Celestial Atlas
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Page last updated Apr 1, 2017
Added Dreyer NGC listings
WORKING 6650: Add/update Steinicke listings/data, check IDs (especially 6677)

NGC 6650 (= PGC 61857)
Discovered (Sep 11, 1883) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude compact galaxy (type C??) in Draco (RA 18 25 27.9, Dec +68 00 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6650 (Swift list II (#67), 1860 RA 18 25 48, NPD 22 04.3) is "very faint, very small, round".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7055 km/sec, NGC 6650 is about 330 million light years away. (Need to use relativistic correction for preceding.) Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.9? arcmin, it is about 95 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region around compact galaxy NGC 6650
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 6650
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of compact galaxy NGC 6650

NGC 6651 (= PGC 61836)
Discovered (Jun 18, 1884) by
Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Draco (RA 18 24 19.7, Dec +71 36 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6651 (Swift list IV (#69), 1860 RA 18 26 02, NPD 18 29.5) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, a little extended, very difficult".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 0.7? arcmin.

NGC 6652 (= GCL 98)
Discovered (Sep 3, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Jul 31, 1834) by John Herschel
A 9th-magnitude globular cluster (type VI) in Sagittarius (RA 18 35 45.7, Dec -32 59 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6652 (= GC 4421 = JH 3752, Dunlop 607, 1860 RA 18 26 35, NPD 123 05.7) is "bright, small, a little extended, well resolved, clearly consisting of stars, stars from the 15th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 6? arcmin.

NGC 6653 (= PGC 62342)
Discovered (Jun 28, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Pavo (RA 18 44 38.6, Dec -73 15 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6653 (= GC 4422 = JH 3750, 1860 RA 18 27 08, NPD 163 22.8) is "very faint, small, a little extended, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.5? arcmin.

NGC 6654 (= PGC 61833)
Discovered (Sep 11, 1883) by
Lewis Swift
Discovered (Sep 20, 1883) by Johann Palisa
Discovered (Sep 23, 1883) by Ernst Lamp
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Draco (RA 18 24 07.6, Dec +73 10 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6654 (Swift list I (#97), Palisa, (Lamp), 1860 RA 18 27 12, NPD 16 54.3) is "a 12th or 13th magnitude star in pretty bright, pretty large nebulosity".
Discovery Notes: Lamp discovered this object while searching for comet Swift in 1883; but Dreyer apparently failed to notice his brief note (A. N. 2544, p. 379); hence his inclusion in parentheses.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.6 by 2.1? arcmin.

PGC 62207 (= "NGC 6654A")
Not an NGC object, but listed here since sometimes called NGC 6654A
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBd? pec) in
Draco (RA 18 39 25.3, Dec +73 34 51)
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.7 by 0.8? arcmin.

NGC 6655
Recorded (June, 1855) by
August Winnecke
Also observed? (date?) by Arthur von Auwers
A pair of stars in Scutum (RA 18 34 30.8, Dec -05 55 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6655 (= GC 4423, Winnecke, 1860 RA 18 27 19, NPD 96 04.8) is "pretty faint, very small, extended (Auwers 42)".

NGC 6656 (=
M22 = GCL 99)
Discovered (Aug 26, 1665) by Abraham Ihle
Discovered (Apr 6, 1752) by Nicolas Lacaille
Discovered (1715) by Edmond Halley
Recorded (1764) by Charles Messier as M 22
Also observed (Jul 1, 1826) by John Herschel
A 5th-magnitude globular cluster in Sagittarius (RA 18 36 24.2, Dec -23 54 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6656 (= GC 4424 = JH 2015 = JH 3753, J A Ihle 1665, M 22, Lacaille I 12, 1860 RA 18 27 51, NPD 114 01.0) is "a most remarkable object, a globular cluster, very bright, very large, round, very rich, very much compressed, stars from 11th to 15th magnitude".
Discovery Notes: Although Ihle was credited with the discovery of M22 by Messier, and as a result in almost all subsquent catalogs, some controversy about the discovery has been scattered all over the Web, so a discussion of its merit (or lack thereof) seems appropriate. An 1844 British publication suggested that Messier misspelt the name of the discoverer, and that Messier actually meant to credit Abraham Hill, an Englishman, instead of Abraham Ihle. Others have suggested that Hevelius was the actual discoverer, as the object was included in his posthumously published atlas and catalog of stars, all of which were observed much earlier. However, Steinicke states that though little known nowadays, Abraham Ihle was well known to Hevelius (who presumably received his information about the object from him) and Gottfried Kirch, and corresponded with them frequently over a long period of time about his and their observations of the sky. So although the lack of an officially published paper makes it impossible to be certain of Ihle's precedence, his astronomical connections suggest that Messier was not mistaken, and Ihle was the actual discoverer of the cluster.
Physical Information: As the brightest globular cluster visible from the northern hemisphere, M22 was the first globular cluster to be discovered (although its true nature was not known until much later). It is about 10 thousand light years away, and about 65 light years in diameter. Its apparent size of 32 arcmin is larger than the full moon.
CFHT image of globular cluster NGC 6656, also known as M22
Above, a ? arcmin wide image of M22 (Image Credit and © Jean-Charles Cuillandre (CFHT), Hawaiian Starlight, CFHT)
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the cluster
(Image Credit & © Jim Misti, Misti Mountain Observatory; used by permission)
Misti Mountain Observatory image of globular cluster NGC 6656, also known as M22

