Celestial Atlas
(NGC 6000 - 6049) ←NGC Objects: NGC 6050 - 6099 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (NGC 6100 - 6149)
Click here for Introductory Material
QuickLinks:
6050, 6051, 6052, 6053, 6054, 6055, 6056, 6057, 6058, 6059, 6060, 6061, 6062,
6063, 6064, 6065, 6066, 6067, 6068, 6069, 6070, 6071, 6072, 6073, 6074, 6075,
6076, 6077, 6078, 6079, 6080, 6081, 6082, 6083, 6084, 6085, 6086, 6087, 6088,
6089, 6090, 6091, 6092, 6093, 6094, 6095, 6096, 6097, 6098, 6099

Page last updated Jun 17, 2018
Checked updated Corwin positions, updated Steinicke databases, other historical references
Checked traditional discovery information against current opinion, Dreyer NGC entries
WORKING 6055: Cross-check PGC IDs

WORKING 6050"C": Need to do relativistic distance calculation.

NGC 6050 (=
IC 1179 = PGC 57053 + PGC 57058 = Arp 272)
Discovered (Jun 27, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6050)
Also observed (Jun 1, 1888) by Guillaume Bigourdan (while listed as NGC 6050)
Discovered (Jun 3, 1888) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 1179)
Two galaxies in Hercules
PGC 57058: A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c?) at RA 16 05 23.4, Dec +17 45 26
PGC 57053: A magnitude 15.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)cd?) at RA 16 05 22.2, Dec +17 45 15
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6050 (Swift list IV (#26), 1860 RA 15 58 53, NPD 71 51.3) is "most extremely faint, small, round, very difficult". (Noted in Swift as 8th of 10, after after NGC 6040, 6041, 6039, 6043, 6044, 6045 and 6047.) The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 15 59 04. The corrected position precesses to RA 16 05 21.5, Dec +17 45 42, only half an arcmin northwest of the pair listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain. The only question is whether NGC 6050 should be considered as the pair of galaxies, or only the brighter one. Standard usage is to treat the pair as the NGC object, but LEDA treats NGC 6050 as only the brighter galaxy (PGC 57058).
Discovery Note: Most references list the fainter western member of the pair as IC 1179, but Corwin could barely see the nebula with a 30-inch telescope, and could not tell it was double, even though he knew it was; so it is highly unlikely that Swift could see it as double with his 16-inch instrument, and both his observations must have been of the pair, making the NGC and IC entries duplicates (as shown in the title for this entry).
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Most references call these galaxies NGC 6050A and 6050B, but when such designations are used there is no standard for assigning letters, so it is not unusual for a galaxy to be called A in one reference and B in another, increasing the chance that data belonging to one galaxy are assigned to another. For that reason specific designations such as the PGC numbers used here should be preferred to "letter" designations.
Physical Information: NGC 6050 appears to be a pair of spiral galaxies, and is used as an example of a double galaxy in the Arp Atlas. The pair is in the Hercules Cluster of galaxies. Other members in close proximity include NGC 6043, 6045, 6047 and 6054. Based on a recessional velocity of 9570 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 57058 (the eastern member of the pair) is about 445 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 430 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 435 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). This is in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 420 to 550 million light years, and with similar estimates of the Hercules Cluster's distance. Given that and its apparent size of 0.65 by 0.4 arcmin, PGC 57058 is about 80 thousand light years across.
  Based on a recessional velocity of 11125 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 57053 (the western member of the pair) is about 520 million light years away, in similar agreement with the redshift-independent distance estimates for its apparent companion, but similar concerns about the expansion of the Universe place it about 495 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 505 million years ago (again, the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 0.65 by 0.4 arcmin, PGC 57053 is about 95 thousand light years across.
  If the galaxies have the distances given above they are separated by about 65 million light years; but they appear to be interacting (and in fact it is generally though not universally assumed that they are), and if so they would have to be at the same distance (somewhere near an averaged distance of 460 million light years), have about the same size (about 85000 light years), and the 0.75 by 0.7 arcmin apparent size of the pair would span about 100 thousand light years. Also, in such a case the small galaxy to their north (PGC 4019986) would be at the same distance, and either involved with or a result of their interaction.
  The question remains, is it reasonable to presume that the galaxies are a physical pair when they have such a large difference (over 1500 km/sec) in their radial velocities? It is certainly possible for galaxies in such a large cluster of galaxies to have large differences in their velocities, as some could be moving toward us and others moving away at several hundred km/sec relative to the overall motion of the cluster. However, although such galaxies could collide and temporarily interact with each other (which may be what we are seeing, albeit the best part of half a billion years afterwards), they would not be permanently bound because of their high relative velocity. So between its appearance and the question of whether this is an interacting system or merely an optical double separated by 65 million light years, studies that could definitely establish the nature of NGC 6050 would be greeted with great interest.
SDSS image of region near the apparently colliding spiral galaxies that comprise NGC 6050, also known as Arp 272, also showing many Hercules Cluster galaxies
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 6050, showing numerous Hercules Cluster galaxies
(a fully labeled version of the image above to be posted later)
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide HST image of the pair, showing their PGC designations
(Image Credit NASA/ESA/Hubble Collaboration/K. Noll/Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA))
Labeled HST image of the apparently colliding spiral galaxies that comprise NGC 6050, also known as Arp 272
Below, an unlabeled version of the image above
HST image of the apparently colliding spiral galaxies that comprise NGC 6050, also known as Arp 272

WORKING HERE: Need to do Vr vs z vs distance calculation in standard way.

