Celestial Atlas
(NGC 550 - 599) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 600 - 649 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 650 - 699)
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634, 635, 636, 637, 638, 639, 640, 641, 642, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 648, 649

Page last updated Apr 18, 2016
Checked Corwin positions, original NGC entries
WORKING: Update Steinicke data, pix, tags

NGC 600 (= PGC 5777)
Discovered (Sep 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)d?) in Cetus (RA 01 33 05.3, Dec -07 18 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 600 (= GC 354 = WH III 432, 1860 RA 01 26 15, NPD 98 02.6) is "most extremely faint".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.8 by 2.1 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 600
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 600
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 600

PGC 5742
Not an NGC object but listed here since in Corwin's
ngcnot notes
Discovered (Oct 23, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 galaxy (type SB(s)bc?) in Sculptor (RA 01 32 27.5, Dec -38 40 47)
Historical Identification: PGC 5742 (= JH 2420, 1860 RA 01 26 16, NPD 129 24.9) is "very faint, pretty large, round, very little brighter middle, 2 arcmin diameter; has a double star 5 or 6 arcmin to northeast". Herschel's (1830) position precesses to RA 01 32 28.3, Dec -38 41 38, less than 0.8 arcmin south of the center of the galaxy listed above and barely outside its southern outline, the description is a good fit, there is nothing else nearby and the double star to the north northeast makes the identification certain.
Discovery Notes: Herschel (almost certainly accidentally) skipped over this object when compiling his General Catalog, and as a result Dreyer also failed to list it in the NGC (or any subsequent catalog), though it is surprising no one else picked it up, as it is a relatively easy object compared to many other catalog entries. It was only when Steve Gottlieb contacted Dr. Corwin in December 2013 that it was added to his "notngc" notes (a list of objects that should have been in the NGC but are not, or were omitted for good reason). It is listed here because given Herschel's position, this is where it would have ended up in the NGC if Dreyer had been aware of its existence.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3665 km/sec, PGC 5742 is about 170 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.2 by 1.2 arcmin, it is about 60 thousand light years across.

Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 5742
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy


NGC 601 (= PGC 73980)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 33 06.6, Dec -12 12 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 601 (Muller list II (#311), 1860 RA 01 26 25, NPD 102 56.3) is "very faint, very small, round, 4 arcmin southeast of II 473", (WH) II 473 being NGC 599.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 601, also showing NGC 599
Above, a 12 arcmin DSS image centered on NGC 601, also showing NGC 599
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 601

NGC 602 (in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Aug 1, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
An open cluster and emission nebula in Hydrus (RA 01 29 26.0, Dec -73 33 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 602 (= GC 356 = JH 2421, Dunlop 17?, 1860 RA 01 26 25, NPD 164 16.6) is "bright, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle similar to a star, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: A 5-million-year old open cluster and surrounding emission nebula in the Small Magellanic Cloud.
DSS image of region near the open cluster and emission nebula listed as NGC 602, in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 602
Below, a 4 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster and nebula
DSS image of the open cluster and emission nebula listed as NGC 602, in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 3.05 arcmin wide HST image of the cluster and nebula
(Image Credit NASA, ESA/Hubble Collaboration, the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA))
Wide-field HST view of open cluster NGC 602 and the surrounding emission nebulaBelow, a 1.5 arcmin wide version of the image above, centered on the open cluster
HST image of open cluster NGC 602 and part of the surrounding emission nebula

NGC 603
Recorded (Nov 16, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
Three stars in Triangulum (RA 01 34 44.0, Dec +30 13 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 603 (= GC 357, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 01 26 30, NPD 60 32) is a "small nebula or cluster with 3 stars involved". The second Index Catalog notes "On two plates of Messier 33 by Dr. Roberts I could only see an extremely faint star in this place".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney. Also, "Dr. Roberts" was probably Dr. Dorothea Klumpke Roberts, a highly regarded professional astronomer who was the second wife (and widow) of Isaac Roberts. If and when I can find more specific information, it will be posted here.
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near the stars listed as NGC 603
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the stars listed as NGC 603