NGC 6657 (= PGC 62019)
Discovered (Jul 16, 1876) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Lyra (RA 18 33 01.5, Dec +34 03 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6657 (= GC 5917, Stephan list VII (#22), 1860 RA 18 27 56, NPD 56 02.5) is "very faint, very small, suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 6658 (= PGC 62052)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Hercules (RA 18 33 55.7, Dec +22 53 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6658 (= GC 5918, Marth #382, 1860 RA 18 28 05, NPD 67 14) is "faint, very small, a little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 0.3? arcmin.

NGC 6659
Discovered (Jul 12, 1830) by
John Herschel
A group of stars in Hercules (RA 18 34 00.0, Dec +23 35 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6659 (= GC 4425 = JH 2016, 1860 RA 18 28 06, NPD 66 32.4) is "a cluster, poor, a little compressed".
Physical Information: Apparent size 7 by 5? arcmin.

NGC 6660 (=
NGC 6661 = PGC 62072)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 6661)
Discovered (Jul 16, 1871) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 6661)
Discovered (Jul 14, 1885) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6660)
Also observed (prior to Aug 1894) by Frederick Pechüle (while listed as NGC 6660 and 6661)
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Hercules (RA 18 34 36.7, Dec +22 54 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6660 (Swift list II (#68), 1860 RA 18 28 42, NPD 67 21.5) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, much brighter middle, between 2 stars". The first IC states "6660 is = 6661 (Pechule, A.N. 3259)"; so the duplication of the two listings has been known for more than a century.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.1? arcmin.

NGC 6661 (=
NGC 6660 = PGC 62072)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 6661)
Discovered (Jul 16, 1871) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 6661)
Discovered (Jul 14, 1885) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6660)
Also observed (prior to Aug 1894) by Frederick Pechüle (while listed as NGC 6660 and 6661)
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Hercules (RA 18 34 36.7, Dec +22 54 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6661 (= GC 5919, Marth #383, Stephan list II (#20), 1860 RA 18 28 45, NPD 67 11.8) is "faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle". The first IC states "6660 is = 6661 (Pechule, A.N. 3259)"; so the duplication of the two listings has been known for more than a century.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 6660 for anything else.

NGC 6662 (= PGC 62059)
Discovered (Aug 7, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Lyra (RA 18 34 11.2, Dec +32 03 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6662 (Stephan list XIII (#90), 1860 RA 18 28 57, NPD 58 02.6) is "a faint star in very faint, very small, a little extended nebulosity".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 0.5? arcmin.

NGC 6663 (= PGC 62032)
Discovered (May 29, 1887) by
Edward Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Lyra (RA 18 33 33.7, Dec +40 02 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6663 (Swift list VI (list IX #88), 1860 RA 18 29 01, NPD 50 00.0) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, round, very difficult".
Discovery Notes: This is one of numerous objects contained in a pre-publication version of Swift's list VI that he sent to Dreyer in 1887 that were inadvertently left out of the published paper; the omission being corrected for most of them by including them in Swift's list IX (whence the reference in parentheses).
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.9? arcmin.

NGC 6664 (= OCL 68)
Discovered (Jun 16, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Jul 16, 1835) by John Herschel
An 8th-magnitude open cluster (type III2m) in Scutum (RA 18 36 30.6, Dec -08 11 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6664 (= GC 4426 = JH 3754 = WH VIII 12, 1860 RA 18 29 05, NPD 98 20.0) is "a cluster, large, pretty rich, very little compressed".
Physical Information: Apparent size 12? arcmin.

