488, also showing NGC 486
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 488, also showing NGC 486
Below, a different image of the same region (Image Credit Tony Kriz/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 488, also showing NGC 486
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy (with considerable glare from a nearby star)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 488
Below, a different image of the same region (Image Credit as for the other NOAO image)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 488
(Note: There is a partial image of the galaxy in the Hubble Legacy Archive.)

NGC 489 (= PGC 4957)
Discovered (Dec 22, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pisces (RA 01 21 53.9, Dec +09 12 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 489 (= GC 274, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 14 33, NPD 81 31.6) is "pretty bright, small, extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 0.4 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 489
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 489
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 489

NGC 490 (= PGC 4973)
Discovered (Dec 6, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pisces (RA 01 22 02.9, Dec +05 22 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 490 (= GC 277, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 01 14 48, NPD 85 21.8) is "very faint, very small, round, 8 arcmin northeast of h 103", (JH) 103 being NGC 488.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 490, also showing NGC 492 and part of NGC 488
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 490, also showing NGC 488 and 492
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 490

NGC 491 (= PGC 4914)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b) in Sculptor (RA 01 21 20.4, Dec -34 03 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 491 (= GC 279 = JH 2407, 1860 RA 01 14 54, NPD 124 48.3) is "bright, small, very little extended, brighter middle, very small (faint) star near".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 491
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 491
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 491
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST image of part of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
Raw HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 491

PGC 4799 (= PGC 4809 = "NGC 491A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 491A
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)dm?) in
Sculptor (RA 01 20 05.0, Dec -33 54 01)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 0.8 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 4799, also known as NGC 491A
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 4799
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 4799, also known as NGC 491A

NGC 492 (= PGC 4976 = PGC 1283114)
Discovered (Dec 6, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
A magnitude 15.6 spiral galaxy (type SABb?) in Pisces (RA 01 22 13.5, Dec +05 25 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 492 (= GC 280, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 01 14 57, NPD 85 18.6) is "extremely faint, very small, round".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 492 and spiral galaxy PGC 4975 (which is sometimes referred to as NGC 492A and sometimes misidentified as NGC 486); also shown is NGC 490
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 492, also showing NGC 490
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 492 and PGC 4975
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 492 and spiral galaxy PGC 4975 (which is sometimes referred to as NGC 492A and sometimes misidentified as NGC 486)

PGC 4975 (= "NGC 492A", and not =
NGC 486)
Not an NGC object, but listed here since sometimes called NGC 492A or even misidentified as NGC 486
A magnitude 16 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Pisces (RA 01 22 10.6, Dec +05 24 41)
Historical Misidentification: See NGC 486 for a discussion of the occasional misidentification of PGC 4975 as that NGC object.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.35 by 0.35 arcmin? (For images see NGC 492.)

NGC 493 (= PGC 4979)
Discovered (Dec 20, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)cd?) in Cetus (RA 01 22 09.0, Dec +00 56 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 493 (= GC 281 = JH 105 = WH III 594, 1860 RA 01 14 58, NPD 89 46.5) is "very faint, large, much extended 60°, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.4 by 1.1 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 493
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 493
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 493

NGC 494 (= PGC 5035)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Pisces (RA 01 22 55.4, Dec +33 10 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 494 (= GC 282 = JH 104, 1860 RA 01 15 04, NPD 57 33.6) is "very faint, pretty large, extended, 3 faint stars to south".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 0.8 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 494
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 494
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 494

NGC 495 (= PGC 5037)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB0(s)a? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 22 56.0, Dec +33 28 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 495 (= GC 278 = WH III 156, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 01 15 05, NPD 57 15.7) is "very faint, small, 1st of 3", the others being NGC 496 and 499.
Physical Information: Apparent size of bright central galaxy about 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin; including fainter outer extensions, about 2.6 by 1.5 arcmin (from image below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 495, enhanced to show its faint outer extensions, also showing NGC 496, NGC 498, NGC 499, NGC 501 and IC 1684
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 495
Also shown are NGC 496, 498, 499, 501 and IC 1684
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy (both images enhanced to show the galaxy's outer extensions)
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 495, enhanced to show its faint outer extensions

NGC 496 (= PGC 5061)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 14, 1850) by Bindon Stoney
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Pisces (RA 01 23 11.6, Dec +33 31 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 496 (= GC 288 = WH III 157, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 01 15 13, NPD 57 13.0) is "very faint, very small (C in Birr diagram), 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 495 and 499.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 496, also showing NGC 495, NGC 498, NGC 499 and NGC 501
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 496, also showing NGC 495, 498, 499 and 501
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 496

NGC 497 (= PGC 4992 =
Arp 8)
Discovered (Nov 6, 1882) by Édouard Stephan
Also observed (Oct 31, 1886) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Cetus (RA 01 22 23.8, Dec -00 52 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 497 (Stephan list XII (#14), 1860 RA 01 15 14, NPD 91 36.3) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round, very little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Listed as a member of Abell 194. Based on a recessional velocity of 8140 km/sec, NGC 497 is about 380 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 290 to 355 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.0 by 0.8 arcmins, it is about 220 thousand light years across. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a spiral galaxy with split arms.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 497, also known as Arp 8
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 497
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 497, also known as Arp 8

NGC 498 (= PGC 5059)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1856) by
R. J. Mitchell
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 01 23 11.3, Dec +33 29 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 498 (= GC 283, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 01 15 16, NPD 57 15.0) is "most extremely faint, northwest of h 106 (D in Birr diagram), (JH) 106 being NGC 499.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell. Note: Wikisky doesn't show a label for the galaxy, but a search for NGC 498 does show the correct object.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.5 arcmin?
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 498 and the northern edge of NGC 499
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 498 and part of NGC 499, which see for a wide-field view

NGC 499 (=
IC 1686 = PGC 5060)
Discovered (Sep 12, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 499)
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 499)
Discovered (Dec 1, 1899) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 1686)
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Pisces (RA 01 23 11.5, Dec +33 27 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 499 (= GC 289 = JH 106 = WH III 158, 1860 RA 01 15 20, NPD 57 16.4) is "pretty bright, pretty large, round, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 495 and 496.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 499, also showing NGC 495, NGC 496, NGC 498, NGC 501 and IC 1684
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 499
(also shown are NGC 495, 496, 498 and 501, and IC 1684)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 499
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 400 - 449) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 450 - 499     → (NGC 500 - 549)