NGC 604 (in the Triangulum Galaxy,
M33)
Discovered (Sep 11, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A 12th-magnitude emission region in Triangulum (RA 01 34 32.9, Dec +30 46 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 604 (= GC 355 = JH 133 = WH III 150, d'Arrest, Schultz (#??), 1860 RA 01 26 40, NPD 59 56.2) is "bright, very small, round, very very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.95 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near emission nebula NGC 604, in the Triangulum Galaxy, M33; also shown is IC 143
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 604, also showing IC 143
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the emission nebula
SDSS image of emission nebula NGC 604, in the Triangulum Galaxy, M33
Below, a 42 by 45 arcmin DSS finding chart for NGC/IC objects in M33
(N### indicates an NGC object, ### an IC object)
Labeled DSS image showing NGC and IC objects in the spiral galaxy NGC 598, also known as the Triangulum Galaxy, M33

NGC 605 (= PGC 5891)
Discovered (Oct 21, 1881) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Andromeda (RA 01 35 02.3, Dec +41 14 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 606 (Stephan list XII (#18), 1860 RA 01 26 50, NPD 49 28.3) is "very faint, very small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.2 by 1.1 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 605
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 605
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 605

NGC 606 (= PGC 5874)
Discovered (Oct 18, 1881) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)c?) in Pisces (RA 01 34 50.1, Dec +21 25 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 606 (Stephan list XII (#16), 1860 RA 01 27 12, NPD 69 18.0) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round, very little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved?".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.2 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 606
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 606
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 606

NGC 607
Recorded (Aug 23, 1855) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Arthur von Auwers
Also observed (date?) by Rudolf Spitaler
A pair of stars in Cetus (RA 01 34 16.4, Dec -07 24 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 607 (= GC 358, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 27 16, NPD 98 07.8) is "an 11th magnitude star, nebulous? (Auwers 15)". The first Index Catalog notes "This star is not nebulous, but has a 14th-magnitude star close south, looking at first sight like a nebulous appendage (per Spitaler)".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near the pair of stars listed as NGC 607
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the pair of stars listed as NGC 607

NGC 608 (= PGC 5913, and perhaps but not likely =
NGC 618)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1827) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Triangulum (RA 01 35 28.2, Dec +33 39 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 608 (= GC 359 = JH 134, 1860 RA 01 27 30, NPD 57 03.5) is "very faint, pretty suddenly brighter middle, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.5 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 608, also showing NGC 614
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 608, also showing NGC 614
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its faint, extended disk
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 608

NGC 609 (= OCL 325)
Discovered (Aug 9, 1863) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
An 11th-magnitude open cluster (type II3r) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 36 25.5, Dec +64 32 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 609 (= GC 5187, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 27 34, NPD 26 10.1) is "a cluster, small, pretty rich, stars from 14th magnitude downwards".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.0 arcmin? (Position determined from closeup image below.)
DSS image  of region near open cluster NGC 609
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 609
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of the open cluster
DSS image  of open cluster NGC 609

NGC 610
Recorded (1886) by
Frank Muller
A lost or nonexistent object in Cetus (RA 01 34 18.2, Dec -20 09 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 610 (Muller list II (#312), 1860 RA 01 27 35, NPD 110 52.3) is "extremely faint, very small, round, very gradually brighter middle, 10th magnitude star 2 arcmin to west". The position precesses to RA 01 34 18.2, Dec -20 09 10, as shown above, but there is nothing there.
DSS image of region near the NGC position for NGC 610
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the NGC position for NGC 610