NGC 6665 (= PGC 62065)
Discovered (Jul 19, 1871) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Lyra (RA 18 34 30.0, Dec +30 43 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6665 (= GC 5920, Stephan list II (#21), 1860 RA 18 29 10, NPD 59 23.2) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 6666
Recorded (May 25, 1887) by
Edward Swift
Also recorded (Jul 3, 1897) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A lost or nonexistent object in Lyra (RA 18 34 44.0, Dec +33 35 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6666 (Swift list VI (IX #89), 1860 RA 18 29 37, NPD 56 31.3) is "extremely faint, small, round, very difficult". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 18 30 10.
Discovery Notes: This is one of numerous objects contained in a pre-publication version of Swift's list VI that he sent to Dreyer in 1887 that were inadvertently left out of the published paper; the omission being corrected for most of them by including them in Swift's list IX (whence the reference in parentheses).

NGC 6667 (=
NGC 6668 = NGC 6678 = PGC 61972)
Discovered (Sep 11, 1883) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6667)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1885) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6678)
Discovered (Jul 31, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6668)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab? pec) in Draco (RA 18 30 39.7, Dec +67 59 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6667 (Swift list II (#69), 1860 RA 18 30 55, NPD 22 06.8) is "very faint, pretty large, a little extended, very faint double star near".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.1? arcmin.

NGC 6668 (=
NGC 6667 = NGC 6678 = PGC 61972)
Discovered (Sep 11, 1883) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6667)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1885) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6678)
Discovered (Jul 31, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6668)
Looked for but not found (date?) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 6667 and 6668)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab? pec) in Draco (RA 18 30 39.7, Dec +67 59 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6668 (Swift list IV (#70), 1860 RA 18 30 57, NPD 22 57.2) is "pretty bright, pretty small, much extended". The second IC states "Not found by Howe (3 nights), probably = 6677" (this must be a typographical error for "= 6667", as NGC 6677 is not in this region).
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 6667 for anything else.

NGC 6669
Discovered (Jul 2, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A group of stars in Hercules (RA 18 37 15.0, Dec +22 11 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6669 (= GC 5921, Marth #384, 1860 RA 18 31 19, NPD 67 56) is "extremely faint, pretty large".
Physical Information:

NGC 6670 (= PGC 62033)
Discovered (Jul 31, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
An interacting pair of galaxies in Draco
#1 = A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) at RA 18 33 33.4, Dec +59 53 16
#2 = A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) at RA 18 33 37.7, Dec +59 53 23
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6670 (Swift list IV (#71), 1860 RA 18 31 45, NPD 30 12.9) is "most extremely faint, small, much extended, very difficult".
Physical Information: Apparent size of #1 = 1.1 by 0.6? arcmin. Apparent size of #2 = 0.5 by 0.2? arcmin.
HST image of interacting spiral galaxies NGC 6670 superimposed on a DSS image of the region near the pair
Above, a 12 arcmin DSS image centered on NGC 6670 (Composite with the HST image below)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS/HST composite image of the pair
(HST Image Credit NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration,
and A. Evans (University of Virginia, Charlottesville/NRAO/Stony Brook University))

HST image of interacting spiral galaxies NGC 6670 superimposed on a DSS background
Below, a ? arcmin wide image, rotated 90 degrees to allow for more detail (Image credit as above)
HST view of interacting spiral galaxies NGC 6670

NGC 6671 (= PGC 62148)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Discovered (Jul 19, 1871) by Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S?) in Lyra (RA 18 37 26.2, Dec +26 25 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6671 (= GC 5922, Marth #385, Stephan list II (#22), 1860 RA 18 31 48, NPD 63 42.0) is "very faint, very small, round, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.3? arcmin.

NGC 6672
Recorded (Jul 24, 1879) by
Édouard Stephan
A pair of stars in Lyra (RA 18 36 14.5, Dec +42 56 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6672 (Stephan list X (#37), 1860 RA 18 31 56, NPD 47 10.1) is "2 close stars, north one nebulous".

NGC 6673 (= PGC 62351)
Discovered (Aug 7, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Pavo (RA 18 45 06.3, Dec -62 17 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6673 (= GC 4427 = JH 3755, 1860 RA 18 32 02, NPD 152 25.6) is "pretty faint, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.2 by 1.0? arcmin

NGC 6674 (= PGC 62178)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Discovered (Jun 6, 1866) by Truman Safford
Discovered (Jul 18, 1871) by Édouard Stephan
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Hercules (RA 18 38 33.9, Dec +25 22 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6674 (= GC 5923, Marth #386, Stephan list II (#23), (Safford ??), 1860 RA 18 32 51, NPD 64 44.7) is "faint, pretty small, irregularly round, brighter middle".
Discovery Notes: Dreyer did not become aware of Safford's observations (which were published many years after the fact) until the NGC was nearly ready for publication, so although noted in an appendix, none of them were included in the individual NGC entries (hence the reference in parentheses).
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.2 by 2.1? arcmin