SDSS J160522.5+174535 (= "PGC 4019986")
Not an NGC object but listed here since it may be a physical part of
NGC 6050
A magnitude 17(?) spiral galaxy (type SBc? pec) in Hercules (RA 16 05 22.5, Dec +17 45 35)
Non-Standard Designation: Because of its possible relationship to NGC 6050, PGC 4019986 is sometimes called NGC 6050C (and IC 1179C); but as already noted in the entry for NGC 6050, such non-standard designations should always be avoided.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.25 by 0.15 arcmin. Vr 10265 km/sec, z 0.034239, giving it a Hubble distance about equal to that of NGC 6050. If the members of NGC 6050 are separated by 65 million light years, PGC 4019986 is about halfway between them; if NGC 6050 is a collisional pair, then PGC 4019986 may be a fragment of the interacting system. (Note: For database searches, this must be referred to as SDSS J160522.48+174534.7, as even a search of LEDA for PGC 4019986 returns no result.)
HST image of spiral galaxy PGC 4019986, which may be only a fragment of the galaxy pair listed as NGC 6050
Above, a 0.4 arcmin wide HST image of PGC 4019986, showing NGC 6050, which see for more images
(Image Credit NASA/ESA/Hubble Collaboration/K. Noll/Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA))

NGC 6051 (= PGC 57006, but not =
IC 4588)
Discovered (Jun 20, 1881) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.1 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Serpens (RA 16 04 56.7, Dec +23 55 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6051 (Stephan list XII (#79), 1860 RA 15 58 59, NPD 65 41.1) is "faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle and nucleus, 10th magnitude star to southeast". LEDA equates this with IC 4588, but per Corwin that is clearly a separate object (the error appears to have originated in the MCG).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 9580 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 6051 is about 445 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 430 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 435 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time), in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 340 to 400 million light years. Given that and the galaxy's apparent size of 2.3 by 1.3 arcmin, it is about 290 thousand light years across. It is the largest and presumably most massive member of a cluster of galaxies (shown scattered around it in the wide-field image below). The core of NGC 6051 is a powerful radio emitter, presumably powered by material falling into a supermassive black hole. (Note: The much more distant IC 4588 is sometimes confused with NGC 6051.)
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 6051, also showing IC 4588
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 6051, also showing IC 4588
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 6051

WORKING HERE: Checking LEDA/PGC identifications

NGC 6052 (=
NGC 6064 = Arp 209 = PGC 57039 + PGC 200329)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 6064)
Discovered (Jul 2, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 6052)
A pair of colliding galaxies in Hercules (RA 16 05 13.0, Dec +20 32 29)
PGC 57039 = A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type S? pec) at RA 16 05 12.9, Dec +20 32 33
PGC 200329 = A magnitude 14.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) at RA 16 05 13.2, Dec +20 32 24
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6052 (= GC 5802, Marth #302, 1860 RA 15 59 05, NPD 69 04) is "faint, pretty large, irregularly round, (? = (WH) III 140)", the question-mark suggesting that it might be the same as Herschel's III 140, or NGC 6064, which turned out to be the case. However, since there were two entries in John Herschel's General Catalog and their right ascensions differed by two minutes of time, Dreyer felt obligated to have two NGC entries, despite any suspicion that they might represent the same object.
Physical Information: NED lists a recessional velocity of 4720 km/sec for the brighter galaxy and 4540 km/sec for the fainter, which would presumably yield an overall value between those numbers; but the average listed for the pair is, a bit oddly, 4740 km/sec. However, the difference between the three numbers is in the range of typical peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities, so any of the values can be used to estimate the pair's distance, which must be about 215 million light years. Given that and its 0.8 by 0.6 arcmin apparent size, the larger (and brighter) galaxy is about 50 thousand light years across, while the 0.7 by 0.3 arcmin apparent size of the smaller implies that it is about 45 thousand light years across. As clearly shown in the HST (partial) image of the pair (in which the smaller galaxy, being more nearly face-on, appears the brighter), the two galaxies are undergoing a violent collision which has disrupted their structures, and created a chaotic burst of stellar formation and intense radiation (among other things, the pair is a multiple radio source). Over an astronomically short but in human terms immensely long period of time, they will merge into a single galaxy. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with irregularities, absorption, and resolution.
SDSS image of region near colliding spiral galaxy pair NGC 6052, also known as Arp 209
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 6052
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy pair
SDSS image of colliding spiral galaxy pair NGC 6052, also known as Arp 209
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide HST image of a portion of the pair (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of the central and eastern part of colliding spiral galaxy pair NGC 6052, also known as Arp 209
Below, the central 0.5 arcmin of the HST image above
HST image of the core of colliding spiral galaxy pair NGC 6052, also known as Arp 209
Below, a superposition of the HST image on the SDSS image, to show their relationship
Composite of HST and SDSS images of colliding spiral galaxy pair NGC 6052, also known as Arp 209
Below, a newly processed 0.5 by 0.65 arcmin wide version of the image above
(Image Credit ESA/Hubble, NASA; Acknowledgement Judy Schmidt)
HST image of colliding galaxy pair NGC 6052, also known as Arp 209

WORKING HERE: Identification of NGC 6053 = 6057 and NGC 6055 has been changed
As a result, all physical data about the galaxies may be switched and/or confused