NGC 611
Recorded (1886) by
Frank Muller
A lost or nonexistent object in Cetus (RA 01 34 18.3, Dec -20 08 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 611 (Muller list II (#313), 1860 RA 01 27 35, NPD 110 51.3) is "extremely faint, very small, (perhaps a faint star?), 30 arcsec northeast of last", the "last" being NGC 610. The position precesses to RA 01 34 18.3, Dec -20 08 10, as shown above, but there is nothing there.
DSS image of region near the NGC position for NGC 611
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the NGC position for NGC 611

NGC 612 (= PGC 5827)
Discovered (Nov 29, 1837) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0(s)a? pec) in Sculptor (RA 01 33 57.7, Dec -36 29 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 612 (= GC 360 = JH 2423, 1860 RA 01 27 45, NPD 127 13.5) is "faint, very small, round, 12th magnitude star to west".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 0.9 arcmin? Listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 612
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 612
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 612

NGC 613 (= PGC 5849)
Discovered (Dec 9, 1798) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 5, 1826) by John Herschel
Also observed (Sep 14, 1830) by John Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Sculptor (RA 01 34 18.2, Dec -29 25 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 613 (= GC 361 = JH 139 = JH 2422 = WH I 281, (Dunlop 621), 1860 RA 01 27 47, NPD 120 07.6) is "very bright, very large, very much extended 118°, suddenly brighter middle, 10th magnitude star to northeast".
Discovery Notes: The probable identification of this object as Dunlop 621 is, I believe, the result of recent research, hence its not being noted in the NGC (as shown by parentheses).
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.5 by 4.2 arcmin? Possibly a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy ?). Used by de Vaucouleurs as an example of galaxy type SB(rs)bc.
ESO image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 613, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, an ESO image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 613
Below, a 6 arcmin wide ESO image of the galaxy (Image Credit above and below ESO/P.D. Barthel)
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 613
*note to self: add CTIO/NOAO image in next iteration of this page*

NGC 614 (= PGC 5933 and perhaps =
NGC 618 = NGC 627)
Discovered (Sep 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 614)
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 614)
Discovered (Nov 11, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 627)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 618)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Triangulum (RA 01 35 52.2, Dec +33 40 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 614 (= GC 362 = JH 135 = WH III 174, 1860 RA 01 27 53, NPD 57 02.3) is "pretty faint, pretty suddenly brighter middle, stellar". The position precesses to RA 01 35 51.3, Dec +33 40 46, within the southwestern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.4 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 614, also showing NGC 608 and NGC 616
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 614, also showing NGC 608 and 616
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 614

NGC 615 (= PGC 5897)
Discovered (Jan 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)b?) in Cetus (RA 01 35 05.7, Dec -07 20 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 615 (= GC 363 = JH 137 = WH II 282, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 28 06, NPD 98 03.4) is "pretty bright, pretty large, irregularly a little extended, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, 8th magnitude star 10 arcmin to northwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.7 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 615
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 615
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 615

NGC 616
Recorded (Aug 14, 1863) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A pair of stars in Triangulum (RA 01 36 04.2, Dec +33 46 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 616 (= GC 5188, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 28 07, NPD 56 57.2) is a "nebulous double star, 8th magnitude star to northwest".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near the pair of stars listed as NGC 616, also showing NGC 614
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 616, also showing NGC 614

NGC 617 (= PGC 5831)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab?) in Cetus (RA 01 34 02.5, Dec -09 46 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 617 (Leavenworth list II (#314), 1860 RA 01 28 13, NPD 100 30.3) is "extremely faint, small, a little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.5 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 617
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 617
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 617

WORKING HERE: checking identification; "discoverers" based on presumption of duplicate entries

