Celestial Atlas
(NGC 5350 - 5399) ←NGC Objects: NGC 5400 - 5449→ (NGC 5450 - 5499)
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Page last updated Oct 30, 2021
Checked all Dreyer NGC entries, checked selected designations
Checked "final" Corwin positions, added pix to confirm NGC classifications
Checked Gottlieb notes

Previously last updated Jul 13, 2020
Checked updated Steinicke databases, Corwin positions/comments, Dreyer NGC entries

NGC 5400
(= PGC 49869 = CGCG 018-020 = MCG +00-36-008)

Discovered (Apr 15, 1787) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type (R')E/S0?) in Virgo (RA 14 00 37.2, Dec -02 51 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5400 (= GC 3736 = WH III 667, 1860 RA 13 53 32, NPD 92 10.7) is "very faint, considerably small.". The position precesses to RA 14 00 46.3, Dec -02 51 30, about 2.3 arcmin due east of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is cerain.
Physical InformationBased on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7710 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 5400 is about 360 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 340 to 505 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 345 to 350 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 350 to 355 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.7 by 1.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 170 to 175 thousand light years across.
Classification Note: LEDA lists this as merely an E/S0 galaxy; the (R') addition is from NED.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 5400, also showing IC 968
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5400; also shown is IC 968
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5400 and a possible companion, PGC 1080934
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5400, also showing possible possible companion PGC 1080934

PGC 140239
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 5400
A magnitude 16(?) lenticular galaxy (type SAB0/a?) in Virgo (RA 14 00 40.0, Dec -02 49 55)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7430 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 140239 is about 345 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 335 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 340 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.45 by 0.15 arcmin, the galaxy is about 45 thousand light years across. Although the roughly 10 million light year difference in the Hubble Flow distances of PGC 140239 and NGC 5400 may mean that they are not physical companions, the smaller galaxy is almost certainly one of the numerous members of the group of galaxies scattered around NGC 5400.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy PGC 140239, a probable member of the group of galaxies including NGC 5400, also showing NGC 5400 and IC 698
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 140239, also showing NGC 5400 and IC 698
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 140239
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 140239, a probable member of the group of galaxies including NGC 5400

PGC 1080934
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 5400
A magnitude 15.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Virgo (RA 14 00 37.5, Dec -02 52 23)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7330 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 1080934 is about 340 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 335 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 340 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.45 by 0.15 arcmin (from the images below, the galaxy is about 45 thousand light years across. Although the roughly 10 million light year difference in the Hubble Flow distances of PGC 1080934 and NGC 5400 may mean that they are not physical companions, the smaller galaxy is almost certainly one of the numerous members of the group of galaxies scattered around NGC 5400.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 5400, also showing IC 968 and PGC 1080934
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5400, also showning IC 968 and PGC 1080934
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5400 and its possible companion, PGC 1080934
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5400, also showing possible possible companion PGC 1080934
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 1080934
SDSS image of PGC 1080934, a possible companion of NGC 5400

NGC 5401
(= PGC 49810 = UGC 8916 = CGCG 191-028= MCG +06-31-040)

Discovered (May 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 27, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type S(r)a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 59 43.4, Dec +36 14 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5401 (= GC 3737 = JH 1725 = WH III 412, 1860 RA 13 53 40, NPD 53 04.1) is "considerably faint, considerably small, extended." The position precesses to RA 13 59 42.6, Dec +36 15 04, less than 0.8 arcmin north northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3950 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 5401 is about 180 to 185 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.6 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 85 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 5401
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5401
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5401

NGC 5402
(= PGC 49712= UGC 8903 = CGCG 295-029 = MCG +10-20-054)

Discovered (Apr 24, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 14, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Ursa Major (RA 13 58 16.6, Dec +59 48 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5402 (= GC 3738 = JH 1727 = WH III 810, 1860 RA 13 53 42, NPD 29 28.6) is "very faint, very small, round.". The position precesses to RA 13 58 14.1, Dec +59 50 30, about 1.5 arcmin north northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description is reasonable for such a faint object, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3120 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 5402 is about 145 million light years away, in reaonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 150 to 170 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 thousand light years across.
Classification Note: Given the edge-on appearance of the galaxy, the type is uncertain, so an extra question mark might be appropriate.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 5402
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5402
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5402

NGC 5403
(= PGC 49820 = UGC 8919 = CGCG 191-029 = MCG +06-31-041)

Discovered (May 16, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 12, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)b?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 59 50.9, Dec +38 10 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5403 (= GC 3739 = JH 1726 = WH III 683, 1860 RA 13 53 52, NPD 51 08.0) is "very faint, pretty large, irregular figure." The position precesses to RA 13 59 49.6, Dec +38 11 11, within the northwestern part of the central bar of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2935 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 5403 is about 135 to 140 million light years away, well below a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 175 to 180 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.25 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 130 thousand light years across.
SDSS image centered on spiral galaxy NGC 5403, also showing its probable companion, PGC 49824
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5403, also showing PGC 49824
Below, a 3.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5403, also showing its probable companion, PGC 49824

PGC 49824
(= CGCG 191-030 = MCG +06-31-042)

Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable companion of
NGC 5403
A magnitude 14.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 59 57.1, Dec +38 12 03)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2915 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 49824 is about 135 to 140 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 25 to 30 thousand light years across. Since its recessional velocity is nearly the same as that of NGC 5403, it is more probable than not that they are physical companions, which may explain the slight distortion of the disk of the spiral, and a similar but not as obvious distortion of the the long axis of PGC 49824.
SDSS image centered on spiral galaxy NGC 5403, also showing its probable companion, lenticular galaxy PGC 49824
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5403, also showing PGC 49824
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 49824
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 49824

NGC 5404 (= "PGC 5067655")
Recorded (Apr 29, 1859) by
Sidney Coolidge
A magnitude 12.8 star in Virgo (RA 14 01 07.5, Dec +00 05 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5404 (= GC 5075, S. Coolidge (#19, HN 17), 1860 RA 13 53 58, NPD 89 13.9) is "a 12th magnitude star in nebulosity." The position precesses to RA 14 01 07.6, Dec +00 05 21, essentially dead center on the star listed above, but there is no nebulosity there. It has been suggested that Coolidge mistook the other stars in the region as some kind of nebulosity, and for a long time most modern discussions included the 14th magnitude star 23 arcsec to the south as part of NGC 5404, as though its presence might have led Coolidge to mistake the pair of stars for a nebulous star. However, as noted by Corwin, Coolidge's work consisted of measuring the positions of stars for the Harvard Zone Catalog, and his average positional error was only 2 or 3 arcsec, so even on a night with "dreadful" seeing he could not possibly have thought such a wide pair of stars was a single star with nebulosity, and there is no doubt that only the star listed above is the NGC object.
Discovery Note: Coolidge has the dubious distinction of having every single one of his NGC "discoveries" turn out to be merely stellar objects (presumably because his work at Harvard consisted of measuring the positions of stars for the Harvard Zone Catalog). However, he did have a brief but successful career before becoming one of the four thousand men killed at the battle of Chickamauga.
PGC Designation: Although this is not a galaxy, a search of the LEDA database for NGC 5404 does return a result, listed as a double star (the one listed above and the one to its south) with the PGC designation shown above. However, a search of the database for the PGC designation returns no result, so it is shown in quotes.
SDSS image of region near the star that is listed as NGC 5404
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the lone star that is NGC 5404

NGC 5405
(= PGC 49906 = UGC 8928 = CGCG 046-036 = MCG +01-36-014)

Discovered (Mar 3, 1883) by
Ernst Hartwig
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 01 09.5, Dec +07 42 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5405 (Hartwig, 1860 RA 13 54 11, NPD 81 37.4) is "very faint, irregular figure, brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 14 01 08.3, Dec +07 41 51, only about 0.4 arcmin southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7185 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 5405 is about 335 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 325 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 330 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 90 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 5405
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5405
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5405

NGC 5406
(= PGC 49847 = UGC 8925 = CGCG 219-038 = MCG +07-29-031)

Discovered (May 16, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 13, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 00 20.1, Dec +38 54 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5406 (= GC 3740 = JH 1728 = WH II 699, 1860 RA 13 54 24, NPD 50 24.0) is "faint, pretty small, round, a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 14 00 19.4, Dec +38 55 14, well within the northern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 5385 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 5406 is about 250 million light years away, in almost inevitable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 65 to 255 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.0 by 1.35 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 145 to 150 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 5406
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5406
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5406

NGC 5407
(= PGC 49890 = UGC 8930 = CGCG 219-040 = MCG +07-29-033)

Discovered (May 16, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 28, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 00 50.1, Dec +39 09 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5407 (= GC 3741 = JH 1732 = WH III 684, 1860 RA 13 54 50, NPD 50 09.3) is "very faint, very small, round, brighter middle, in a cluster." The position precesses to RA 14 00 44.5, Dec +39 09 58, about 1.2 arcmin west northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits (including its being in a sparse cluster of relatively bright foreground stars) and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 5585 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 5407 is about 260 million light years away, in good agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 270 to 275 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 80 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 5407
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5407
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5407

NGC 5408
(= PGC 50073 = ESO 325-047 = MCG -07-29-006)