NGC 6053 (=
NGC 6057 = PGC 57076)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6057)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6053)
A magnitude 14.7 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Hercules (RA 16 05 32.6, Dec +18 09 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6053 (Swift list III (#86), 1860 RA 15 59 07, NPD 71 28.9) is "most extremely faint, small, round, very difficult" (Swift adds "1st of 4", the others being NGC 6055, 6056 and 6061).
Note About Change In Identification: NGC 6053 is usually identified as PGC 57088; but per Corwin & Gottlieb, that is actually NGC 6055, and the galaxy usually identified as NGC 6055 is actually NGC 6053 = PGC 57076. However, NED & LEDA still have the older, historically incorrect identification (this means that any reference to the characteristics of those galaxies should probably not be done with the NGC designation, but with the PGC or some other designation). A more direct discussion will be placed here as this page is finalized.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.5? arcmin

Note: IC 1183 is sometimes equated with IC 1184, but that is not correct

NGC 6054 (=
IC 1183 = PGC 57086)
Discovered (Jun 27, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6054)
Discovered (Jun 1, 1888) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 1183)
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Hercules (RA 16 05 38.2, Dec +17 46 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6054 (Swift list IV (#27), 1860 RA 15 59 08, NPD 71 50.3) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, a little extended, faint star to the southwest". Note: There is another galaxy (PGC 57073) on the other side of that 13th magnitude star that is often misidentified as NGC 6054 (for instance, a Wikipedia search for NGC 6054 shows the wrong galaxy) but since that puts the star in the wrong direction, there is no doubt that the galaxy listed here is the actual object Swift observed. (Noted in Swift as 8th of 10, after NGC 6040, 6041, 6039, 6043, 6044, 6045, 6047 and 6050.)
Physical Information: NGC 6054 is a member of the Hercules Cluster of galaxies. Apparent size 0.8 by 0.4? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 6054, also showing PGC 57073, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 6054, and many members of the Hercules Cluster
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 6054, also showing PGC 57073
Also shown are dozens of other members of the Hercules Cluster
(a later post will add a labeled version of the image above)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 6054

PGC 57073
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as
NGC 6054
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(s)b) in Hercules (RA 16 05 30.6, Dec +17 46 07)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11190 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 57073 is about 520 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we have to take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 500 million light years away when the light by which we see it was emitted, about 510 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). (A redshift-independent distance estimate based on the galaxy's rotational velocity is only 415 million light years; but that appears to be thought less reliable than the redshift-based distance, which would make the galaxy a member of Abell 2151.) If PGC 57073 is 500 million light years away (or was, at the time it emitted the light by which we see it), its 0.65 by 0.4 arcmin apparent size implies that it is about 100 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 57073, often misidentified as NGC 6054
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 57073; see NGC 6054 for a wide-field view

WORKING HERE: Identification of NGC 6053 = 6057 and NGC 6055 has been changed

WORKING HERE: Checking/correcting PGC IDs

NGC 6055 (= PGC 57090)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Hercules (RA 16 05 39.7, Dec +18 09 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6055 (Swift list III (#87), 1860 RA 15 59 12, NPD 71 28.9) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, round, very difficult" (Swift adds "2nd of 4", the others being NGC 6053, 6056 and 6061).
Note About Change In Identification: See the note at NGC 6053.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.6? arcmin

NGC 6056 (=
IC 1176 = PGC 57075)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6056)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1888) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 1176)
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Hercules (RA 16 05 31.3, Dec +17 57 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6056 (Swift list III (#88), 1860 RA 15 59 17, NPD 71 40.9) is "most extremely faint, very difficult" (Swift adds "3rd of 4", the others being NGC 6053, 6055 and 6061).
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.5? arcmin

WORKING HERE: Identification of NGC 6053 = 6057 and NGC 6055 has been changed

NGC 6057 (=
NGC 6053 = PGC 57076)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6057)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6053)
A magnitude 14.7 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Hercules (RA 16 05 32.6, Dec +18 09 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6057 (Swift list III (#89), 1860 RA 15 59 22, NPD 71 29.3) is "most extremely faint, extremely small, round".
Note About Change In Identification: NGC 6053 = 6057 is usually identified as PGC 57088; but per Corwin & Gottlieb, that is actually NGC 6055, and the galaxy usually identified as NGC 6055 is actually NGC 6053 = PGC 57076. A more direct discussion will be placed here as this page is finalized.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 6053 for anything else.

NGC 6058
Discovered (Mar 18, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 12, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 planetary nebula in Hercules (RA 16 04 26.5, Dec +40 40 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6058 (= GC 4160 = JH 1946 = WH III 637, 1860 RA 15 59 37, NPD 48 55.9) is "pretty faint, very small, round, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.67? arcmin

NGC 6059
Recorded (May 6, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Also recorded (Jun 19, 1890) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A lost or nonexistent object in Ophiuchus (RA 16 07 13.2, Dec -06 24 47)
Corwin suggests a possible candidate (a pair of stars) at RA 16 06 48.0, Dec -06 23 35
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6059 (Swift list III (#91), 1860 RA 15 59 45, NPD 96 02.0) is "very faint, small, round". The first IC adds "Seconds of RA should be 56 (Bigourdan)". The "corrected" position precesses to RA 16 07 24.1, Dec -06 24 44, but there is nothing there or near Swift's position save for a 16th magnitude galaxy (PGC 1032997) that is too faint for him to have seen.
Discovery Notes: (1) A discussion of what, if anything, Bigourdan might have seen, will be posted; but prior to that it should be noted that in a later discussion of IC 4589 Bigourdan comments that "I do not see another object which can be taken for NGC 6059, which, all in all, does not appear to be seen." So regardless of what Bigourdan's position might imply, his observation must be taken as questionable.
(2) A discussion of a possible identification of Swift's object as a double star at RA 16 06 48.1, Dec -06 23 37 (per Corwin's updated notes).