NGC 6675 (= PGC 62149)
Discovered (July? 1865) by
Auguste Voigt
Discovered (Sep 28, 1866) by Truman Safford
Discovered (Jul 27, 1870) by Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Lyra (RA 18 37 26.2, Dec +40 03 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6675 (= GC 5924, Stephan list VII (#23), (Voigt 7), (Safford ??), 1860 RA 18 32 52, NPD 50 03.6) is "very faint, extended, 45 arcsec (width)".
Discovery Notes: Voigt's discovery was one of ten nebulae he discovered between March and August of 1865; but they were only noted in his observing records, and were not published until 1987, so Dreyer had no knowledge of his observation. Dreyer did not become aware of Safford's observations (which were published many years after the fact) until the NGC was nearly ready for publication, so although partially noted in an appendix, none of them were included in the individual NGC entries (hence the reference in parentheses).
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.3? arcmin

NGC 6676 (= PGC 62021)
Discovered (May 30, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Draco (RA 18 33 09.6, Dec +66 57 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6676 (Swift list IV (#72), 1860 RA 18 33 01, NPD 23 10.0) is "most extremely faint, pretty small, a little extended, a little brighter middle, very difficult".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 0.3? arcmin

WORKING HERE: NGC 6677 / NGC 6679 / IC 4763
There is and has been considerable confusion about the identity of NGC 6677 and 6679, and for that matter, IC 4763, which is believed to be equivalent to one or the other, depending upon what site you refer to. The problem appears to date to Dreyer's interpretation of three observations by Lewis Swift:
Swift list I #98, observed Jun 8, 1885: 1885 RA 18 33 25, Dec +67 03 10, "pretty faint, pretty small, round" (fits the southeastern)
Swift list III #100, observed Oct 25, 1885: 1885 RA 18 33 30, Dec +67 00 55, "extremely faint; extremely small; between a star very close, and a very faint double star". (fits the northwestern)
Swift list VI (private ms to Dreyer), date of observation unknown: Per Dreyer, 1860 RA 18 33 42, NPD 22 50.1, "extremely faint, close double". (fits the northwestern)
(Note that Swift published a list 6 in AN 2798, which per Dreyer contained most of the objects in the privately communicated "list VI", though with a few differences, the most important here being that Swift did not list anything in the published list in the range of RA 18 hours, so there is no information about the third observation save that provided by Dreyer
Dreyer apparently presumed that I#98 and III#100 referred to the same object, and listed them as NGC 6677, though with an RA that is not the same as either of Swift's RAs, or their average; and listed the privately communicated object from list VI as NGC 6679. But none of the positions can be positively identified with any of the galaxies in the region, hence the confusion about what object corresponds to which observation by Swift, and which NGC listing by Dreyer.
To help figure out what is going on, let's precess the three observations to J2000:
Swift I#98 -> RA 18 33 18.6, Dec +67 08 44 (remember, "pretty faint, pretty small, round"
Swift III#100 -> RA 18 33 24.3, Dec +67 06 30 ("extremely faint, extremely small, between a star very close, and a very faint double star"
Swift "VI" -> RA 18 33 31.6, Dec +67 16 44 ("extremely faint, close double" (fits the northwest galaxy in the area)
Additional note: Swift XI#90 (Jun 24, 1887) 1890 RA 18 33 40, Dec +67 01.3 is a supplementary observation of this region: "An extremely close double with 6679; suspected with 132 (magnification), confirmed with 200, perfectly separated with 250." In other words, this position is supposed to be the same as that of the privately communicated Swift "VI" which led to the creation of NGC 6679 by Dreyer. -> J2000 18 33 34.5, Dec +67 06 40, which actually lies on the southeastern galaxy, in exactly the same position as if Swift "VI" were 10 arcmin too far north. Now, where are these positions relative to the sky?
Swift I#98 is west of PGC 62026
Swift III#100 is west of PGC 62035
Swift VI is far to the north of both objects, and refers to neither of them; however, the second IC adds a correction by Howe "NPD is 22 58.5, nebulous 12.5 magnitude double star 5 arcsec distant", leading to a precessed position of RA 18 33 24.1, Dec +67 08 18, and on that basis 6679 becomes the same as SwiftI#98 = PGC 62035
WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? NGC 6677 is an erroneous combination of observations of IC 6677 and 6679, and thanks to Howe, the originally apparently nonexistent 6679 ended up in about the same place as Swift I#98.