Discovered (Jun 6, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 irregular galaxy (type IB(s)m?) in Centaurus (RA 14 03 21.4, Dec -41 22 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5408 (= GC 3742 = JH 3553, 1860 RA 13 54 51, NPD 130 44.1) is "extremely faint, extended, between 2 very small (faint) stars." The position precesses to RA 14 03 22.3, Dec -41 24 42, about 2 arcmin nearly due south of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.2 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below)
Note About NGC 5408 X-1: On the southwestern end of this galaxy there is a star-forming region (probably Henize 3-0959) which contains an ultraluminous X-ray source known as NGC 5408 X-1. The star-forming region is sometimes called NGC 5408A (a designation which is an abomination, as discussed in the following entry), and NGC 5408 X-1 is probably associated with a theoretical class of intermediate-mass black holes of which, as of this writing, only one has been positively identified. That one is associated with a globular cluster, and is probably the result of the merger of many stellar-mass black holes due to the large number of objects in a relatively small region, or the collapse of part of the clouds of gas that formed the cluster, during its formation. It would be surprising to find such an object in as disorganized an object as NGC 5408, but since 5408 X-1 is located in a star-forming region, it may have formed by such mergers, or by the collapse of part of the clouds of gas and dust that gave birth to the stars in the H II (star-forming) region.
DSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 5408Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 5408
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
(The diffraction spike on the left is from the magnitude 6.1 star south southeast of the galaxy)DSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 5408
Below, a 2.2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble/NASA, Acknowledgement Judy Schmidt)
The star-forming region on the western end of the galaxy is discussed in the entry for "PGC 3517702"
HST image of irregular galaxy NGC 5408

"PGC 3517702"
(= "NGC 5408A")

Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 5408A
A star-forming region in
NGC 5408, in Centaurus (RA 14 03 18.2, Dec -41 22 52)
Note About PGC Designation: A search of the LEDA database for NGC 5408A returns the object listed above, listed as an object of type "h" (meaning an H II or star-forming region), with the PGC designation shown above. However, a search of the database for that PGC designation returns no result, so it is shown in quotes.
Note About NED Designation: A search of the NED database for either the PGC designation or "NGC 5408A" returns no result. But as noted in the entry for NGC 5408 and at the end of this entry, whatever this region should be called, it contains an ultraluminous X-ray source called NGC 5408 X-1, and that object, although not the star-forming region itself, is in NED.
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Since there are no rules for assigning letter designations to NGC/IC objects, using such designations often leads to confusion. In this case, as noted immediately below, whatever "NGC 5408A" is supposed to represent is often mistakenly listed as the entire galaxy listed as NGC 5408. This is undoubtedly due to the fact that when such letter designations are used, it is common practice to assign the object that does not have any letter attached to its designation the letter A; so when some other object is assigned that letter, whether the resulting designation refers to the NGC/IC object or to some completely different object is never known for certain, leading to a possible misassignment of identifications. This is therefore an excellent example of why such letter designations should never be used.
Physical Information: This object, which is probably Henize 3-0959, is a star-forming region on the western end of NGC 5408. It contains clouds of glowing gas, several clusters and/or star-forming regions, and some superimposed stars within our own galaxy which help confuse its nature in the lower-resolution DSS images of NGC 5408. The star-forming region has been frequently misidentified as a planetary nebula, and many catalogs incorrectly state that Henize 3-0959 is the galaxy listed as NGC 5408; in fact, the HST press release for NGC 5408 also mistakenly identifies the nonexistent planetary nebula as the entire galaxy. One of the correct statements in the HST press release is that the star-forming region contains NGC 5408 X-1, a magnitude 22.4 "star" that is one of the best-studied member of its "class" -- ultraluminous X-ray emitters probably associated with "intermediate-mass" black holes (black holes far more massive than stellar-mass black holes, but far less massive than the supermassive black holes found in typical galaxies, and as of this writing, apparently associated with the merger of many stellar-mass black holes or the collapse of part of the clouds of gas and dust which formed the clusters, such as the numerous clusters which must exist in the star forming region under discussion here).
DSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 5408Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 5408
Below, a 2 arcmin wide labeled DSS image of the galaxy, showing the location of "PGC 3517702"
DSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 5408
Below, a 2.2 arcmin wide image of NGC 5408 (Image Credit ESA/Hubble/NASA, Acknowledgement Judy Schmidt)
HST image of irregular galaxy NGC 5408
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide image of the star-forming region containing NGC 5408 X-1 (Image Credit as above)
HST image of the star-forming region containing the ultraluminous X-ray source called NGC 5408 X-1

NGC 5409
(= PGC 49952 = UGC 8938 = CGCG 047-044 = MCG +02-36-009)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1883) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type (R2')SAB(r)b) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 01 46.1, Dec +09 29 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5409 (Tempel list VI (& list VIII #5), 1860 RA 13 54 52, NPD 79 52) is "extremely faint, round, III 56 following (to the east) 26 seconds of time," (WH) III 56 being NGC 5416. The position precesses to RA 14 01 46.3, Dec +09 27 19, about 2.1 arcmin nearly due south of the galaxy listed above (almost all of Tempel's list VI declinations are too far south), the description fits and there is nothing else nearby save for NGC 5416, which is 25 seconds of time to the east-southeast, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: In his list VI, Tempel only noted that there was a nebula about 27 seconds of time to the west of WH III 56 (NGC 5416); but in his list VIII, he provided an accurate micrometric position for the object; hence Dreyer's reference to both papers.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 6250 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 5409 is about 290 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 205 to 335 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.65 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 140 thousand light years across.
Use By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 5409 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type (R2')SAB(r)b, whence the type in the description line. NED lists it as (R')SAB(s)b, not bothering with the subscript 2, which most people wouldn't understand without reading the detailed discussion in the de Vaucouleurs Atlas, and emphasizing the spiral arms instead of the obvious ring around the nucleus, whereas the Atlas uses the 'b' at the end to describe the spiral structure. But since the online version of the Atlas can be reached by following the links to the page in question, I have chosen to use the Atlas 'type' without any change.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 5409
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5409, also showing part of NGC 5416
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5409

PGC 49966
(= CGCG 074-048)

Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible passing companion of
NGC 5409
A magnitude 15(?) lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Bo÷tes (14 01 56.7, Dec +09 32 01)
LEDA type E (possibly E/S0?); NED .47x.21 arcmin, 3K Vr 5873 km/sec, suggesting that it is actually 15 to 20 million light years closer to us than NGC 5409; but providing that the galaxies are just passing by each other as a result of their mutual peculiar velocities, they might be closer than that, and be temporary companions, albeit almost certainly not a gravitationally bound pair. Apparent size of about 0.45 by 0.2 arcmin (from the image below).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 49966
Above, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 49966

NGC 5410
(= PGC 49893 = PGC 49895 = UGC 8931 = CGCG 219-041 = MCG +07-29-034)

Discovered (Apr 9, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 13, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SBdm?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 00 54.6, Dec +40 59 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5410 (= GC 3743 = JH 1729 = WH II 672, 1860 RA 13 55 00, NPD 48 19.6) is "pretty faint, pretty small, brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 14 00 49.3, Dec +40 59 41, about 1 arcmin west northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: NED SB?, 1.38x.68 arcmin, 3K Vr 3914 km/sec; LEDA SBc pec
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5410, also showing part of PGC 49896
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5410, also showing part of PGC 49896

PGC 49896
(= UGC 8932 = CGCG 219-042 = MCG +07-29-035)

Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable interacting companion of
NGC 5410
A magnitude 15.8(?) irregular galaxy (type IABm?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 00 56.5, Dec +41 00 20)
LEDA type IAB, V 16(?); NED type Im? .81x.35arcmin, 15.7g, 3K Vr 3904 km/sec, so probably an interacting pair with 5410
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 49896
SDSS image of irregular galaxy PGC 49896

NGC 5411
(= PGC 49967 = UGC 8940 = CGCG 074-047 = MCG +02-36-011)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1883) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 01 59.3, Dec +08 56 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5411 (Tempel list VI & VIII (#6), 1860 RA 13 55 05, NPD 80 23) is "very very faint." The position precesses to RA 14 02 00.2, Dec +08 56 21, on the northeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Tempel's list VI only gave a rough description of the position relative to WH III 56 (NGC 5416), but his list VIII included an accurate micrometric position for this object; hence Dreyer's reference to both lists.
Physical Information: LEDA E/S0; NED E/S0?, 1.51x.68arcmin, 3K Vr 6082 km/sec
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5411
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5411

PGC 214200
Not an NGC object but listed here because a probable companion of
NGC 5411
A magnitude 17(?) spiral galaxy (type SBc? pec?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 01 56.4, Dec +08 56 40)
Physical Information: LEDA Sc em(AGN), 3K Vr 6118+/- 67 km/sec, V 17(?); NED 2MASS J14015635+0856398, .46x.17arcmin
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 214200
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 214200

NGC 5412
(= PGC 49644 = UGC 8905 = CGCG 336-033)

Discovered (Jun 18, 1884) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Ursa Minor (RA 13 57 13.5, Dec +73 37 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5412 (Swift list III (#77), 1860 RA 13 55 10, NPD 15 43.8) is "pretty faint, small, round, double star preceding (to west)." The position precesses to RA 13 57 05.2, Dec +73 35 18, about 1.8 arcmin south southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 5412
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5412

NGC 5413
(= PGC 49677 = UGC 8901 = CGCG 317-012 = MCG +11-17-012)