NGC 618 (perhaps =
NGC 614 = PGC 5933, and perhaps = NGC 627)
(also suggested as but not likely = NGC 608 = PGC 5913)
(also suggested as but not likely = the object at RA 01 41 36.6, Dec +33 17 40)
Discovered (Sep 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 614)
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 614)
Discovered (Nov 11, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 627)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 618)
Not found (date?) by Sherburne Burnham (while listed as NGC 618)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Triangulum (RA 01 35 52.2, Dec +33 40 55)
or A lost or nonexistent object
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 618 (= GC 364 = JH 136, 1860 RA 01 28 20, NPD 57 19.4) is "pretty bright, pretty large, brighter middle (? place)", the last comment suggesting that the position is questionable, making any identification difficult to impossible. At the moment the best guess is that NGC 618 is a duplicate of NGC 614, hence the discoverer information above; but that may prove to be completely wrong, so this entry should be considered very preliminary and the final version may be considerably different. As noted by Dreyer in the first Index Catalog, "NGC 618 and 627, = h136 and 141. Not observed by h in the same sweep as h134-135. Should be struck out. Neither of them seen by Burnham".
Physical Information: (this entry will be primarily concerned with the identification, however dubious it might be, of NGC 618; if shown to be a duplicate of some other NGC object, this line will refer the reader to that object)

NGC 619 (= PGC 5878)
Discovered (Nov 30, 1837) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)b?) in Sculptor (RA 01 34 51.8, Dec -36 29 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 619 (= GC 365 = JH 2424, 1860 RA 01 28 38, NPD 127 12.3) is "most extremely faint, very small, round, western of 2", the other being NGC 623.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.0 arcmin? A complex ringed spiral galaxy (possibly a polar ring galaxy?). Used by de Vaucouleurs as an example of galaxy type (R1')SB(rs)ab.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 619, also showing NGC 623
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 619, also showing NGC 623
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 619
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 619
Below, a 1.7 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit de Vaucouleurs Atlas, CTIO/NOAO)
Cerro Tololo image of spiral galaxy NGC 619, as shown on the Galaxy Morphology Website

NGC 620 (= PGC 5990)
Discovered (Dec 14, 1871) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd? pec) in Andromeda (RA 01 36 59.9, Dec +42 19 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 620 (= GC 5189, Stephan list III (#2), 1860 RA 01 28 43, NPD 48 23.6) is "extremely faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.9 arcmin? Probably a starburst or Seyfert galaxy.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 620
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 620
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 620

NGC 621 (= PGC 5984)
Discovered (Nov 24, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0??) in Triangulum (RA 01 36 49.1, Dec +35 30 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 621 (Stephan list XIII (#10), 1860 RA 01 28 46, NPD 55 12.1) is "very faint, extremely small, round, brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 1.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 621
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 621
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 621

NGC 622 (= PGC 5939)
Discovered (Oct 9, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Cetus (RA 01 36 00.2, Dec +00 39 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 622 (= GC 366 = JH 138 = WH III 454, 1860 RA 01 28 49, NPD 90 03.0) is "extremely faint, pretty large, diffuse".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.0 arcmin? A starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 622
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 622
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 622

NGC 623 (= PGC 5898)
Discovered (Nov 30, 1837) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3? pec) in Sculptor (RA 01 35 06.4, Dec -36 29 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 623 (= GC 367 = JH 2425, 1860 RA 01 28 50, NPD 127 12.7) is "faint, small, round, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 619.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 623, also showing NGC 619
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 623, also showing NGC 619
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 623

NGC 624 (= PGC 5932)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)b? pec) in Cetus (RA 01 35 51.1, Dec -10 00 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 624 (= GC 368 = JH 140 = WH III 471, 1860 RA 01 28 55, NPD 100 43.6) is "extremely faint, small, among very small (faint) stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.0 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 624
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 624
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 624