NGC 6677 (= PGC 62035)
WORKING HERE: NGC 6677 is often misidentified
Treat anything about its discovery as suspect until this note is removed

Discovered (Jun 8, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
(Several other observations to be noted before finishing this entry)
A magnitude 13.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Sbc? pec) in Draco (RA 18 33 36.2, Dec +67 06 38)
Historical Identification (work in progress): Per Dreyer, NGC 6677 (Swift list I (#98) & list III (#100), 1860 RA 18 33 23, NPD 22 59.1) is "very faint, very small, between star very close and very faint double star" (this is Swift's description for III #100). The position precesses to RA 18 33 15.7, Dec +67 07 41, about 1.5 arcmin west southwest of PGC 62026, and 2 1/4 arcmin northwest of the galaxy listed above. From this alone it is not clear which of the two galaxies is supposed to be NGC 6677, which is hardly surprising, as the two observations by Swift that Dreyer used to define the NGC object actually referred to two different objects.
Discovery Notes (work in progress): Apparently Dreyer presumed that Swift's two observations were of the same galaxy, and incorrectly combined them, both in the sense that they were actually observations of different galaxies, and in that Dreyer incorrectly combined their positions. As a result, to correctly identify the objects, we have to turn to Swift's original observations: For Swift I (#98), Swift states "pretty faint, pretty small, round", and gives an 1885 position that precesses to 18 33 18.6, Dec +67 08 44, about 1 1/4 arcmin west northwest of PGC 62026, the northwestern of two galaxies that lie in the region. For Swift III (#100), Swift states "extremely faint, extremely small, between a star very close, and a very faint double star", and gives an 1885 position that precesses to RA 18 33 24.3, Dec +67 06 30, about 1.1 arcmin west of PGC 62035, the southeastern of two galaxies that lie in the region. The relative positions of the galaxies and of Swift's measurements would seem to indicate that PGC 62026 must correspond to Swift I#98, and PGC 62035 must corresond to Swift III#100, but if the descriptions are compared to modern images, it appears that the identifications should be reversed. So (1) it is not clear which object corresponds to which observation by Swift, and (2) Dreyer's NGC 6677 should be viewed as an erroneous amalgation of two separate objects, instead of being assigned to either of them. However, it happens that Swift subsequently communicated privately with Dreyer, in what Dreyer refers to as list VI, about an "extremely faint, close double", which fits the northwestern galaxy, and was listed by Dreyer as NGC 6679. Unfortunately, the position provided was either 10 arcmin too far north, or Dreyer made an error of 10 arcmin in recording the object, and when Swift published his list 6 it did not contain the object at all; however, in a later paper he lists IX (#90), described as "An extremely close double with 6679; suspected with 132 (magnification), confirmed with 200, perfectly separated with 250," with a position exactly 10 arcmin further south, so that is presumably the object and an apparently supplementary discovery involving that same object that Dreyer listed as 6679. The description fits the northwestern galaxy, and that galaxy's status as NGC 6679 became engraved in stone when Dreyer published a correction to its position by Howe, which exactly matched the northwestern galaxy.
To summarize, NGC 6677 was originally a complete mess, NGC 6679 was apparently nonexistent at first but soon became associated in position with the southeastern of two galaxies, despite having the description of the northwestern of the two, and with Howe's correction, NGC 6679 was firmly attached, after more than 20 years of total confusion, with the northwestern galaxy that matched its description. So the most appropriate action would probably be to assign NGC 6677 to "one or both of two galaxies in this region, of disparate position and description", and NGC 6679 to PGC 62026. However, since there are two NGC entries for the two objects, it is tempting to ignore the mess that Dreyer and Swift made of the region, and simply assign each NGC entry to one of the two galaxies. Since if we do that NGC 6679 is firmly attached (by Swift's descriptions and Howe's position) to PGC 62026, then NGC 6677 would have to be attached to PGC 62035. Hence the assignments made here. (It should be pointed out that Corwin and Thomson have lengthy discussions of the proper assignment of these designations, but those rely on observations by several observers in addition to Swift and Howe; and although that does show that there were other sources Dreyer could have used to reveal and correct his and Swift's mistakes, since he did not use them and the end result is the same as that obtained by Corwin and Thomson, I have chosen not to also show their reasoning; however, readers who would like a more detailed discussion are encouraged to refer to their notes.) The position precesses to RA 18 33 15.7, Dec +67 07 41, somewhat west of PGC 62026 and PGC 62035, which as it turns out must be what Swift observed, but are different galaxies and should NOT have been combined as a single object by Dreyer. Often misidentified as NGC 6679, and vice-versa.
Physical Information (probably correct): Based on a recessional velocity of 6675 km/sec, NGC 6677 is about 310 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.9 by 0.45 arcmin, it is about 80 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 6677, also showing NGC 6679, with which it is often confused (and vice-versa)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 6677, also showing NGC 6679
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 6677, which is often confused with NGC 6679 (and vice-versa)

NGC 6678 (=
NGC 6667 = NGC 6668 = PGC 61972)
Discovered (Sep 11, 1883) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6667)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1885) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6678)
Looked for but not found (date?) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 6678)
Discovered (Jul 31, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6668)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab? pec) in Draco (RA 18 30 39.7, Dec +67 59 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6678 (Swift list I (#99), 1860 RA 18 33 34, NPD 22 15.7) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round". The second IC states "Not found by Howe (2 nights)".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 6667 for anything else.