Discovered (Apr 2, 1832) by
John Herschel
Also 'discovered' (May 18, 1887) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.8 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Draco (RA 13 57 53.5, Dec +64 54 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5413 (= GC 3745 = JH 1733, 1860 RA 13 55 11, NPD 24 24.5) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, pretty suddenly a little brighter middle, 7th magnitude star preceding (to the west) 37 seconds of time." The position precesses to RA 13 59 02.8, Dec +64 54 42, but although that does have 7th magnitude star HD 122251 to its southwest, the only galaxy to the northeast of the star is 16th magnitude PGC 2672913, which lies only about 1.7 arcmin west northwest of Herschel's position and perfectly fits Herschel's description, but is far too faint for him to have seen. Worse yet, in a note at the end of the NGC Dreyer states "5413 (J)h 1733. Swift (list VI [#63] has a nebula 1m 10s preceding (JH's position), same PD, very faint, pretty small, irregularly round, bright star to southwest [Swift actually wrote double star to southwest]. I assume it = (J)h 1733, as the latter has a magnitude 7.2 star 37 seconds of time to the west, and Swift does not mention (J)h 1733." In an errata list at the end of his list VIII Swift stated that his VI-63 must be the same as NGC 5413. Despite that, the identification of the galaxy associated with NGC 5413 was disastrously muddled, hence the two notes added below.
Discovery Note (1): Swift's position is pretty good for him, being less than 1.4 arcmin southeast of the galaxy listed above, but there is no double star to the southwest, and his position is west of the star that Dreyer claimed lay to the southwest. Herschel's position is unusually poor for him, being 1 minute and 12 seconds of time to the east of the galaxy; but his logbook includes a measurement of the bright star near the galaxy listed above that correctly places the star to the EAST of the galaxy, and his GC makes no mention of the star, so Dreyer's note "7th magnitude star preceding (to the west) 37 seconds of time" must have been based on Herschel's incorrect position for the galaxy, and not on any of Herschel's actual observations. Swift's later decision (in his list VIII) to change "double star to southwest" to "bright star to southwest" was probably made as a result of Dreyer's blunder and Swift's desire to have his description better fit the NGC description, despite the fact that the bright star was not to the southwest, but to the east of Swift's position.
Discovery Note (2): Resolution of the Problem: As described above, all three of the men involved in this historical discussion made mistakes, the worst of which was Dreyer's addition of "7th magnitude star 37 seconds of time to west" to the NGC entry; for as noted above, although Herschel's position for the nebula is well to the east of the galaxy and the star in question, his GC does not mention the star at all, and his logbook's measured position for the star puts it to the EAST of JH 1733. That means that the elliptical galaxy to the WEST of the star MUST be JH 1733 and therefore NGC 5413, as shown in the title and description line for this entry. (Thanks to Harold Corwin for looking up the original observations in Herschel's logbook, which were the key to solving this mystery.)
Physical Information: 3K Vr 9671 km/sec
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5413
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 5413

PGC 2672913
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible/probable companion of
NGC 5413
A magnitude 15.8(?) lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Draco (RA 13 58 49.6, Dec +64 55 34)
Physical Information:
LEDA S0, B 16.28, I 14.78 -> V 15.5 - 16??; NED S0, RIDE1 160 Mpc, 3K Vr 9552 km/sec, z 0.03186352

NGC 5414
(= PGC 49976 = UGC 8942 = CGCG 074-050 = MCG +02-36-013)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1883) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 12.4 irregular galaxy (type (R')IBdm?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 03.5, Dec +09 55 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5414 (Tempel list VI, 1860 RA 13 55 15, NPD 79 31) is "small, faint star in center, 10th or 11th magnitude star north-following (to the northeast)." The position precesses to RA 14 02 08.7, Dec +09 48 22, but there is nothing there. However, many of Tempel's list VI declinations are several arcmin too far south, and the galaxy listed above, although about 7.5 arcmin north of the NGC position, perfectly fits the description (including the star to its northeast), so the identification is essentially certain, and appears to have never been questioned by anyone.
Discovery Note: Most of the positions in Tempel's list VI are "off", probably because they mostly represent rough positions relative to known objects. In his list VIII he provides micrometrically measured positions for most of the objects in list VI, but in this case he does not; so the suggestion that this object suffered from errors similar to those for other objects in list VI is reasonable, but as concluded above, makes the identification only "essentially" certain, instead of "absolutely" certain.
Physical Information: NED 69.5-76.9Mpc, type S? pec, 1.0x0.8arcmin, 3K Vr 4518 km/sec; LEDA type E?em
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 5414
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5414
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 5414

PGC 169913
Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 5414
A magnitude 15.8(?) spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 01 59.1, Dec +09 57 09)
Note About NED Designation: Although a search of LEDA for PGC 169913 returns a result, to find this object in the NED requires the designation LEDA 169913.
Status as a possible companion: Although the much larger recessional velocity of PGC 169913 makes it merely a very distant background galaxy relative to NGC 5414, it may well be a companion of PGC 169914, which has a similar recessional velocity.
Physical Information: LEDA SB(r)bc, V 15.8(?), 3K Vr 11382 ▒ 28 km/sec
NED magnitude 17.4 (filter not specified ), no 'type' listed, .34x.18 arcmin, 3K Vr 11400 km/sec, z 0.0380262657

PGC 169914
Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 5414
A magnitude 16(?) spiral galaxy (type S(r)??) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 02.8, Dec +09 57 51)
Note About NED Designation: Althought a search of LEDA for PGC 169914 returns a result, to find this object in the NED requires the designation LEDA 169914.
Status as a possible companion: Although the much larger recessional velocity of PGC 169914 makes it merely a very distant background galaxy relative to NGC 5414, it may well be a companion of PGC 169913, which has a similar recessional velocity.
Physical Information: S(r)?, V 16(?)
NED magnitude 17.3 (no filter given), .34x.23 arcmin, 3K Vr 11451 km/sec, z 0.038196262979

NGC 5415
(= PGC 49610 = CGCG 336-032)

Discovered (Apr 8, 1886) by
Lewis Swift (3-78)
A magnitude 14.4 elliptical galaxy (type E?) in Ursa Minor (RA 13 56 56.9, Dec +70 45 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5415 (Swift list III (#78), 1860 RA 13 55 16, NPD 18 34.9) is "extremely faint, very small, round, two faint stars near." The position precesses to RA 13 58 00.4, Dec +70 44 15, but there is nothing there. However, as noted by Corwin, Swift's not atypically poor right ascension lies between two faint galaxies, and in his original paper he states that the galaxy makes a triangle with the two faint stars, which only applies to the western of the two galaxies, namely the one listed above; and since the description fits that galaxy and it forms a nearly equilateral triangle with the stars to its west, its identification as NGC 5415 is considered certain.
Physical Information: LEDA type E3; NED no type, 3K Vr 8890 km/sec, z 0.02965344418
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 5415
PanSTARRS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 5415

NGC 5416
(= PGC 49991 = UGC 8944 = CGCG 074-052 = MCG +02-36-014)

Discovered (Mar 19, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 25, 1883) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 11.3, Dec +09 26 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5416 (= GC 3744 = WH III 56, Tempel list VIII, 1860 RA 13 55 17, NPD 79 52.7) is "extremely faint, very small, extended, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 14 02 11.3, Dec +09 26 40, well within the northern outline of the galay listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: This object is not assigned a number in Tempel's list VIII, but is listed as a correction of the position for (WH) III 56, so there is no doubt that it is for NGC 5416.
Physical Information:
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5416
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5416

NGC 5417
(= PGC 49995 = UGC 8943 = CGCG 046-039 = MCG +01-36-015)

Discovered (Jan 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 9, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)a) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 13.0, Dec +08 02 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5417 (= GC 3746 = JH 1730 = WH III 11, 1860 RA 13 55 17, NPD 81 17.2) is "considerably faint, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, star preceding (to west)." The position precesses to RA 14 02 13.7, Dec +08 02 10, within the southeastern outline of the nucleus of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5417
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5417

NGC 5418
(= PGC 49997 = UGC 8946 = CGCG 046-040 = MCG +01-36-016)

Discovered (Apr 24, 1830) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(rs)bc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 17.6, Dec +07 41 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5418 (= GC 3747 = JH 1731, 1860 RA 13 55 20, NPD 81 38.4) is "very faint, round, brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 14 02 17.2, Dec +07 40 58, on the southwestern rim of the galaxy listed above and well within the outline of the galaxy, the description is reasonable (only the nucleus could have been seen by Herschel) and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5418
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5418

NGC 5419
(= PGC 50100 = ESO 384-039 = MCG -06-31-019)

Discovered (May 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 10.8 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Centaurus (RA 14 03 38.7, Dec -33 58 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5419 (= GC 3748 = JH 3554, 1860 RA 13 55 24, NPD 123 17.7) is "pretty bright, pretty large, round, gradually pretty much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 14 03 36.3, Dec -33 58 16, barely outside the northwestern rim of the brightest part of the galaxy, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Herschel observed this object on three different dates; as a result, some references mistakenly list one of the later dates as the discovery date. The one shown above is the correct date.
Physical Information: NED type E2?, 44.9-86.1Mpc, 4.2x3.3arcmin, 3K Vr 4375 km/sec; LEDA E2-3?
Below, a 5 arcmin wide image of NGC 5419 (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of elliptical galaxy NGC 5419