NGC 625 (= PGC 5896)
Discovered (Sep 2, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)m?) in Phoenix (RA 01 35 04.5, Dec -41 26 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 625 (= GC 369 = JH 2426, Dunlop 479, 1860 RA 01 28 57 NPD 132 09.4) is "bright, large, much extended, gradually pretty much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 7.5 by 1.9 arcmin? Used by de Vaucouleurs as an example of galaxy type IB:(s)m sp. Raw HST false-color images are available for parts of the galaxy, but will require considerable work to stitch together so that will have to wait until the next iteration of this page. The type shown above is from the NED listing; once I've had a chance to examine the HST images I'll re-evaluate the type.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 625
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 625
Below, an 8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 625
*note to self: add CTIO/NOAO and HST images in next iteration of this page*

NGC 626 (= PGC 5901)
Discovered (Sep 4, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)c?) in Sculptor (RA 01 35 12.1, Dec -39 08 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 626 (= GC 370 = JH 2427, 1860 RA 01 29 03, NPD 129 51.8) is "pretty faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.2 by 1.7 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 626
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 626
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 626

NGC 627 (perhaps =
NGC 614 = PGC 5933, and perhaps = NGC 618)
(or, though very unlikely, the star triplet at RA 01 42 38.0, Dec +33 34 39)
Discovered (Sep 13, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 614)
Discovered (Nov 11, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 627)
Discovered (Nov 16, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 618)
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Triangulum (RA 01 35 52.2, Dec +33 40 55)
or one of several other possibilities, including a lost or nonexistent object
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 627 (= GC 371 = JH 141, 1860 RA 01 29 09, NPD 57 07.7) is "very faint, round; place doubtful". The place was indeed doubtful, as there is nothing at the NGC position, and despite the various suggestions above, none seem particularly likely barring further study. The identification of NGC 618 and 627 with NGC 614 seems dubious. As noted by Dreyer in the first Index Catalog, "NGC 618 and 627, = h136 and 141. Not observed by h in the same sweep as h134-135. Should be struck out. Neither of them seen by Burnham".
Physical Information: (this entry will be primarily concerned with historical information and the identification, however dubious it might be, of NGC 627; for anything else see NGC 614)

NGC 628 (=
M74 = PGC 5974)
Discovered ("end of September" 1780) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Oct 18, 1780) by Charles Messier as M74
Also observed (Sep 7(?), 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.4 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c?) in Pisces (RA 01 36 41.7, Dec +15 47 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 628 (= GC 372 = JH 142, Méchain, M74, 1860 RA 01 29 11, NPD 74 56.0) is "a globular cluster, faint, very large, round, very gradually then pretty suddenly much brighter middle, partially resolved, some stars seen".
Physical Information: Apparent size 10.5 by 9.5 arcmin. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type Sa(s)c.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 628, also known as M74
Abov, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 628
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © (Gemini Observatory/AURA; by permission)
Gemini Observatory image of spiral galaxy NGC 628, also known as M74
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the central region (Image Credit NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble; Acknowledgment R. Chandar (University of Toledo) and J. Miller (University of Michigan))
HST image of central region of spiral galaxy NGC 628, also known as M74

NGC 629
Discovered (1825) by
Wilhelm Struve
Also observed? (date?) by Arthur von Auwers
A group of stars in Cassiopeia (RA 01 38 58.7, Dec +72 51 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 629 (= GC 373, Struve #2, 1860 RA 01 29 14, NPD 17 49.8) has "an irregular figure, 3 stars plus nebulosity (Auwers 15)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near the group of stars listed as NGC 629
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 629
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the group
DSS image of the group of stars listed as NGC 629

NGC 630 (= PGC 5924)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Sculptor (RA 01 35 36.5, Dec -39 21 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 630 (= GC 374 = JH 2428, 1860 RA 01 29 28, NPD 130 03.7) is "pretty faint, small, round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 01 35 37.2, Dec -39 20 41, on the northern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and although PGC 5915 is close enough and photographically bright enough to appear a valid candidate for part of the NGC entry, if it were visually bright enough for Herschel to notice he would have stated that the object was "extended" instead of "round"; so the identification of NGC as only PGC 5924 appears certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.4 arcmin? Vr 5925 km/sec, about 600 km/sec more than its apparent companion, so they must be an optical double, separated by the best part of 25 to 30 million light years.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 630, also showing PGC 5915
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 630, also showing PGC 5915
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image showing the galaxy and part of PGC 5915
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 630, also showing part of PGC 5915