NGC 6679 (=
IC 4763 = PGC 62026)
Discovered (Oct 25, 1885) by Lewis Swift (and later mislisted as NGC 6677)
Reobserved by Lewis Swift (private communication to Dreyer) (and later listed as NGC 6679)
Reobserved (Jun 24, 1887) by Lewis Swift (as a supposed companion to NGC 6679)
Discovered (Sep 5, 1891) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 4763)
Reobserved (Jul 1899 - Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe (as a correction to previous observations)
A magnitude 14.5(?) compact(?) galaxy (type unknown) in Draco (RA 18 33 30.6, Dec +67 08 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6679 (Swift VI (#??), 1860 RA 18 33 42, NPD 22 50.1) is "extremely faint, a close double". A note in the second IC adds (per Howe) "NPD is 22 58.5, nebulous 12.5 magnitude double star is 5 arcsec distant" (Howe's paper adds "(position) angle 60°. The NGC place is 8.5 arcmin out in declination. The (1900) position is (RA) 18 33 37, (Dec) +67 03.3"). Howe's position precesses to RA 18 33 31.6, Dec +67 08 11, right on the eastern rim of the galaxy listed above, and his description is perfect, so the identification is certain. However, for reasons listed in the Discovery Notes for this object and NGC 6677, it is common for each of the two galaxies to be misidentified as the other, and discovery and physical data for them to be completely confounded (as a result, prior to Mar 15, 2014 even this page had the wrong information for these galaxies).
Discovery Notes: Despite the certainty of the final identification, the history of this object is filled with problems, as indicated by the number of observations listed above. The initial observation (Swift III #100) was assigned to the wrong galaxy, and a later private communication (Swift VI) involved a position that was nearly 10 arcmin to the north of the correct position. And although Swift's third observation (Swift IX #90) was more accurate, its position fit NGC 6677 better than 6679; so when Bigourdan observed what became IC 4763, he had no idea (nor could Dreyer) that it was the same as NGC 6679 (hence the double listing), and it was only when Howe published his correction that the position and identity of NGC 6679 finally became clear. Or at least should have become clear, as it is still very common for NGC 6677 and 6679 to be misidentified as each other, and for discovery, physical and other information for one galaxy to be assigned to the other. In fact, if it weren't for the descriptions attached to Swift's measurements, it would be impossible to tell which of his observations applied to which galaxy. The crucial factor is that in observing what became NGC 6679, he always referred to the nearby double star; so observations referring to that are for NGC 6679, and those that do not are for NGC 6677 (which see for a more detailed discussion, presuming this entry hasn't quelled any desire to know more).
Additional Note: Swift sent a pre-publication version of his list VI to Dreyer in 1887, but inadvertently left a substantial number of the objects in that list out of the published version of list VI (hence the lack of a reference number). In many cases he corrected the omission by including the missing observations in his list IX, but this is a case where he forgot to even do that.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 6775 km/sec, NGC 6679 is about 315 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin, it is about 45 thousand light years across. Unfortunately, the best images currently available do not allow any assessment of the nature of the galaxy, so it is merely called "compact". It appears to be an optical double with the object overlapping its southwestern outline (as specified by Howe, just a few arcsec from its nucleus), but based on current catalog information that appears more likely to to be a star than another galaxy.
DSS image of region near compact galaxy NGC 6679, also showing NGC 6677, which is often misidentified as NGC 6679 (and vice-versa)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 6679, also showing NGC 6677
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of compact galaxy NGC 6679

NGC 6680 (= PGC 62210)
Discovered (Jul 2, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Hercules (RA 18 39 44.0, Dec +22 18 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6680 (= GC 5925, Marth #387, 1860 RA 18 33 50, NPD 67 48) is "extremely faint, small, close to a small star".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin?