"PGC 4078625" (= 6dFJ1403316-335835)
Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable companion of
NGC 5419
A magnitude 16(?) lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Centaurus (RA 14 03 31.6, Dec -33 58 34)
Designation Note: Although LEDA assigns the PGC designation shown above, a search of the database for that designation returns no result, henee its being in quotes (instead, the 6dF designation has to be used). However, a search of NED for LEDA 4078625 does return an appropriate entry.
Physical Information: LEDA B magnitude 16.55; NED magnitude 15.1R, 3K Vr 4134 km/se

NGC 5420
(= PGC 50121 = MCG -02-36-006)

Discovered (Jun 6, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (Jul 1898 - Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 5420)
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Virgo (RA 14 03 59.9, Dec -14 37 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5420 (Leavenworth list I (#200), 1860 RA 13 55 25, NPD 103 55.2) is "faint, pretty small, much extended, cometic." The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 13 56 26. The corrected position precesses to RA 14 04 00.1, Dec -14 35 41, less than 1.3 arcmin due north of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 5420
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5420

NGC 5421 (with
PGC 49949 = Arp 111, the Flying Ant Galaxies)
(= PGC 49950 = UGC 8941: = CGCG 191-033 = MCG +06-31-045)

(The colon after UGC 8941 means that it includes both members of Arp 111)
Discovered (Jun 9, 1880) by ╔douard Stephan
A magnitude 14(?) spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc? pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 01 41.4, Dec +33 49 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5421 (Stephan list XI (#22), 1860 RA 13 55 34, NPD 55 29.8) is "faint, irregularly round, 2 very faint stars involved." The position precesses to RA 14 01 41.5, Dec +33 49 33, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing nearby save its companion, PGC 49949, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: LEDA SBc?; NED SB?, 1.2 arcmin, 14.3 mag (no filter listed), 3K Vr 8090 km/sec, z 0.026985467
Use By The Arp Atlas: NGC 5421 and PGC 49949 are used by the Arp Atlas as an example of an elliptical galaxy (PGC 49949) repelling a spiral galaxy's (NGC 5421) arms, with the comment "Elliptical galaxy apparently bending arm at root."
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 5421 and lenticular galaxy PGC 49949, which comprise Arp 111, and possible companion PGC 2039203
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5421 and PGC 49949, which comprise Arp 111
(Also shown is possible companion PGC 2039203)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of Arp 111 and PGC 2039203
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5421 and lenticular galaxy PGC 49949, which comprise Arp 111, and possible companion PGC 2039203
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of Arp 111
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5421 and lenticular galaxy PGC 49949, which comprise Arp 111

PGC 49949 (with
NGC 5421 = Arp 111)
(= UGC 8941: = MCG +06-31-046 = "NGC 5421B")

(The colon after UGC 8941 means that it includes both members of Arp 111)
Not an NGC object but listed here because interacting with NGC 5421 and a part of Arp 111
A magnitude 14.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type SB0? pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 01 42.1, Dec +33 49 17)
Physical Information: NED magnitude 16.76 (no filter noted), 0.5arcmin; LEDA SB0 V 14.5(?)
Use By The Arp Atlas: PGC 49949 and NGC 5421 are used by the Arp Atlas as an example of an elliptical galaxy (PGC 49949) repelling a spiral galaxy's (NGC 5421) arms, with the comment "Elliptical galaxy apparently bending arm at root."
For now, see NGC 5421 for images

PGC 2039203
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
Arp 111
A magnitude 17(?) spiral galaxy (type S?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 01 41.0, Dec +33 48 35)
Designation Note: Although a search of the LEDA database for PGC 2039203 will return a result, NED requires a search for LEDA 2039203.
LEDA Sd? V 17(?); NED .45x.25arcmin, magnitude 17.1g, 3K Vr 7821 km/sec, z 0.02608950118
For now, see NGC 5421 for images

NGC 5422
(= PGC 49874 = UGC 8935 = CGCG 272-016 = MCG +09-23-024)

Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 2, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 lenticular galaxy (type SABax0o+ sp) in Ursa Major (RA 14 00 42.0, Dec +55 09 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5422 (= GC 3749 = JH 1736 = WH I 230, 1860 RA 13 55 45, NPD 34 09.5) is "pretty bright, small, pretty much extended 45°±, very suddenly very much brighter middle and nucleus." The position precesses to RA 14 00 41.0, Dec +55 09 49, on the western rim of the nucleus of the galaxy listed above, the description more or less fits (the position angle is wrong) and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Classification Note: As shown in the description line, the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies lists this galaxy as type SABax0o+ sp, "sp" meaning "spindle" (or an edge-on galaxy), which makes determining the type difficult. The small "ax" after SAB indicates that the bar has bright ends ("ansae") and hints of a box- or x-like shape. The 00+ indicates that in the infrared, this appears to be a lenticular galaxy, but as close to a spiral as any lenticular can be, and still be lenticular. However, in the visible-light images below, there are indications of faint dust lanes, and in a Hubble Legacy Archive image of part of the galaxy it is clear that near the nucleus, such dusty regions are fairly complex; for that reason I was tempted to change this to the earliest type that a spiral can be and not be a lenticular galaxy, but a private communication from Corwin convinced me that in the absence of any signs of real spiral structure, the mere presence of some dust lanes does not justify changing the Spitzer classification, since it is already "on the edge" between the two types.
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5422
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5422

NGC 5423
(= PGC 50028 = UGC 8952 = CGCG 074-059 = MCG +02-36-017)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1883) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 12.8 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 48.6, Dec +09 20 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5423 (Tempel list VI & VIII (#7), 1860 RA 13 55 54, NPD 79 58.7) is "very faint, round, star in center." The position precesses to RA 14 02 48.4, Dec +09 20 44, barely above the northern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: In his list VI, Tempel only mentions this 'nebula' and the one that became NGC 5431 as objects to the southeast of WH III 56 (NGC 5416); but in his list VIII he gave an accurate micrometric position for what became NGC 5423; hence the reference by Dreyer to both lists.
Physical Information: LEDA E/S0; NED E/S0, 77.1-98.3Mpc, 3K Vr 6177 km/sec, 1.31x.89 arcmin
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 5423, also showing NGC 5424 and 5431, and PGC 50019 and PGC 50046
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5423, also showing NGC 5424 and 5431, and PGC 50019 and 50046
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5423
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5423

PGC 50046 (not =
NGC 5431)
(= PGC 50032 = CGCG 074-062 = MCG +02-36-018)

Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable companion of NGC 5423
and because sometimes misidentified as NGC 5431 (as shown above)

A magnitude 15(?) spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 55.1, Dec +09 20 59)
Misidentification As NGC 5431: NED misidentifies PGC 50046, which is actually a duplicate of PGC 50032, as a duplicate of LEDA 2800984, which is almost certainly NGC 5431. Other usually reliable references have also made the same mistake. This entry is mostly concerned with the fact that PGC 50032 may be a companion of NGC 5423, but although its misidentification as NGC 5431 is also discussed in that entry, it seemed best to note it here, as well.
LEDA SBbc, V 15(?), 3K Vr 6028 km/sec; NED (for 50032) magnitude 15.5 (filter not specified), .4x.15arcmin, 3K Vr 6002 km/sec
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 50046
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 50046, which is often misidentified as NGC 5431

PGC 50019
(= CGCG 074-058 = MCG +02-36-016)

Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 5423
A magnitude 15.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type E/S(r)0?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 42.1, Dec +09 20 48)
LEDA E?(r); NED 15.5 magnitude (filter?), .4x.2arcmin, 3K Vr 6501 km/sec
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 50019, also showing "PGC 4539738"; see NGC 5423 for a wide-field image
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 50019, also showing its far more distant 'companion', PGC 4539738

"PGC 4539738"
(= SDSS J140242.44+092045.4)

Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
PGC 50019
A magnitude ? galaxy (type ?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 42.5, Dec +09 20 45)
Designation Note: Although LEDA assigns a PGC designation to this object, a search of either the LEDA or NED database for that designation returns no result, hence its being in quotes; instead, the SDSS designation has to be used to find out anything about the galaxy.
This object is a small "bump" on the southeastern rim of PGC 50019, but is over three times more distant than its larger "companion", so it is not an actual companion, but merely a very distant background galaxy, or "optical double"
LEDA S? V 17.5(?); NED 17.9g, .29x.19arcmin, 3K Vr 21098 km/sec, z 0.0703739
See PGC 50019 for an image

NGC 5424
(= PGC 50035 = UGC 8956 = CGCG 074-063 = MCG +02-36-019)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1883) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.1 lenticular galaxy (type S(r)0/a?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 02 55.7, Dec +09 25 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5424 (Tempel list VI & VIII (#8), 1860 RA 13 56 02, NPD 79 54.7) is "very faint, round, star in center." The position precesses to RA 14 02 56.3, Dec +09 24 45, only about 0.5 arcmin south southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and barely outside the outline of the galay, the description is a reasonable fit and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: As is the case for most of the objects in Tempel's list VI, the position of what became NGC 5424 is only given in rough terms relative to (WH) III 56, but in his list VIII he provides an accurately measured position; hence Dreyer's reference to both papers.
Physical Information:
Classification Note: Although the standard classification of this galaxy is a simple lenticular (type S0), the image below shows that it has a large number of concentric rings surrounding its nucleus, and although there is no indication of spiral structure, in some ways it looks more like a type Sa spiral; hence my decision to list it as shown in the description line.
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5424
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5424