NGC 6060 (= PGC 57110)
Discovered (Jun 22, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Hercules (RA 16 05 52.0, Dec +21 29 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6060 (= GC 5803, Stephan list VII (#3), 1860 RA 15 59 46, NPD 68 08.0) is "extremely faint, extended, suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.1? arcmin

NGC 6061 (= PGC 57137)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Hercules (RA 16 06 16.0, Dec +18 15 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6061 (Swift list III (#90), 1860 RA 15 59 55, NPD 71 22.3) is "most extremely faint, small, round, 4 bright stars to south" (Swift adds "4th of 4", the others being NGC 6053, 6055 and 6056).
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.8? arcmin

NGC 6062 (= PGC 57145)
Discovered (Jun 20, 1884) by
Édouard Stephan (13b-85)
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Hercules (RA 16 06 22.8, Dec +19 46 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6062 (Stephan list XIII (#85), 1860 RA 16 00 12, NPD 69 50.5) is "extremely faint, round, a very little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.9? arcmin
Corwin lists a possible companion (PGC 1604252) at RA 16 06 28.6, Dec +19 45 12

PGC 57146 (= "NGC 6062B")
Not an NGC object, but listed here since often called NGC 6062B
A magnitude 15.3 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in
Hercules (RA 16 06 19.0, Dec +19 45 48)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4? arcmin

NGC 6063 (= PGC 57205)
Discovered (Jun 10, 1882) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Serpens (RA 16 07 13.0, Dec +07 58 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6063 (Stephan list XII (#80), 1860 RA 16 00 27, NPD 81 38.6) is "faint, pretty large, round, a very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 0.9? arcmin

NGC 6064 (=
NGC 6052 = Arp 209 = PGC 57039 + PGC 200329)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 6064)
Discovered (Jul 2, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 6052)
A pair of colliding galaxies in Hercules (RA 16 05 13.0, Dec +20 32 29)
PGC 57039 = A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type S? pec) at RA 16 05 12.9, Dec +20 32 33
PGC 200329 = A magnitude 14.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) at RA 16 05 13.2, Dec +20 32 24
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6064 (= GC 4161 = WH III 140, 1860 RA 16 00 51, NPD 69 04.0) is "very faint, very small, mottled but not resolved, pretty bright star to the southeast, (? = m 302)", the question-mark suggesting that it might be the same as Albert Marth's #302, or NGC 6052, which indeed turned out to be the case. However, since there were two entries in John Herschel's General Catalog, and their right ascensions differed by two minutes of time, Dreyer felt obligated to have two NGC entries, despite any suspicion that they might represent the same object.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 6052 for anything else.

NGC 6065 (= PGC 57215)
Discovered (Jun 19, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Jan to Jun 1898) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Serpens (RA 16 07 23.0, Dec +13 53 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6065 (Swift list VI (list IX #54), 1860 RA 16 01 01, NPD 75 43.5) is "most extremely faint, very small, round, southwestern of 2", the other being NGC 6066. (The order of Swift's entries was incorrect because the NPDs were accidentally switched in Swift's paper, but are correct in the NGC, as described in the IC notes shown here.) The first IC adds that NGC 6065 and 6066 "Occur also in Swift's list IX, where the P.D.'s seem to have been interchanged, though the objects are still said to be southwest and northeast (respectively)". The second IC adds "6065 and 6066 are southwest and northeast (respectively), Δα = 12 seconds (per Howe)".
Discovery Notes: This is one of several cases in which Swift inadvertently left an entry out of his published list VI after having sent Dreyer a pre-publication copy, and corrected the error by including the object in his list IX (hence the reference to list IX #54.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 6066 (= PGC 57230)
Discovered (Jun 19, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Jan to Jun 1898) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.0 elliptical galaxy (type E?) in Serpens (RA 16 07 35.4, Dec +13 56 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6066 (Swift list VI (IX #53), 1860 RA 16 01 07, NPD 75 40.3) is "most extremely faint, very small, round, 2 pretty bright stars near to south, northeastern of 2", the other being NGC 6065. (The order of Swift's entries was incorrect because the NPDs were accidentally switched in Swift's listing, but are correct in the NGC, as described in the IC notes shown here.) The first IC says that NGC 6065 and 6066 "Occur also in Swift's list IX, where the P.D.'s seem to have been interchanged, though the objects are still said to be southwest and northeast (respectively)". The second IC adds "6065 and 6066 are southwest and northeast (respectively), Δα = 12 seconds (per Howe)".
Discovery Notes: This is one of several cases in which Swift inadvertently left an entry out of his published list VI after having sent Dreyer a pre-publication copy, and corrected the error by including the object in his list IX (hence the IX #53 reference).
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 6067 (= OCL 953)
Discovered (May 8, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Jul 9, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 5.6 open cluster (type I2r) in Norma (RA 16 13 31.0, Dec -54 11 24)
Corwin lists the position of the core as RA 16 13 09.0, Dec -54 13 12
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6067 (= GC 4162 = JH 3619, Dunlop 360 (& 361), 1860 RA 16 02 19, NPD 143 50.7) is "a cluster, very bright, very large, very rich, a little compressed, stars from 10th magnitude".
Discovery Notes: Glen Cozens lists Dunlop's observations of this object as Dunlop 360 and 361, whence "& 361" in parentheses in the NGC entry.
Physical Information: Apparent size 15? arcmin