NGC 6681 (=
M70 = GCL 101)
Discovered (Aug 31, 1780) by Charles Messier (and listed as M70)
Discovered (Jun 2, 1826) by James Dunlop
Also observed (Aug 1, 1834) by John Herschel
An 8th-magnitude globular cluster (type V) in Sagittarius (RA 18 43 12.7, Dec -32 17 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6681 (= GC 4428 = JH 3756, M 70, Dunlop 614, 1860 RA 18 34 05, NPD 122 25.2) is "a globular cluster, bright, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle, stars from 14th to 17th magnitude".
Physical Information: About 65 light years across and 30 thousand light years away. Apparent size 8.0? arcmin.
DSS image of region near globular cluster NGC 6681, also known as M70
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 6681
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the cluster (Image Credit REU program, AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of globular cluster NGC 6681, also known as M70
Below, a 3.3 arcmin image of the core of the cluster (Image Credit ESA/HST)
HST image of the core of globular cluster NGC 6681, also known as M70
Below, the central 1.2 arcmin of the image above
HST image of the central core of globular cluster NGC 6681, also known as M70

NGC 6682
Discovered (Jul 25, 1827) by
John Herschel
A star cloud in Scutum (RA 18 39 37.0, Dec -04 48 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6682 (= GC 4429 = JH 2017, 1860 RA 18 34 10, NPD 94 53.5) is "a cluster, large, rich, stars from 10th to 18th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 47? arcmin. Probably just a relatively unobscured part of the Milky Way background

NGC 6683 (= OCL 74)
Discovered (Jul 28, 1827) by
John Herschel
A 9th-magnitude open cluster (type I2p) in Scutum (RA 18 42 12.7, Dec -06 12 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6683 (= GC 4430 = JH 2018, 1860 RA 18 34 41, NPD 96 21.2) is "a cluster, very rich, very little compressed (in the Milky Way)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.0? arcmin.

NGC 6684 (= PGC 62453)
Discovered (Jun 8, 1836) by
John Herschel
A 10th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Pavo (RA 18 48 57.4, Dec -65 10 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6684 (= GC 4431 = JH 3757, 1860 RA 18 35 10, NPD 155 19.3) is "very bright, pretty large, round, very gradually then pretty suddenly very much brighter middle, 7th magnitude star to west".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.6 by 2.9? arcmin.

PGC 62517 (= "NGC 6684A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 6684A
A 13th-magnitude irregular galaxy (type IBm?) in
Pavo (RA 18 52 23.6, Dec -64 49 53)
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.0 by 1.8? arcmin.

NGC 6685 (= PGC 62220)
Discovered (May 29, 1887) by
Edward Swift
Also observed (Aug 2, 1888) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Lyra (RA 18 39 58.6, Dec +39 58 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6685 (Swift list VI (IX #91), 1860 RA 18 35 17, NPD 50 05.1) is "most extremely faint, very small, round, very difficult, southwestern of 2", the other being NGC 6686. The second IC lists a corrected NPD (per Bigourdan) of 50 09.
Discovery Notes: This is one of a number of objects included in a pre-publication version of Swift's list VI that he sent to Dreyer in 1887 that were inadvertently left out of the published paper; though for many of them (including this one) the omission was corrected by including them in his list IX (whence the reference in parentheses).
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.9? arcmin.

NGC 6686 (= PGC 62224)
Discovered (May 29, 1887) by
Edward Swift
Also observed (Aug 2, 1888) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A 15th-magnitude compact galaxy (type C??) in Lyra (RA 18 40 06.9, Dec +40 08 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6686 (Swift list VI (IX #92), 1860 RA 18 35 21, NPD 49 56.1) is "most extremely faint, extremely small, round, very difficult, northeastern of 2", the other being NGC 6685. The second IC lists a corrected NPD (per Bigourdan) of 49 59.
Discovery Notes: This is one of a number of objects included in a pre-publication version of Swift's list VI that he sent to Dreyer in 1887 that were inadvertently left out of the published paper; though for many of them (including this one) the omission was corrected by including them in his list IX (whence the reference in parentheses).
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.8? arcmin.

NGC 6687 (= PGC 62144)
Discovered (Jul 11, 1883) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Draco (RA 18 37 22.0, Dec +59 38 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6687 (Swift list I (#100), 1860 RA 18 35 39, NPD 30 28.0) is "extremely faint, pretty large, round, between 2 stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 1.2? arcmin.

NGC 6688 (= PGC 62242)
Discovered (Aug 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Discovered (Jun 9, 1866) by Truman Safford
Discovered (Jul 25, 1870) by Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Lyra (RA 18 40 39.9, Dec +36 17 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6688 (= GC 5926, Marth #388, Stephan list II (#24), (Safford #??), 1860 RA 18 35 45, NPD 53 45.7) is "faint, pretty small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.3? arcmin.