NGC 5425
(= PGC 49889 = UGC 8933 = CGCG 247-002 = MCG +08-26-001)

Discovered (Jun 16, 1884) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Jul 1899 - Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 5425)
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Ursa Major (RA 14 00 47.7, Dec +48 26 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5425 (Swift list I (#27), 1860 RA 13 56 02, NPD 40 52.3) is "extremely faint, small, a little extended, bright star 4 arcmin to north." The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 13 55 24, and adds "much extended 290 degrees". The corrected position precesses to RA 14 00 49.0, Dec +48 27 00, only about 0.4 arcmin north northeast of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description(s) fit and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: As noted by Gottlieb, although Swift's RA was 38 seconds of time too large, his mention of the nearby bright star "clinches this identification." Herbert Howe's observation provided an accurate position, and his position angle proves that he was observing the same object.
Physical Information:
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5425
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5425

NGC 5426 (with
NGC 5427 = Arp 271)
(= PGC 50083 = UGCA 380 = MCG -01-36-004)

Discovered (Mar 5, 1785) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 16, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c pec) in Virgo (RA 14 03 24.9, Dec -06 04 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5426 (= GC 3750 = JH 1734 = WH II 309, 1860 RA 13 56 04, NPD 95 23.1) is "pretty faint, considerably large, round, gradually much brighter middle, south-preceding (southwestern) of 2," the other being NGC 5427. The position precesses to RA 14 03 23.7, Dec -06 03 38, on the northwestern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the presence of its northeastern companion makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: Between their appearance and nearly identical recessional velocities there is no doubt that Arp 271 is a pair of interacting galaxies, and therefore must be at essentially the same distance. Given their recessional velocities relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (2890 km/sec for NGC 5427 and 2845 km/sec for NGC 5426), the Hubble Flow distance should be based on the average of the two values, which is about 2865 to 2870 km/sec. Based on that average recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), the pair is about 130 to 135 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 85 to 135 million light years for NGC 5426 and 95 to 125 million light years for NGC 5427 (though the more recent ESO press release uses a distance of about 120 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 3.55 by 1.4 arcmin (including the arms reaching NGC 5427, and a total size of about 6.2 by 3.2 arcmin for Arp 271 (from the images below), NGC 5426 is about 130 thousand light years across, and Arp 271 spans about 240 thousand light years. The pair of galaxies are thought to be merging, and should go through a series of various spectacular events over the course of a billion or two years before finally becoming a more or less "normal" single galaxy.
Use By The Arp Atlas: NGC 5426 and 5427 are used as an example of galaxies with connected arms, with the comment "Arms linked. Note bifurcation in arm of N spiral."
Use By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 5426 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type SA(s)c, so I have used that type with the addition of "pec" to indicate the result of its interaction with NGC 5427.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Arp 271
Below, a 5.25 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the pair
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Below, a 3 by 5.15 arcmin wide image of the pair (Image Credit ESO)
ESO image of spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Below, a 4 by 6.5 arcmin VIMOS image of the pair (Image Credit ESO, Juan Carlos Mu˝oz)
ESO VIMOS image of spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Below, the image above 'overexposed' to show faint outer regions (Image Credit as above)
ESO VIMOS image of spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Below, a 3 by 4 arcmin wide VIMOS image of NGC 5426 and part of NGC 5427 (Image Credit as above)
ESO VIMOS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5426, which with NGC 5427 comprises Arp 271

NGC 5427 (with
NGC 5426 = Arp 271)
(= PGC 50084 = UGCA 381 = MCG -01-36-003)

Discovered (Mar 5, 1785) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 16, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.4 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)bc pec) in Virgo (RA 14 03 26.0, Dec -06 01 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5427 (= GC 3751 = JH 1735 = WH II 310, 1860 RA 13 56 06, NPD 95 20.9) is "pretty faint, considerably large, round, north-following (northeastern) of 2," the other being NGC 5426. The position precesses to RA 14 03 25.6, Dec -06 01 26, on the northwestern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the presence of its southwestern companion makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: Between their appearance and nearly identical recessional velocities there is no doubt that Arp 271 is a pair of interacting galaxies, and therefore must be at essentially the same distance. Given their recessional velocities relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (2890 km/sec for NGC 5427 and 2845 km/sec for NGC 5426), the appropriate Hubble Flow distance should be based on the average of the two values, which is about 2865 to 2870 km/sec. Based on that average recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), the pair is about 130 to 135 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 85 to 135 million light years for NGC 5426 and 95 to 125 million light years for NGC 5427 (though the more recent ESO press release uses a distance of about 120 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 2.7 by 2.2 arcmin for the main galaxy and about 2.85 by 2.75 arcmin for the faint extension of its outer arms, and a total size of about 6.2 by 3.2 arcmin for Arp 271 (from the images below), NGC 5427 is about 105 thousand light years across, its outer extensions are about 110 thousand light years acrosss, and Arp 271 spans about 240 thousand light years. The pair of galaxies are thought to be merging, and should go through a series of various spectacular events over the course of a billion or two years before finally becoming a more or less "normal" single galaxy.
Use By The Arp Atlas: NGC 5427 and 5426 are used as an example of galaxies with connected arms, with the comment "Arms linked. Note bifurcation in arm of N spiral."
Use By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 5427 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type SA(rs)bc, so I have used that type with the addition of "pec" to indicate the result of its interaction with NGC 5426. NED also indicates that NGC 5427 is a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy2), but that is usually expressed separately, instead of as a part of the galaxy "type".
DSS image of region near spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Arp 271
Below, a 5.25 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the pair
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Below, a 3 by 5.15 arcmin wide image of the pair (Image Credit ESO)
ESO image of spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Below, a 4 by 6.5 arcmin VIMOS image of the pair (Image Credit ESO, Juan Carlos Mu˝oz)
ESO VIMOS image of spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Below, the image above 'overexposed' to show faint outer regions (Image Credit as above)
ESO VIMOS image of spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, which comprise Arp 271
Below, a 3.25 arcmin wide VIMOS image of NGC 5427 (Image Credit as above)
ESO VIMOS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5427, which with NGC 5426 comprises Arp 271

NGC 5428
(= "PGC 5067710")

Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Probably a magnitude 15.4 and 17.4 pair of stars in Virgo (RA 14 03 27.8, Dec -05 59 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5428 and 5429 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 13 56 08±, NPD 95 22 ±) are "2 (nebulae) near II 310, one in line with II 309 and II 310," (WH) II 309 and II 310 being NGC 5426 and 5427. The position precesses to RA 14 03 27.6, Dec -06 02 32, but there is nothing there save "II 309" and "II 310". Per Corwin, Tempel frequently mistook double or multiple stars for nebulae when trying to find companions to brighter galaxies, and at least one such double star can be identified as the close pair to the north of Arp 271 from the statement "one in line with II 309 and II 310". Although the fainter member of the pair (magnitude 17.4) would have been too faint for Tempel to see, it might have helped give the impression that the object was nebular, and although NGC 5428 is usually listed as only the brighter star, NGC 5429 is usually listed as both stars, despite the fainter star also being much fainter than the brighter one, so I have treated NGC 5428 in the same way, and included both stars in this entry.
 The assignment of a particular pair of Tempel's stars to a given entry is uncertain, especially given the ± added to their NGC positions; but since the NGC is supposed to be in order of right ascension, and the assignment of designations used here to the various pairs of stars makes the order of their entries agree with the order of their right ascensions, the identification is as certain as possible under the circumstances.
Discovery Note: This is one of four "objects" recorded by Tempel while searching the region near what became NGC 5426 and 5427 (= Arp 271), all of which were merely stars or double stars, but ended up as NGC entries (namely NGC 5428, 5429, 5432 and 5435).
Note About PGC Designation: A search of the HyperLEDA database for NGC 5428 returns the double star listed above, with the PGC designation also shown. However, a search of the database for the PGC designation returns no result, hence its being shown in quotes.
DSS image of region near interacting spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, showing the most likely candidates for the stellar objects recorded by Tempel which became NGC 5428, NGC 5429 and NGC 5432
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image showing the stellar objects thought to be NGC 5428, 5429 and 5432
Also shown are the pair of galaxies (NGC 5426 and 5427) listed as Arp 271

NGC 5429
(= "PGC 5067505")

Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Possibly a pair of magnitude 16.5 and 17.4 stars in Virgo (RA 14 03 33.2, Dec -06 02 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5428 and 5429 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 13 56 08±, NPD 95 22 ±) are "2 (nebulae) near II 310, one in line with II 309 and II 310," (WH) II 309 and II 310 being NGC 5426 and 5427. The position precesses to RA 14 03 27.6, Dec -06 02 32, but there is nothing there save "II 309" and "II 310". Per Corwin, Tempel frequently mistook double or multiple stars for nebulae when trying to find companions to brighter galaxies, and at least one such double star can be identified as the close pair to the north of Arp 271 from the statement "one in line with II 309 and II 310". That pair has been assigned to NGC 5428 (though there is nothing in the NGC to say which is which), and is probably a reasonable identification. Given the ± on both positions, which pair should be assigned to NGC 5429 is not as obvious, but the identification shown in this entry is generally accepted, but cannot be considered certain.
Note About PGC Designation: A search of the HyperLEDA database for NGC 5429 returns the double star listed above, with the PGC designation also shown. However, a search of the database for the PGC designation returns no result, hence its being shown in quotes.
DSS image of region near interacting spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, showing the most likely candidates for the stellar objects recorded by Tempel, which became NGC 5428, NGC 5429 and NGC 5432
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image showing the stellar objects thought to be NGC 5428, 5429 and 5432
Also shown are the pair of galaxies (NGC 5426 and 5427) listed as Arp 271