PGC 5915
Not an NGC object but listed here since an optical double with
NGC 630
A magnitude 13(?) spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(rs)a? pec) in Sculptor (RA 01 35 30.7, Dec -39 23 02)
Physical Information: Vr = 5350 km/sec, about 600 km/sec less than its apparent companion, so they must be an optical double, separated by the best part of 25 to 30 million light years.
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 5915
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 5915; for a wide-field image see NGC 630

NGC 631 (= PGC 5983)
Discovered (Oct 27, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Pisces (RA 01 36 47.1, Dec +05 50 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 631 (= GC 5190, Marth #50, 1860 RA 01 29 29, NPD 84 53) is "very faint, small, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.95 by 0.85 arcmin (from images below).
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 631
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 631
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 631

NGC 632 (= PGC 6007)
Discovered (Sep 24, 1830) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0(rs)a? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 37 17.6, Dec +05 52 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 632 (= GC 375 = JH 143, 1860 RA 01 30 00, NPD 84 50.2) is "pretty bright, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.95 by 0.75 arcmin (from images below). Listed as a starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 632
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 632
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 632

NGC 633 (= PGC 5960)
Discovered (Sep 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)b?) in Sculptor (RA 01 36 23.4, Dec -37 19 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 633 (= GC 376 = JH 2429, 1860 RA 01 30 10, NPD 128 02.2) is "pretty bright, small, round, gradually brighter middle, double star to northwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.2 arcmin? Recessional velocity 5190 km/sec. Given NGC 633's distorted shape and their similar recessional velocities, almost certainly a physical pair with PGC 5959.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 633
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 633
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy and its probable companion, PGC 5959
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 633 and its probable companion, PGC 5959

PGC 5959
Not an NGC object but listed here due to its probable interaction with
NGC 633
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Sculptor (RA 01 36 24.2, Dec -37 20 26)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.65 by 0.3 arcmin? Recessional velocity 5195 km/sec. Given NGC 633's distorted shape and their similar recessional velocities, almost certainly a physical pair with NGC 633, which see for images.

NGC 634 (= PGC 6059)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa??) in Triangulum (RA 01 38 18.6, Dec +35 21 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 634 (= GC 5191, Stephan list VIII (#6), 1860 RA 01 30 15, NPD 55 20.9) is "extremely faint, extremely small, several faint stars involved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 0.6 arcmin?
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 634 superimposed on a DSS background of the region near the galaxy
Above, a HST image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 634
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy superimposed on the DSS background
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 634 superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Below, a ? by ? arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy (All Image Credits ESA/Hubble/NASA)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 634

NGC 635 (= PGC 6062)
Discovered (Oct 15, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Cetus (RA 01 38 17.9, Dec -22 55 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 635 (Leavenworth list I (#33), 1860 RA 01 31 35, NPD 110 39.2) is "extremely faint, very small, round". (Note: A Wikisky search for the galaxy shows the correct object, but labeled as PGC 6062.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 635
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 635
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 635

NGC 636 (= PGC 6110)
Discovered (Jan 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Cetus (RA 01 39 06.5, Dec -07 30 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 636 (= GC 377 = JH 144 = WH II 283, 1860 RA 01 32 07, NPD 98 13.4) is "pretty bright, very small, round, much brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.8 by 2.0 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 636
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 636
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 636

NGC 637 (= OCL 329)
Discovered (Nov 9, 1787) by
William Herschel
An 8th-magnitude open cluster (type I3p) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 43 03.0, Dec +64 02 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 637 (= GC 378 = WH VII 49, 1860 RA 01 32 08, NPD 26 40.5) is "a cluster, pretty small, bright and very faint stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.0 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 637
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 637
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of open cluster NGC 637