NGC 6068 (= PGC 56388)
Discovered (Dec 6, 1801) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Ursa Minor (RA 15 55 26.2, Dec +78 59 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6068 (= GC 4163 = WH III 973, 1860 RA 16 02 40, NPD 10 38.7) is "very faint, very small, a little extended 0°, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7? arcmin

PGC 56363 (= "NGC 6068A")
Not an NGC object, but listed here since often called NGC 6068A
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in
Ursa Minor (RA 15 54 47.5, Dec +78 59 06)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.2? arcmin

NGC 6069 (= PGC 57237)
Discovered (Jun 21, 1882) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Corona Borealis (RA 16 07 41.6, Dec +38 55 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6069 (Stephan list XII (#81), 1860 RA 16 02 45, NPD 50 41.7) is a "very faint star in a very faint, very small, round nebula".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.8? arcmin
Corwin lists a possible companion (PGC 2140517) at RA 16 07 39.7, Dec +38 57 39

NGC 6070 (= PGC 57345)
Discovered (May 3, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 13, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.8 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Serpens (RA 16 09 58.7, Dec +00 42 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6070 (= GC 4164 = JH 1947 = WH III 553, 1860 RA 16 02 51, NPD 88 55.1) is "faint, large, pretty much extended, very gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 16 09 58.7, Dec +00 42 39, which falls right on the galaxy listed above; the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.6 by 1.8? arcmin

PGC 57350 (= "NGC 6070A" or "NGC 6070B")
Not an NGC object, but listed here since sometimes called NGC 6070A or NGC 6070B
A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type S?) in
Serpens (RA 16 10 09.1, Dec +00 45 55)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: PGC 57350 is often called NGC 6070A, but as shown above I have also seen it listed as NGC 6070B, and PGC 57345 (= NGC 6070) is also sometimes called NGC 6070A. This sort of thing is very common when letters are added to NGC designations, and because of the confusion it causes, the use of such non-standard designations should always be avoided.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.4? arcmin. In a double system with PGC 1175364.
Corwin also lists a physical companion (PGC 1174983) at RA 16 10 08.8, Dec +00 46 11
and an apparent companion (2MASX J16100815+0046151 = "PGC 3993831") at RA 16 10 08.1, Dec +00 46 15

PGC 1175364 (= "NGC 6070B" or "NGC 6070C")
Not an NGC object, but listed here since sometimes called NGC 6070B or NGC 6070C
A magnitude 14.8 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0/a?) in
Serpens (RA 16 10 12.1, Dec +00 47 01)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: See PGC 57350, above, for a discussion of the problems involved in using non-standard designations for NGC/IC objects.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4? arcmin.

NGC 6071 (= PGC 56767)
Discovered (May 6, 1791) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Ursa Minor (RA 16 02 07.1, Dec +70 25 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6071 (= GC 4165 = WH III 883, 1860 RA 16 03 33, NPD 19 13.7) is "extremely faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 1.0? arcmin
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 56721) at RA 16 01 26.5, Dec +70 23 04

NGC 6072
Discovered (Jun 7, 1837) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.7 planetary nebula in Scorpius (RA 16 12 58.2, Dec -36 13 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6072 (= GC 4166 = JH 3620, 1860 RA 16 03 45, NPD 125 52.7) is "pretty faint, round, very gradually a very little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.63? arcmin

NGC 6073 (= PGC 57353)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 8, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Hercules (RA 16 10 10.8, Dec +16 41 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6073 (= GC 4167 = JH 1948 = WH III 74, 1860 RA 16 03 52, NPD 72 55.7) is "very faint, small, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 6074 (= PGC 57418)
Discovered (Jun 21, 1874) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Hercules (RA 16 11 17.2, Dec +14 15 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6074 (= GC 5804, Stephan list VII (#4), 1860 RA 16 04 50, NPD 75 22.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round, brighter middle". Probably a pair with PGC 57419, and as a result the two are sometimes misidentified as separate components of NGC 6074; but Stephan probably couldn't have seen the fainter nebula and if he had, he should have made some mention of an extended shape for the nebula. But it was stated as being round, so probably only the brighter object is NGC 6074, and the fainter one has nothing to do with Stephan's observation. (Note: Steinicke's database reverses the PGC and other catalog numbers for this and PGC 57419; and as a result, much of his physical data may also be reversed.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.3? arcmin. B = 15.1

PGC 57419
Probably not an NGC object but listed here since a probable companion of
NGC 6074
A magnitude 16.1 elliptical galaxy (type E?) in Hercules (RA 16 11 16.8, Dec +14 15 18)
Historical Identification: This galaxy is so much fainter than its brighter companion that Stephan probably couldn't have seen it and if he had, he probably would have made some mention of an extended shape for the nebula. But it was stated as being round, so probably only the brighter object is NGC 6074, and the fainter one has nothing to do with Édouard Stephan's observation.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4? arcmin.