NGC 5430
(= PGC 49881 = UGC 8937 = CGCG 295-032 = MCG +10-20-062)

Discovered (Mar 17, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 14, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type (R1':)SB(s)b) in Ursa Major (RA 14 00 45.8, Dec +59 19 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5430 (= GC 3752 = JH 1738 = WH II 827, 1860 RA 13 56 13, NPD 29 59.5) is "pretty bright, small, irregularly extended, much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 14 00 45.2, Dec +59 19 51, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Use By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 5430 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type (R1':)SB(s)b, so I have used that in the description line. "R1':" indicates a partial outer ring with a "dimpled" appearance (vaguely similar to a figure 8), with the colon indicating considerable uncertainty in that classification.
Below, a 2.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5430
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5430

NGC 5431
(probably = PGC 2800984, and certainly not
PGC 50046)
(= CGCG 074-065 = MCG +02-36-020)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1883) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 03 07.1, Dec +09 21 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5431 (Tempel list (VI), VIII (#9), 1860 RA 13 56 16, NPD 79 54) is "very faint." The position precesses to RA 14 03 10.2, Dec +09 25 28, but there is nothing there, and worse yet there are several galaxies scattered all around the region which might or might not be NGC 5431. Given the scant description, which of them is NGC 5431 cannot be stated with certainty, but Corwin's assignment of the NGC entry to PGC 2800984, which lies about 3.5 arcmin nearly due south of the NGC position and fits the description seems a likely possibility. However, since there are several other galaxies in the region, it is mainly the fact that choosing the galaxy listed above as NGC 5431 requires only a single error (in the NPD), whereas all the others would require errors in both the RA and the NPD, and are mosetly too bright to fit the description. So although the identification cannot be considered certain, it does seem the most reasonable possibility.
Discovery Note: As is the case for most of the objects in Tempel's list VI, the position of what became NGC 5431 is only given in rough terms relative to (WH) III 56, but in his list VIII he provides an accurately measured position; hence Dreyer's reference to both papers.
Misidentification As PGC 50046: NED misidentifies PGC 50046, which is a duplicate of PGC 50032, as a duplicate of LEDA 2800984, which as noted above is probably NGC 5431. Some other usually reliable references make the same mistake, so it seems important to note the error, and it is noted in the title for this entry, and in the entry for PGC 50046. It is impossible to know how the mistake was made, though almost every extensive database is riddled with errors, usually as a result of such misidentifications. At any rate, Tempel observed the "nebula" that became NGC 5423 on the same night as the one which became NGC 5431; and since PGC 50032/46 lies only about 1.6 arcmin east-northeast of NGC 5423, it is inconceivable that Tempel would have placed it more than 7 arcmin to the northeast of NGC 5423, so although the identification of PGC 2800984 as NGC 5431 is somewhat suspect, there is absolutely no doubt that the "identification" of NGC 5431 as PGC 50032/46 is a misidentification.
Physical Information:
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5431
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5431

NGC 5432
(= "PGC 5067656")

Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Probably two double stars in Virgo (RA 14 03 40.5, Dec -05 58 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5432 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 13 56 20, NPD 95 17) is "very faint." The position precesses to RA 14 03 39.5, Dec -05 57 30, about an arcmin nearly due north of the close double-double listed above. As noted in the entries for NGC 5428 and 5429, Tempel frequently mistook double or multiple stars for nebulae when trying to find companions to brighter galaxies, and this quartet is almost certainly what he mistook for the "nebula" that became NGC 5432.
Note About PGC Designation: A search of the HyperLEDA database for NGC 5432 returns the group of stars listed above, listed as a triple (presumably because the northwestern pair is too close to easily tell it is a double), and with the PGC designation shown above. However, a search of the database for the PGC designation returns no result, hence its being shown in quotes..
Physical Information: The northwestern star is a very close double of combined magnitude 15.0, and the southeastern is a double star of combined magnitude 14.8.
DSS image of region near interacting spiral galaxies NGC 5426 and NGC 5427, showing the most likely candidates for the stellar objects recorded by Tempel, which became NGC 5428, NGC 5429 and NGC 5432
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image showing the stellar objects thought to be NGC 5428, 5429 and 5432
Also shown are the pair of galaxies (NGC 5426 and 5427) listed as Arp 271
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the double double listed as NGC 5432
PanSTARRS image of the double-double star(s) liste as NGC 5432

NGC 5433
(= PGC 50012 = UGC 8954 = CGCG 191-038 = MCG +06-31-050)

Discovered (Mar 20, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 29, 1827 by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 02 36.1, Dec +32 30 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5433 (= GC 3753 = JH 1737 = WH III 653, 1860 RA 13 56 27, NPD 56 49.1) is "very faint, considerably small, a little extended 0°, brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 14 02 37.1, Dec +32 30 21, just off the eastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5433
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5433

NGC 5434
(= PGC 50077 = UGC 8965 = CGCG 074-068 = MCG +02-36-022)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1883) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)cd?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 03 23.1, Dec +09 26 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5434 (Tempel list VI and VIII (#11), 1860 RA 13 56 30, NPD 79 53) is "very faint, large." The position precesses to RA 14 03 24.2, Dec +09 26 29, just off the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby save for PGC 50087, which looks sufficiently different that it would have had a completely different description; so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: As is the case for most of the objects in Tempel's list VI, the position of what became NGC 5434 is only given in rough terms relative to (WH) III 56, but in his list VIII he provides a more accurately measured position; hence Dreyer's reference to both papers. As it happens, most of the entries in list VIII are not numbered, but as noted by Gottlieb, the description and position in the NGC fit the 11th entry in the list. In Steinicke's database, NGC 5434 is listed as entry #10; but neither the position nor description of that object fit any known object. (Both #10 and #11 are stated by Tempel as having very rough positions, estimated from a drawing he made of the region, and #10 is listed as being very faint, so it might not exist at all.)
Physical Information: Apparently part of a pair with PGC 50087, but that galaxy is almost certainly a background object, as its recessional velocity is 1000 km/sec larger (corresponding to about 45 million light-years' greater distance).
NED RIDE2 3.77 - 3.8 Mpc, SAc, 3K Vr 4898 km/sec
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5434, also showing NGC 5431, PGC 50087 and part of NGC 5437
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5434, also showing NGC 5431, 5437 and PGC 50087
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5434
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5434

PGC 50087
(= UGC 8967 = CGCG 074-070 = MCG +02-36-024 = "NGC 5434B")

Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 5434B
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in
Bo÷tes (RA 14 03 27.1, Dec +09 28 02)
Note About Non-Standard Designations: As noted in many places in this catalog, the use of letters added to NGC/IC designations follows no standard, so a given galaxy may have one or two different "letter" designations, and two or more galaxies may have the same designation, leading to considerable confusion about whether data assigned to a given galaxy really applies to that galaxy, or a completely different one. As a result, such non-standard designations should never be used.
Physical Information:
NED RIDE 55.5 - 92 Mpc, Sbc, 3K Vr 5900 km/sec
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 50087, also showing part of NGC 5434
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 50087, also showing part of NGC 5434

NGC 5435
(= "PGC 5067506")

Recorded (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Probably a pair of magnitude 15.4 and 15.6 stars in Virgo (RA 14 04 00.0, Dec -05 55 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5435 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 13 56 32, NPD 95 14) is "very faint, 10th or 11th magnitude star close following (to east)." The position precesses to RA 14 03 51.4, Dec -05 54 29, but there is nothing there. However, there is a double star of the sort that Tempel often mistook for a nebula only 2.5 arcmin to the southeast, with an appropriate star close to their east, so an identification of that pair of stars with NGC 5435 is considered essentially certain.
Note About PGC Designation: A search of the HyperLEDA database for NGC 5435 returns the double star listed above, and the PGC designation also shown; but a search of the database for the PGC designation returns no result, hence its being placed in quotes.
Physical Information:
PanSTARRS image of region near the pair of stars listed as NGC 5435, also showing NGC 5432
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on the pair of stars thought to be NGC 5435, also showing NGC 5432

NGC 5436
(= PGC 50104 = UGC 8971 = CGCG 074-071 = MCG +02-36-025)

Discovered (Jun 28, 1883) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 03 41.1, Dec +09 34 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5436, 5437 and 5438 (Temple list VII, 1860 RA 13 56 35±, NPD 79 43±) are "3 very faint in a line, 2 to 3 arcmin distant, north one brightest, north-following (northeast of) magnitude 8.6 star." The position precesses to RA 14 03 28.9, Dec +09 36 30, about 3.5 to 5 arcmin west or northwest of a nearly vertical line of three galaxies, the brightest of which is the northernmost one, so it's pretty obvious that those are the three galaxies in question, even without the star to the southwest of the galaxies, which makes the identification absolutely certain. The only question is which galaxy should correspond to which NGC entry; but since the NGC is arranged in order of right ascension, the westernmost galaxy should be 5436, the easternmost one should be 5438, and the one in between should be 5437; which is exactly the way that the three are listed here, and hopefully in every other reference.
Physical Information:
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5436
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5436