NGC 638 (= PGC 6145)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Pisces (RA 01 39 37.8, Dec +07 14 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 638 (Swift list V (#14), 1860 RA 01 32 22, NPD 83 28.2) is "very faint, pretty small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 638
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 638
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 638

NGC 639 (= PGC 6105)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Sculptor (RA 01 38 59.2, Dec -29 55 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 639 (= GC 379 = JH 2430, 1860 RA 01 32 32, NPD 120 38.2) is "very faint, very small, western of 2", the other being NGC 642.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.2 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxies NGC 639 and NGC 642
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 642, also showing NGC 639
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 639
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 639

NGC 640 (= PGC 6130)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Cetus (RA 01 39 24.9, Dec -09 24 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 640 (Leavenworth list II (#315), 1860 RA 01 32 37, NPD 100 06.2) is "extremely faint, small, a little extended 170°, a little brighter middle and nucleus, a star about 10 seconds of time and 4 arcmin distant".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin? A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 640
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 640
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 640

NGC 641 (= PGC 6081)
Discovered (Sep 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Phoenix (RA 01 38 39.2, Dec -42 31 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 641 (= GC 380 = JH 2432, 1860 RA 01 32 39, NPD 133 14.4) is "faint, small, round, gradually pretty much brighter middle, western of 2", the other being NGC 644.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.3 arcmin? (For now, see the wide-field image of NGC 644.)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 641, also showing NGC 644
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 641, also showing NGC 644
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 641

NGC 642 (= PGC 6112)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Sculptor (RA 01 39 06.3, Dec -29 54 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 642 (= GC 381 = JH 2431, 1860 RA 01 32 39, NPD 120 37.3) is "very faint, pretty small, round, gradually brighter middle, star near to east, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 639.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.1 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 642, also showing NGC 639
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 642, also showing NGC 639
Below, a 2.4 arcmin DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 642

NGC 643 (= PGC 243991, in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Discovered (Sep 18, 1835) by
John Herschel
An open cluster in Hydrus (RA 01 35 00.7, Dec -75 33 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 643 (= GC 382 = JH 2435, 1860 RA 01 32 41, NPD 166 16.1) is "very faint, pretty small, round, very gradually a little brighter middle". (Note: Wikisky incorrectly lists this as being in Octans even though it is well inside Hydrus, and all surrounding stars are correctly shown by that site as being in Hydrus. It also lists the object not as NGC 643, but as PGC 243991.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 arcmin? Although "in" the Small Magellanic Cloud, NGC 643 is actually well outside the apparent boundary of that galaxy, and must be one of the SMC's most distant clusters.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 643, in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 643
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of open cluster NGC 643, in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 4 degree wide DSS image showing the cluster's position relative to the SMC
DSS image showing position of open cluster NGC 643 relative to the Small Magellanic Cloud

PGC 3325364 (= "NGC 643A", in the Small Magellanic Cloud)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 643A
An 11th-magnitude open cluster in
Hydrus (RA 01 30 37.1, Dec -76 03 16)
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 2.0 arcmin? Like NGC 643, although "in" the Small Magellanic Cloud, well outside its apparent outline.
DSS image of region near the open cluster commonly called NGC 643A, in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 3325364, more commonly known as NGC 643A
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of PGC 3325364, an open cluster commonly called NGC 643A, in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 36 arcmin wide region showing the relative positions of NGC 643 and "NGC 643A"
DSS image of region between open cluster NGC 643 and the open cluster commonly called NGC 643A, in the Small Magellanic Cloud
Below, a 4 degree wide region showing the cluster's position relative to the SMC
DSS image showing position of open clusters NGC 643 and 'NGC 643A' relative to the Small Magellanic Cloud