NGC 6075 (=
IC 4594 = PGC 57426)
Discovered (Jun 27, 1881) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 6075)
Discovered (Jul 20, 1903) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 4594)
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Hercules (RA 16 11 22.6, Dec +23 57 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6075 (Stephan list XII (#82), 1860 RA 16 05 27, NPD 65 40.4) is "faint, very small, round, star or stars involved?, partially resolved (some stars seen)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 6076 (= PGC 57409 + 200331)
Discovered (Jun 24, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A pair of galaxies in Corona Borealis (RA 16 11 13.4, Dec +26 52 21)
PGC 57409 = A magnitude 14.0 elliptical galaxy (type E0? pec) at RA 16 11 13.0, Dec +26 52 19
PGC 200331 = A magnitude 14.4 elliptical galaxy (type E1? pec) at RA 16 11 13.8, Dec +26 52 24
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6076 (= GC 5805, Marth #303, 1860 RA 16 05 28, NPD 62 45) is "very faint, small, extended".
Physical Information: Overall apparent size 1.2 by 0.45 arcmin, including distended extensions.

NGC 6077 (= PGC 57408)
Discovered (Jun 24, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.3 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Corona Borealis (RA 16 11 14.1, Dec +26 55 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6077 (= GC 5806, Marth #304, 1860 RA 16 05 29, NPD 62 42) is "faint, suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 1.1? arcmin

NGC 6078 (= PGC 57460)
Discovered (Jun 21, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 15.2 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Hercules (RA 16 12 05.4, Dec +14 12 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6078 (= GC 5807, Stephan list VII (#5), 1860 RA 16 05 38, NPD 75 25.7) is "extremely faint, very small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.5? arcmin
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 57459) at RA 16 12 06.0, Dec +14 12 08
and another (SDSS J161206.68+141210.3) at RA 16 12 06.7, Dec +14 12 10 (type (R)SB0/a, NOT z=2.7)

NGC 6079 (=
IC 1200 = PC 56946)
Discovered (May 6, 1791) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 6079)
Also observed (Jul 18, 1884) by Guillaume Bigourdan (while listed as NGC 6079)
Discovered (Aug 2, 1888) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 1200)
A magnitude 12.7 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Draco (RA 16 04 29.2, Dec +69 39 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6079 (= GC 4168 = WH III 884, 1860 RA 16 05 50, NPD 19 59.6) is "very faint, very small". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 16 04 45.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.0? arcmin
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 56905) at RA 16 03 51.2, Dec +69 39 25

NGC 6080 (= PGC 57509)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Serpens (RA 16 12 58.6, Dec +02 10 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6080 (Swift list VI (#87), 1860 RA 16 05 50, NPD 87 27.5) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, much brighter middle". The second IC adds "Has a 12.5 star 20 arcsec northeast which seems nebulous (Howe)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 1.0? arcmin.
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 93131) at RA 16 12 59.5, Dec +02 10 52

NGC 6081 (=
IC 1202 = PGC 57506)
Discovered (Jul 26, 1870) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 6081)
Discovered (Apr 7, 1888) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 1202)
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Hercules (RA 16 12 56.8, Dec +09 52 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6081 (= GC 5808 , Stephan list II (#1), 1860 RA 16 06 16, NPD 79 46.3) is "very faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 0.6? arcmin
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 6081
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 6081
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 6081

NGC 6082
Recorded (Jun 7, 1837) by
John Herschel
Unsuccessfully searched for by Royal Frost
A lost or nonexistent object in Scorpius (RA 16 15 36.0, Dec -34 14 36)
Corwin lists a possible candidate (a compact group of 3 or 4 stars) at RA 16 15 27.6, Dec -34 13 57
yet another (= IC 4597) at RA 16 17 39.7, Dec -34 21 57
and another (a pair of stars) at RA 16 15 32.0, Dec -34 14 02
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6082 (= GC 4169 = JH 3621, 1860 RA 16 06 34, NPD 123 53.0) is "extremely faint, small, extended, a little brighter middle". The second IC notes "Not found by Frost on a plate of 4 hours exposure". Steinicke and Corwin hesitantly suggest this might be IC 4597, as noted above.

NGC 6083 (= PGC 57520)
Discovered (Jun 21, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Hercules (RA 16 13 12.7, Dec +14 11 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6083 (= GC 5809, Stephan list VII (#6), 1860 RA 16 06 45, NPD 75 27.3) is "extremely faint, very small, difficult".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.4? arcmin

NGC 6084 (= PGC 57575)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Hercules (RA 16 14 16.7, Dec +17 45 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6084 (Swift list III (#92), 1860 RA 16 06 53, NPD 71 52.8) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, round, very difficult".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.5? arcmin

NGC 6085 (= PGC 57486)
Discovered (Jul 2, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Corona Borealis (RA 16 12 35.2, Dec +29 21 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6085 (= GC 5810, Marth #305, 1860 RA 16 06 58, NPD 60 15) is "faint, small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.2? arcmin

NGC 6086 (= PGC 57482)
Discovered (Jun 24, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 12.8 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Corona Borealis (RA 16 12 35.5, Dec +29 29 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6086 (= GC 5811, Marth #306, 1860 RA 16 07 00, NPD 60 10) is "faint, very small, stellar nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.2? arcmin

NGC 6087 (= OCL 948)
Discovered (May 8, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Apr 22, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 5.4 open cluster (type I2p) in Norma (RA 16 18 46.0, Dec -57 55 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6087 (= GC 4170 = JH 3622, Dunlop 326 (& 335), 1860 RA 16 07 16, NPD 147 32.7) is "a cluster, bright, large, a little compressed, stars from 7th to 10th magnitude".
Discovery Notes: Glen Cozens lists Dunlop's observations of this object as Dunlop 326 and 335, whence "& 335" (in parentheses) in the NGC entry.
Physical Information: Apparent size 15? arcmin

NGC 6088 (= PGC 57383 + 57384)
Discovered (Apr 24, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 27, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A pair of galaxies in Draco
Corwin lists only 57383 as NGC 6088, and 57384 as "NGC 6088B"
PGC 57383 = A magnitude 15.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) at RA 16 10 42.6, Dec +57 28 00
PGC 57384 = A magnitude 15.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Scd?) at RA 16 10 44.3, Dec +57 27 44
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6088 (= GC 4171 = WH III 812, 1860 RA 16 07 18, NPD 32 08.5) is "very faint, very small, a little extended". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 16 07 54.
Physical Information: Each galaxy has an apparent size of 0.7 by 0.3? arcmin.