NGC 5437 (=
IC 4365)
(= PGC 50113 = CGCG 074-074 = MCG +02-36-028)

Discovered (Jun 28, 1883) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 5437)
Discovered (May 12, 1896) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 4365)
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 03 47.4, Dec +09 31 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5436, 5437 and 5438 (Temple list VII, 1860 RA 13 56 35±, NPD 79 43±) are "3 very faint in a line, 2 to 3 arcmin distant, north one brightest, north-following (northeast of) magnitude 8.6 star." The position precesses to RA 14 03 28.9, Dec +09 36 30, about 3.5 to 5 arcmin west or northwest of a nearly vertical line of three galaxies, the brightest of which is the northernmost one, so it's pretty obvious that those are the three galaxies in question, even without the star to the southwest of the galaxies, which makes the identification absolutely certain. The only question is which galaxy should correspond to which NGC entry; but since the NGC is arranged in order of right ascension, the westernmost galaxy should be 5436, the easternmost one should be 5438, and the one in between should be 5437; which is exactly the way the three are listed here, and hopefully in every other reference.
Physical Information:
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5437
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5437

NGC 5438 (=
NGC 5446)
(= PGC 50112 = CGCG 074-075 = MCG +02-36-029)

Discovered (Mar 19, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 5446)
Discovered (Jun 28, 1883) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 5438)
A magnitude 13.6 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 03 48.0, Dec +09 36 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5436, 5437 and 5438 (Temple list VII, 1860 RA 13 56 35±, NPD 79 43±) are "3 very faint in a line, 2 to 3 arcmin distant, north one brightest, north-following (northeast of) magnitude 8.6 star." The position precesses to RA 14 03 28.9, Dec +09 36 30, about 3.5 to 5 arcmin west or northwest of a nearly vertical line of three galaxies, the brightest of which is the northernmost one, so it's pretty obvious that those are the three galaxies in question, even without the star to the southwest of the galaxies, which makes the identification absolutely certain. The only question is which galaxy should correspond to which NGC entry; but since the NGC is arranged in order of right ascension, the westernmost galaxy should be 5436, the easternmost one should be 5438, and the one in between should be 5437; which is exactly the way that the three are listed here, and hopefully in every other reference. For a discussion of the duplicate entry see NGC 5446.
Physical Information:
LEDA E0; NED RIDE1 84.7 Mpc, .3 x .3 arcmin, 3K Vr 7205 km/sec, z 0.02402659438
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5438, also showing NGC 5436 and 5437
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5438
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 5438

NGC 5439
(= PGC 49965 = UGC 8947 = CGCG 247-003 = MCG +08-26-002)

Discovered (Jul 9, 1883) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Jul 1899 - Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 5439)
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)bc?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 01 57.7, Dec +46 18 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5439 (Swift list I (#28), 1860 RA 13 56 39, NPD 43 00.3) is "very faint, pretty large, considerably extended, between 2 stars." The position precesses to RA 14 02 10.6, Dec +46 19 08, about 2.3 arcmin nearly due east of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Howe also observed this object, noting that the position angle of the elongation was 0° (due north-south), and gave a corrected position; but since Swift's position didn't have much of an error, Dreyer didn't bother to note Howe's observation.
Physical Information:
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5439
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5439

NGC 5440
(= PGC 50042 = UGC 8963 = CGCG 191-040 = MCG +06-31-052)

Discovered (May 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 27, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 5440)
Also observed (Mar 11, 1828) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 5441)
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type (R')S(rs)a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 03 01.0, Dec +34 45 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5440 (= GC 3754 = JH 1739 = WH II 416, 1860 RA 13 56 58, NPD 54 33.5) is "pretty faint, considerably small, a little extended, brighter middle, 11th magnitude star south-preceding (to southwest)." The position precesses to RA 14 03 02.5, Dec +34 46 00, on the northeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits including the star to the southwest and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5440
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5440

NGC 5441 (=
NGC 5440, and not = PGC 50057)
(= PGC 50042 = UGC 8963 = CGCG 191-040 = MCG +06-31-052)

Discovered (Mar 11, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 03 01.0, Dec +34 45 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5441 (= GC 3755 = JH 1740, 1860 RA 13 57 18, NPD 54 40.7) is "very faint, small." The position precesses to RA 14 03 22.7, Dec +34 38 50, about 3.1 arcmin southeast of PGC 50057, which is usually listed as NGC 5441. However, given Corwin and Gottlieb's comments that is impossible, for PGC 50057 is an extremely faint, very low surface brightness object which JH could not possibly have seen, and on both the night that JH discovered what became NGC 5440 and on the night that he "discovered" what became NGC 5441 he failed to notice several galaxies much brighter than PGC 50057, and on the night that he observed JH 1740, which became NGC 5441, he failed to observe JH 1739, which became NGC 5440. And although his position for JH 1740 is nearly 8 arcmin southeast of NGC 5440, his sweep for JH 1740 only gives the right ascension to the nearest minute or so, meaning that the precise position JH listed in the GC is misleading, given his very rough actual meaurement of its right ascension. As a result, despite the apparently large error in the position for NGC 5441 relative to NGC 5440, the fact that the position was not as accurate as stated, and PGC 50057 is almost certainly far too faint for Herschel to have seen under even the best observing conditions, the identification of PGC 50057 as NGC 5441 must be rejected, and NGC 5441 must be a duplicate observation of NGC 5440.
Physical Information: Given the essentially certain duplicate entry, see NGC 5440 for anything else.

PGC 50057 (not =
NGC 5441)
(= MCG +06-31-053)

Not an NGC object but listed here because almost always misidentified as NGC 5441
or as an apparent companion of NGC 5441

A magnitude 15.6 spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 03 12.0, Dec +34 41 04)
Historical Misidentification: See NGC 5441 for a discussion of the historical misidentification of PGC 50057 for NGC 5441, in which (1) the fact that it is far too faint and has far too low a surface brightness for Herschel to have seen it, (2) the apparently accurate right ascension in the GC was actually only accurate to the nearest minute or two, and (3) on the night that Herschel "discovered" what became NGC 5441 he failed to see the far brighter object which became NGC 5440 (along with several other much brighter galaxies, making it as certain as anything can be that Herschel's JH 1740 was not PGC 50057, and is therefore not NGC 5441.
Physical Information: NED lists 15.8g, heliocentric z as .044244, 3K Vr as 4142 km/sec, 3K z 0.0464533961977 if the heliocentric z is correct, which represents contradictory data. Lists as spiral, .55x.44arcmin; LEDA lists as Sbc, 3K Vr 13445 km/sec (corresponding to the much larger NED value). z 0.04484733967. Consensus is obviously z of about .04464, 3K Vr of about 13385 km/sec. Hubble Flow distance, corrected for large z, is about 590 to 595 million light years, making the galaxy about 95 thousand light years across.
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 50057, which is not NGC 5441
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 50057

NGC 5442
(= PGC 50189 = PGC 159660 = MCG -01-36-006)

Discovered (Jan 11, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc? pec) in Virgo (RA 14 04 43.2, Dec -09 42 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5442 (= GC 5755, Marth #272, 1860 RA 13 57 18, NPD 99 02) is "very faint, very small, irregularly round." The position precesses to RA 14 04 43.9, Dec -09 42 24, barely off the northeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5442, also showing its apparent companion
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5442, also showing its apparent companion
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5442, also showing its apparent companion

J140443.4-094226
(= 2MASS J14044336-0942262)

Not an NGC object but listed here as a possibly interacting companion of
NGC 5442
A magnitude 16.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 14 04 43.4, Dec -09 42 26)
Note About Designation: This galaxy is not listed in any reference, save as an infrared source without any designation, hence its main designation here simply by its J2000 coordinate; however, a (useless) search can be done using the 2MASS designation.
Physical Information: Although there is no information available about the object itself, images of it and NGC 5442 suggest that they are an interacting pair, in which case it would have the same distance as its companion (namely, about ? million light years), and if it is is at that distance, given its apparent size of about ? arcmin (from the images below), it is about ? thousand light years across.
Note About Description Line: The type is based on the object's appearance in its "closeup" PanSTARRS image. The brightness is a rough estimate based on the fact that in the wider PanSTARRS image of NGC 5442 it is considerably fainter than the magnitude 15.5 star to its north.
For now, see the image of NGC 5442; the small galaxy to its northeast is its apparent companion

NGC 5443
(= PGC 49993 = UGC 8958 = CGCG 272-020 = MCG +09-23-026)

Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 2, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type (R')SABab?) in Ursa Major (RA 14 02 11.8, Dec +55 48 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5443 (= GC 3758 = JH 1743A = WH II 799 hon, 1860 RA 13 57 19, NPD 33 30.6) is "pretty faint, large, extended." The position precesses to RA 14 02 10.1, Dec +55 48 52, on the western rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
"Omitted Nebulae": The "II 799 hon" stands for one of eight nebulae discovered by William Herschel, but not published until John Herschel put them in an Appendix to his Cape of Good Hope observations as "Herschel omitted nebulae." The "A" in JH 1743A represents an observation by the younger Herschel that he forgot to include in his Slough Catalogue, but inserted between JH 1743 and 1744 in the GC (and as a result, in the NGC) to keep things in proper order by right ascension.
Physical Information:
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5443
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5443