PGC 6117 (= "NGC 643B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 643B
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a? pec?) in
Hydrus (RA 01 39 12.8, Dec -75 00 40)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 0.3 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy PGC 6117
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 6117
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 6117

PGC 6256 (= "NGC 643C")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 643C
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in
Hydrus (RA 01 41 49.1, Dec -75 16 05)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.2 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 6256, also known as NGC 643C
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 6256
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 6256, also known as NGC 643C

NGC 644 (= PGC 6097)
Discovered (Sep 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc?) in Phoenix (RA 01 38 52.8, Dec -42 35 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 644 (= GC 383 = JH 2433, 1860 RA 01 32 51, NPD 133 18.4) is "faint, small, very little extended, gradually a little brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 641. The second Index Catalog notes "Not found by Swift. h observed it twice"; but since Swift's positions were often very rough and he used a very wide-field eyepiece, his failure to notice such a faint object is not surprising.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.6 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 644, also showing NGC 641
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 644, also showing NGC 641
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 644

NGC 645 (= PGC 6172)
Discovered (Oct 27, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Pisces (RA 01 40 08.7, Dec +05 43 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 645 (= GC 5192, Marth #51, 1860 RA 01 32 51, NPD 84 59) is "faint, pretty large, much extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.6 by 1.2 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 645
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 645
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 645

NGC 646 (= PGC 6010)
Discovered (Nov 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc? pec) in Hydrus (RA 01 37 21.1, Dec -64 53 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 646 (= GC 384 = JH 2434, 1860 RA 01 32 55, NPD 155 36.6) is "very faint, irregularly round, very gradually a little brighter middle". (Listed in NED as NGC 0646 NED01.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.5 arcmin? Although apparently interacting with PGC 6014, the two galaxies have a difference of nearly 1000 km/sec in their radial velocities, so their current interaction is likely to be short-lived (though the effects of that interaction may be considerably longer-lasting).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 646 and its apparent companion, PGC 6014
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 646, also showing PGC 6014
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy and its apparent companion
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 646 and its apparent companion, PGC 6014

PGC 6014
Not an NGC object, but listed here because interacting with
NGC 646
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Hydrus (RA 01 37 29.9, Dec -64 53 46)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin? Although interacting with NGC 646 (which see for images), the two galaxies have a difference of nearly 1000 km/sec in their radial velocities, so their current interaction is likely to be short-lived (though the effects of that interaction may be considerably longer-lasting). (Listed in NED as NGC 0646 NED02.)

NGC 647 (= PGC 6155)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 39 56.2, Dec -09 14 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 647 (Leavenworth list II (#316), 1860 RA 01 33 20, NPD 99 58.2) is "extremely faint, pretty small, a little extended 160°, brighter middle and nucleus, 8th magnitude star 16 seconds of time to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.1 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 647, also showing NGC 649
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 647, also showing NGC 649
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 647

NGC 648 (=
IC 146 = PGC 6083 = PGC 144217 = PGC 876776)
Discovered (1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 648)
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 648)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 146)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0? pec) in Cetus (RA 01 38 39.8, Dec -17 49 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 648 (= Leavenworth list I (#34), 1860 RA 01 33 30, NPD 108 34.2) is "very faint, very small, very little extended, suddenly brighter middle and nucleus". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 01 31 54. (See IC 146 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 10595 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 648 is about 495 million light years away. However, for objects at such a distance, we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 475 million light years away when the light by which we see it was emitted, about 480 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.5 arcmin, it is about 140 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 648
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 648
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 648

NGC 649 (= PGC 6169)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Cetus (RA 01 40 07.5, Dec -09 16 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 649 (Leavenworth list II (#317), 1860 RA 01 33 30, NPD 99 59.2) is "extremely faint, small, extended 0°, brighter middle or double star?".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.8 by 0.3 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 649, also showing NGC 647
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 649, also showing NGC 647
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 649
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 550 - 599) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 600 - 649     → (NGC 650 - 699)