NGC 6089 (= PGC 57491)
Discovered (May 28, 1791) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 29, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 14.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Corona Borealis (RA 16 12 40.1, Dec +33 02 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6089 (= GC 4172 = JH 1949 = WH III 889, 1860 RA 16 07 18, NPD 56 35.6) is "very faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.95 by 0.65 arcmin. It has a faint companion (noted below), but Herschel almost certainly could not have seen it.

SDSSJ161241.33+330215.8 (= "PGC 3442030")
Not an NGC object, but listed here since a close companion of
NGC 6089
A magnitude 14.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Corona Borealis (RA 16 12 41.3, Dec +33 02 16)
Apparent size 0.65 by 0.55 arcmin.

NGC 6090 (= PGC 57437 + PGC 200335)
Discovered (Jun 24, 1887) by
Lewis Swift
A pair of colliding galaxies in Draco (RA 16 11 40.6, Dec +52 27 25)
PGC 57437 = A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)cd? pec) at RA 16 11 40.9, Dec +52 27 27
PGC 200335 = A magnitude 14(?) spiral galaxy (type Sd? pec) at RA 16 11 40.3, Dec +52 27 23
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6090 (Swift list VI (list IX #56), 1860 RA 16 07 59, NPD 37 10.6) is "very faint, small, round". The position precesses to RA 16 11 32.0, Dec +52 27 46, about 1.4 arcmin west northwest of the pair listed above and the same distance east northeast of PGC 57421. The description could fit either object, but the pair to the east is more than a magnitude brighter than the galaxy to the west, which Swift would probably have described as "extremely faint", and I can find no reference that disagrees with the identification of the pair as NGC 6090, so it can be considered certain.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer lists this as being in Swift's list VI, it must have been from a list sent to him by Swift prior to the publication of list VI, in which many of the objects sent to Dreyer were inadvertently omitted. For many of them (including this one) the error was corrected in Swift's list IX, as shown in parentheses in the NGC entry.
Physical Information: NGC 6090 is the result of a galactic collision, now in a late stage that should eventually result in the merger of the two galaxies, though much of the interaction between the two components is hidden by a dust lane that obscures the region between them. Aside from tearing material from each galaxy and flinging it into space, the collision has compressed the insterstellar gas inside each galaxy, causing a tremendous increase in the rate of star formation, so the galaxies are considered "starburst" galaxies.
 The recessional velocity of PGC 57437 is 8785 km/sec, and for PGC 200335 is 9060 km/sec; but since they are obviously interacting they must be at the same distance, and the difference in their recessional velocities must be due to their "peculiar velocities" (non-Hubble-expansion motion relative to each other), and the appropriate recessional velocity to use for estimating their distance is the average of the two values, or about 8925 km/sec. Based on that (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 6090 is about 415 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the pair was about 400 to 405 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted (essentially the same as the 400 million light year distance quoted in the HST press release), about 405 to 410 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.3 by 0.15 arcmin, PGC 57437 (which is seen nearly face-on) is about 35 thousand light years across, while the apparent size of about 0.2 by 0.075 for PGC 200335 (which is seen nearly edge-on) corresponds to about 20 to 25 thousand light years (all apparent sizes are taken from the images below). The central condensation surrounding the pair has an apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.55 arcmin, corresponding to about 70 thousand light years, and the apparent size of the far-flung arms created by the collision is about 2.8 by 0.9 arcmin, which corresponds to about 325 to 330 thousand light years.
SDSS image of the region near the pair of colliding spiral galaxies listed as NGC 6090, also showing PGC 57421
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 6090, also showing PGC 57421
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 6090
SDSS image of the pair of colliding spiral galaxies listed as NGC 6090
Below, a 2.0 by 2.6 arcmin wide HST image of the pair
(Image Credit NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration, A. Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAO/Stony Brook University), and G. Ostlin (Stockholm University)
HST image of the pair of colliding spiral galaxies listed as NGC 6090, showing its far-flung streamers
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide HST image of the central part of NGC 6090 (Image credit as above)
HST image of the core of the pair of colliding spiral galaxies listed as NGC 6090
A labeled version of the image above (Image credit as above)
Labeled HST image of the core of the pair of colliding spiral galaxies listed as NGC 6090
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 2415197) at RA 16 11 41.7, Dec +52 26 48
and another (PGC 57404) at RA 16 11 04.1, Dec +52 27 01

PGC 57421
Not an NGC object but listed here since mentioned in the Historical Identification of
NGC 6090
A magnitude 15(?) lenticular galaxy (type E?) in Draco (RA 16 11 23.6, Dec +52 27 17)
To be discussed in the next iteration of this page.