NGC 6689 (=
NGC 6690 = PGC 62077)
Discovered (Aug 22, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 6689)
Also observed (Oct 31, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6689)
Discovered (Aug 16, 1884) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6690)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBcd?) in Draco (RA 18 34 49.9, Dec +70 31 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6689 (= GC 5927, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 18 36 19, NPD 19 35.6) is "very faint, pretty small, 8th magnitude star 7 arcmin to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 by 1.3? arcmin.

NGC 6690 (=
NGC 6689 = PGC 62077)
Discovered (Aug 22, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 6689)
Also observed (Oct 31, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6689)
Discovered (Aug 16, 1884) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 6690)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBcd?) in Draco (RA 18 34 49.9, Dec +70 31 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6690 (Swift list V (#86), 1860 RA 18 36 24, NPD 19 35.4) is "pretty faint, large, round, between 2 stars".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 6689 for anything else.

NGC 6691 (= PGC 62202)
Discovered (Aug 16, 1884) by
Lewis Swift (4-73)
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Draco (RA 18 39 12.0, Dec +55 38 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6691 (Swift list IV (#73), 1860 RA 18 36 26, NPD 34 31.1) is "very faint, pretty large, round, pretty bright star near to south". (Dreyer's shorthand for the star reads "pB*S nr", and the capital S would normally be read as "small"; but that makes no sense given the "pB" for "pretty bright", so it must be a typographical error for "s", meaning "to south".)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.5? arcmin.

NGC 6692 (= PGC 62268)
Discovered (Aug 11, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Lyra (RA 18 41 41.5, Dec +34 50 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6692 (Stephan list XIII (#91), 1860 RA 18 36 39, NPD 55 17.3) is "very faint, very small, irregularly extended, several very faint stars involved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7? arcmin.

NGC 6693
Discovered (Aug 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A lost or nonexistent object in Lyra (RA 18 41 32.0, Dec +36 54 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6693 (= GC 5928, Marth #389, 1860 RA 18 36 40, NPD 53 13) is "very faint".

NGC 6694 (=
M26 = OCL 67)
Discovered (Jun 20, 1764) by Charles Messier (and listed as M26)
Also observed (May 27, 1835) by John Herschel
An 8th-magnitude open cluster (type I1m) in Scutum (RA 18 45 15.0, Dec -09 23 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6694 (= GC 4432 = JH 3758, M 26, 1860 RA 18 37 33, NPD 99 32.0) is "a cluster, considerably large, pretty rich, pretty compressed, stars from 12th to 15th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 8? arcmin.
NOAO image of open cluster NGC 6694, also known as M26
Above, a ? arcmin wide image of NGC 6694
(Image Credit Hillary Mathis, Vanessa Harvey, REU program, AURA, NSF, NOAO)

NGC 6695 (= PGC 62296)
Discovered (Aug 22, 1884) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Lyra (RA 18 42 42.8, Dec +40 22 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6695 (Stephan list XIII (#92), 1860 RA 18 38 09, NPD 49 46.3) is "very faint, small, irregularly extended north-south, very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.7? arcmin.

NGC 6696 (= PGC 62215)
Discovered (Jun 17, 1884) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Draco (RA 18 40 05.0, Dec +59 20 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6696 (Swift list II (#70), 1860 RA 18 39 09, NPD 30 46.0) is "most extremely faint, pretty large, very difficult". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 18 38 05.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.2? arcmin.

NGC 6697 (= PGC 62354)
Discovered (Jul 2, 1864) by
Albert Marth0
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Hercules (RA 18 45 14.9, Dec +25 30 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6697 (= GC 5929, Marth #390, 1860 RA 18 39 33, NPD 64 38) is "faint, very small, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 1.0? arcmin.

NGC 6698
Discovered (Jul 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
A group of stars in Sagittarius (RA 18 48 18.0, Dec -25 54 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6698 (misprinted 6678) (= GC 4433 = WH VI 15, 1860 RA 18 39 38, NPD 116 03.7) is "a suspected cluster, considerably large, stars very faint".
Physical Information:

NGC 6699 (= PGC 62512)
Discovered (Jul 12, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Pavo (RA 18 52 01.9, Dec -57 19 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 6699 (= GC 4434 = JH 3759, 1860 RA 18 40 07, NPD 147 27.8) is "pretty faint, pretty small, a little extended 90°, pretty suddenly a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 18 52 03.9, Dec -57 18 27, near the northeastern boundary of the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3390 km/sec, NGC 6699 is about 160 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 1.5 by 1.5 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 6699
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 6699
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 6699
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of a portion of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA, HST, Hubble Legacy Archive)
(Post processing by Courtney Seligman; image rotated to use as much of frame as possible, so North is up to the right)
HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 6699
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 6600 - 6649) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 6650 - 6699     → (NGC 6700 - 6749)