NGC 5444
(= PGC 50080 = UGC 8974 = CGCG 191-041 = MCG +06-31-054)

Discovered (May 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 9, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 03 24.1, Dec +35 07 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5444 (= GC 3756 = JH 1741 = WH II 417, 1860 RA 13 57 20, NPD 54 11.5) is "pretty bright, pretty large, irregularly very little extended, very suddenly much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 14 03 23.5, Dec +35 08 02, well within the northwestern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description is reasonable and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5444
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 5444

NGC 5445
(= PGC 50090 = UGC 8976 = CGCG 191-042 = MCG +06-31-055)

Discovered (May 1, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 3, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type SBax0 sp) in Canes Venatici (RA 14 03 31.5, Dec +35 01 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5445 (= GC 3757 = JH 1742 = WH III 413, 1860 RA 13 57 26, NPD 54 18.6) is "faint, 13th magnitude star preceding (to west)." The position precesses to RA 14 03 29.7, Dc +35 00 57, less than 0.7 arcmin southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the star to the southwest makes the identification certain.
Physical Information:
Classification Note: The striking box/x-shaped nuclear bar is rarely seen so well, and only in edge-on ("spindle") galaxies. The bright spots at the end of the "box" are "ansae" (hence the small "ax" to indicate a box-shaped bar with bright spots at the ends).
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5445
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 5445

NGC 5446 (=
NGC 5438)
(= PGC 50112 = CGCG 074-075 = MCG +02-36-029)

Discovered (Mar 19, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 5446)
Discovered (Jun 28, 1883) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 5438)
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 03 48.0, Dec +09 36 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5446 (= GC 3759 = WH III 57, 1860 RA 13 57 30, NPD 79 42.5) is "extremely faint, extremely small." The position precesses to RA 14 04 23.8, Dec +09 37 06, but there is nothing there. However, per Corwin, William Herschel's early observations often had substantially larger errors in their positions than his later observations, and there is a galaxy about half an arcmin south and 35 seconds of time west of Herschel's position that fits his description ― namely, the northernmost of the three galaxies found by Tempel in 1883. So it is essentially certain that that galaxy (the one listed above) is what Herschel saw, making Tempel's observation of what became NGC 5438 an independent discovery of the same galaxy that Herschel saw nearly a hundred years earlier.
Misidentification As PGC 50239: Some references misidentify NGC 5446 as PGC 50239, so it is discussed in the entry immediately below this one.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 5438 for anything else.

PGC 50239 (not =
NGC 5446)
(= CGCG 074-093)

Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes misidentified as NGC 5446
A magnitude 15.5(?) spiral galaxy (type SBcd?) in Bo÷tes (RA 14 05 17.8, Dec +09 38 14)
Misidentification As NGC 5446: Per Gottlieb, several sources misidentify PGC 50239 as NGC 5438, and since NGC 5446 is a duplicate entry for NGC 5438, the misidentification applies to it, as well. But it is almost certain that aside from the poor position (which also applies to the identification of NGC 5446 with NGC 5438), PGC 50239 is simply too faint for Herschel to have seen, even as a supposedly very small, very faint
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7200 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 50239 is about 335 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 325 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 330 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 65 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near the NGC position for NGC 5438, showing elliptical galaxy NGC 5438 (= NGC 5446), NGC 5436, NGC 5437 and PGC 50239 (which is often misidentified as NGC 5438/5446)
Above, a 27.5 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the NGC position for NGC 5446
Also shown are NGC 5438 (= NGC 5446), 5436 and 5437, and PGC 50239, which is not NGC 5446
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 50239
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 50239, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 5446
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 50239
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 50239, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 5446

NGC 5447 (northernmost part of Stoney's
NGC 5450 = part of M101)
(= "PGC 3518634")

Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 5447)
Discovered (Mar 1, 1851) by Bindon Stoney (and later listed as NGC 5450)
Perhaps also observed (Mar 1, 1851) by George Stoney (and later listed as NGC 5450)
Also observed (April 29 to May 12, 1861) by Samuel Hunter
A magnitude 13.5 star cloud in spiral galaxy M101, in Ursa Major (RA 14 02 28.3, Dec +54 16 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5447 (= GC 3760= GC 3766 = WH III 787, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 13 57 30, NPD 35 03.1) is "pretty bright, small, round, gradually much brighter middle, connected with M101." The position precesses to RA 14 02 28.6, Dec +54 16 24, dead-center on the soutwesternmost of the star-forming regions comprising NGC 5450, so the identification as a star-forming region in M101 is certain.
Discovery Note (1): Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney. It is also possible that Bindon's brother, George Johnstone Stoney, was present at the time that Bindon made the sketch that gives Bindon discovery credit, for although GJ was studying at Trinity College at the time, per Gottlieb, George spent 15 out of about 20 weekends at Birr Castle during the spring observing season of 1851, and since Mar 1, 1851 was a Saturday, there is a good chance that the brothers took turns observing M101 on the night in question.
Note About PGC designation: Although LEDA assigns PGC designations to both NGC 5450 and the northern extension of that star-forming region listed as NGC 5447, a search of the database for PGC 3518634 returns no result, so that designation is shown in quotes. However, a search for NGC 5447 does bring up the appropriate page.
Discovery Note (2): Not all of the objects found by Stoney inside or near M101 have NGC positions good enough to identify them. Per Corwin, most of their positions were not measured by Stoney, but simply shown in his sketch of M101. Per Gottlieb, John Herschel estimated the positions of various "knots" in M101 using a sketch made by Samuel Hunter and measures of position and distance of nearby stars, hence my inclusion of Hunter's name in the list of observers. Corwin also used Hunter's sketch (published in Lord Rosse's compilation of all observations made with the 72-inch "Leviathan") to better determine the positions, and it is on the basis of his work that most of the objects with poor positions have been identified.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5457, also known as M101 and Arp 26
Above, a 26 arcmin wide SDSS image of M101, showing its extended arms
Below, the image above showing labels for NGC objects "connected with" the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5457, also known as M101 and Arp 26, with labels showing NGC objects 'connected with' the galaxy
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 5450, also showing NGC 5447
SDSS image of star-forming region NGC 5450, also showing NGC 5447, both of which are part of one of the western spiral arms of M101

NGC 5448
(= PGC 50031 = UGC 8969 = CGCG 247-004 = MCG +08-26-003)

Discovered (May 15, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 13, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.0 spiral galaxy (type (R1')SAB(rs)ab) in Ursa Major (RA 14 02 50.0, Dec +49 10 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5448 (= GC 3761 = JH 1743 = WH II 691, 1860 RA 13 57 31, NPD 40 09.3) is "pretty bright, considerably large, very much extended 90°±, suddenly much brighter middle and nucleus." The position preesses to RA 14 02 51.6, Dec +49 10 13, well within the southeastern boundary of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:
Use By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 5430 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type (R1')SAB(rs)ab, whence the type in the description line for this entry. For a detailed discussion of the type, follow the links to the online version of the Atlas.
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5448
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5448

NGC 5449, a star cloud in
M101
(= "PGC 3517703")

Recorded (Mar 1, 1851) by Bindon Stoney
Perhaps also observed (Mar 1, 1851) by George Stoney
Also observed (April 29 to May 12, 1861) by Samuel Hunter
A magnitude 14.0 star cloud in spiral galaxy M101, in Ursa Major (RA 14 02 28.1, Dec +54 19 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 5449 (= GC 3762, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 13 57 33, NPD 35 00.5) is "very faint, pretty large, gradually a very little brighter middle, connected with M101." The position precesses to RA 14 02 31.4, Dec +54 19 00, less than an arcmin southwest of one of the star-forming regions in M101 noted by Dreyer, and much further from any similar region, so the identification of NGC 5449 with this particular star-forming region is certain.
Discovery Note: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney. It is also possible that Bindon's brother, George Johnstone Stoney, was present at the time that Bindon made the sketch that gives Bindon discovery credit, for although GJ was studying at Trinity College at the time, per Gottlieb, George spent 15 out of about 20 weekends at Birr Castle during the spring observing season of 1851, and since Mar 1, 1851 was a Saturday, there is a good chance that the brothers took turns observing M101 on the night in question. Also per Gottlieb, John Herschel estimated the positions of various "knots" in M101 using a sketch made by Samuel Hunter and measures of position and distance of nearby stars, hence my inclusion of Hunter's name in the list of observers. Corwin also used Hunter's sketch (published in Lord Rosse's compilation of all observations made with the 72-inch "Leviathan") to better determine the positions, and it is on the basis of his work that most of the objects with poor positions have been identified.
Note About PGC designation: Although LEDA assigns a PGC designation to NGC 5449, a search of the database for that designation returns no result, so it is shown in quotes. However, a search for NGC 5449 does bring up the appropriate page.
Physical Information: The region involved has an apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below), with two brighter regions on its eastern and western sides, at RA 14 02 29.2, Dec +54 19 52 and RA 14 02 27.0, Dec +54 19 48, respectively
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5457, also known as M101 and Arp 26
Above, a 26 arcmin wide SDSS image of M101, showing its extended arms
Below, the image above showing labels for NGC objects "connected with" the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 5457, also known as M101 and Arp 26, with labels showing NGC objects 'connected with' the galaxy
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 5449
SDSS image of star-forming region NGC 5449, within the western spiral arms of M101
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 5350 - 5399) ←NGC Objects: NGC 5400 - 5449→ (NGC 5450 - 5499)