NGC 6091 (= PGC 57242)
Discovered (Jul 8, 1885) by
Edward Swift
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type S?) in Ursa Minor (RA 16 07 53.0, Dec +69 54 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6091 (Swift list II (#39), 1860 RA 16 08 20, NPD 19 43.6) is "very faint, very small, round, star to north".
Discovery Notes: Swift's list II #39 does not mention Edward's name, so it appears to have been discovered by the elder Swift. However, an erratum at the end of Swift's list VI notes three nebulae (including this one) for which Edward's name was accidentally omitted, so the younger Swift was indeed the discoverer of NGC 6091.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.5? arcmin

NGC 6092
Recorded (May 11, 1885) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A pair of stars in Corona Borealis (RA 16 14 04.5, Dec +28 07 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6092 (Bigourdan (list II #77), 1860 RA 16 08 23, NPD 61 31) is "very faint, stellar nucleus".

NGC 6093 (=
M80 = GCL 39)
Discovered (Jan 4, 1781) by Charles Messier
Also observed (Jan 27, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Also observed (1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (May 24, 1835) by John Herschel
Also observed (April, 1837) by Admiral William Henry Smyth
A magnitude 7.3 globular cluster (type II) in Scorpius (RA 16 17 02.5, Dec -22 58 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6093 (= GC 4173 = JH 3624, M 80, 1860 RA 16 08 42, NPD 112 37.5) is "very remarkable, a globular cluster, very bright, large, very much brighter middle (variable star), well resolved, clearly consisting of stars, stars of 14th magnitude".
Physical Information: M80 is about 28 thousand light years from Earth. It contains several hundred thousand stars, most of which are the best part of 13 billion years old. However, there are a surprisingly large number of hot blue stars ("blue stragglers"), which would normally be found only in regions where star formation has recently occurred. Until recently, the nature of blue stragglers was a mystery; but it is now believed that they are created by the collisional merger of two smaller stars. Such collisions are essentially impossible in normal regions of the galaxy, where the distances between stars are millions of times greater than their physical size; but in globular clusters, where stars are clustered thousands or tens of thousands of times more thickly, such collisions can and do occur, and M80 is home to more than twice as many blue stragglers as any other globular cluster studied to date. Apparent size 10 arcmin.
Misti Mountain Observatory image of region near globular cluster NGC 6093, also known as M80
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 6093
(Image Credit & © Jim Misti, Misti Mountain Observatory; used by permission)
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide image of the core of the cluster (Image Credits: F. R. Ferraro (ESO /Bologna Obs.),
M. Shara (STSci /AMNH) et al., & the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/ STScI/ NASA), HubbleSite)

HST image of central portion of globular cluster NGC 6093, also known as M80

NGC 6094 (= PGC 57167)
Discovered (Mar 16, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 1, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Ursa Minor (RA 16 06 33.9, Dec +72 29 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6094 (= GC 4174 = WH III 314, 1860 RA 16 08 49, NPD 17 10.4) is "very faint, very small, a little extended". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 16 08 10.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.4? arcmin

NGC 6095 (= PGC 57411)
Discovered (May 27, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 12.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Draco (RA 16 11 11.0, Dec +61 16 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6095 (Swift list III (#93), 1860 RA 16 08 53, NPD 28 24.1) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round, in line with 2 stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.6? arcmin
Corwin lists an apparent companion (PGC 57416) at RA 16 11 22.2, Dec +61 13 31

NGC 6096 (= PGC 57598)
Discovered (Jun 24, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.3 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Corona Borealis (RA 16 14 46.7, Dec +26 33 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6096 (= GC 5812, Marth #307, 1860 RA 16 09 01, NPD 63 06) is "very faint, very small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.4? arcmin

NGC 6097 (= PGC 57583)
Discovered (Jun 7, 1880) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Corona Borealis (RA 16 14 26.2, Dec +35 06 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6097 (Stephan list XI (#20), 1860 RA 16 09 14, NPD 54 32.2) is "a nebulous star of 13th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.6? arcmin

NGC 6098 (= PGC 57634)
Discovered (Apr 24, 1867) by
Truman Safford
Also observed (Apr 3, 1887) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.4 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Hercules (RA 16 15 34.2, Dec +19 27 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6098 (Swift list VI (#88), (Safford #76), 1860 RA 16 09 14, NPD 70 11.2) is "extremely faint, very small, round, 8th magnitude star 41 seconds of time to the east, northwestern of 2", the other being NGC 6099. There is an 8th-magnitude star near the specified position, and the relative position of the two galaxies is correct, so their identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Dreyer wasn't aware of Safford's observations until he was already preparing the NGC for publication, so he only added some of his observations to an appendix and none of them to the actual NGC entries; hence the absence of credit for his observation in the NGC entry.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxies NGC 6098 and 6099
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 6098 and 6099
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair
SDSS image of elliptical galaxies NGC 6098 and 6099

NGC 6099 (= PGC 57640)
Discovered (Apr 24, 1867) by
Truman Safford
Also observed (Apr 3, 1887) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.2 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Hercules (RA 16 15 35.6, Dec +19 27 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6099 (Swift list VI (#89), (Safford #76), 1860 RA 16 09 19, NPD 70 11.4) is "extremely faint, very small, round, southeastern of 2", the other being NGC 6098 (which see for images).
Discovery Notes: Dreyer wasn't aware of Safford's observations until he was already preparing the NGC for publication, so he only added some of his observations to an appendix and none of them to the actual NGC entries; hence the absence of credit for his observation in the NGC entry.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 1.3? arcmin.
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 6000 - 6049) ←NGC Objects: NGC 6050 - 6099→ (NGC 6100 - 6149)