Celestial Atlas
(NGC 600 - 649) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 650 - 699 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 700 - 749)
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650, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661, 662, 663, 664, 665, 666,
667, 668, 669, 670, 671, 672, 673, 674, 675, 676, 677, 678, 679, 680, 681, 682, 683,
684, 685, 686, 687, 688, 689, 690, 691, 692, 693, 694, 695, 696, 697, 698, 699

Page last updated May 29, 2017
Checked Corwin positions, original NGC entries
Checkin updated Steinicke historical/physical data

NGC 650 (with
NGC 651 = M76, the Little Dumbbell Nebula)
Discovered (Sep 5, 1780) by Pierre Méchain
Recorded (1780) by Charles Messier as M76
Part of a 10th-magnitude planetary nebula in Perseus (RA 01 42 18.1, Dec +51 34 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 650 (= Méchain, Messier 76, 1860 RA 01 33 31, NPD 39 08.3) is "very bright, western of double nebula", the other portion being NGC 651. The position precesses to RA 01 42 17.7, Dec +51 34 16, which is exactly on the southwestern portion of the nebula, so the identification is certain. (There is no doubt that what Méchain and Messier observed was the entire nebula; but see NGC 651 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Discovery Notes: This is one of many Messier objects for which Messier was not the discoverer, but merely a recorder of discoveries by others; Méchain was not only a colleague but also a close friend, and one of Messier's most frequent contributors.
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.12 arcmin?
NOAO image of the planetary nebula listed as NGC 650 and 651, and also known as M76, or the Little Dumbbell Nebula, overlaid on an SDSS image of the region near the nebula
Above, NOAO image below overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 650 and 651
Below, a 4.25 arcmin wide view of the entire nebula (Image credit Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of the planetary nebula listed as NGC 650 and 651, and also known as M76, or the Little Dumbbell Nebula
Below, the same view labeled according to Dreyer's NGC listings (Image Credit as above)
Labeled NOAO image of the planetary nebula listed as NGC 650 and 651, and also known as M76, or the Little Dumbbell Nebula

NGC 651 (with
NGC 650 = M76, the Little Dumbbell Nebula)
Discovered (Sep 5, 1780) by Pierre Méchain
Recorded (1780) by Charles Messier as M76
Discovered (Nov 12, 1787) by William Herschel
Part of a 10th-magnitude planetary nebula in Perseus (RA 01 42 22.0, Dec +51 34 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 651 (= GC 386 = WH I 193, 1860 RA 01 33 34, NPD 39 07.7) is "very bright, eastern of double nebula", the other portion being NGC 650. The position precesses to RA 01 42 20.8, Dec +51 34 52, which is exactly on the northeastern portion of the nebula, so the identification is certain. There is no doubt that what Méchain and Messier observed was the entire nebula; but Herschel noticed that the nebula consisted of two brighter regions slightly separated by a fainter middle, hence Dreyer's assignment of two numbers to the object. Since it is a "bipolar" planetary nebula, that isn't entirely unreasonable, but normally such an object would be given only a single listing, so it is a little confusing, particularly when the normal way of describing the situation is to say that NGC 650 = NGC 651. A more accurate way, as used here, is to keep the two listings separate but say that M76 consists of both NGC objects (as is the case for several other extended Messier objects).
Discovery Notes: As noted at NGC 650 (which see for images of the "pair"), this is one of many Messier objects for which Messier was not the discoverer, but merely a recorder of discoveries by others.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.08 arcmin?

NGC 652 (= PGC 6208)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pisces (RA 01 40 43.4, Dec +07 58 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 652 (Swift list V (#15), 1860 RA 01 33 37, NPD 82 43.8) s "most extremely faint, pretty small, round, very difficult".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 652
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 652
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 652

NGC 653 (= PGC 6290)
Discovered (Nov 29, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Andromeda (RA 01 42 25.7, Dec +35 38 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 653 (Stephan list XIII (#11), 1860 RA 01 34 21, NPD 55 04.2) is "very faint, pretty large, much extended, a little brighter middle, several faint stars involved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 0.2 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 653
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 653
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 653

NGC 654 (= OCL 330)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1783) by
Caroline Herschel
Discovered (Nov 3, 1787) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 7th-magnitude open cluster (type II3m) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 43 59.0, Dec +61 53 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 654 (= GC 387 = JH 145 = WH VII 46, (Caroline Herschel), 1860 RA 01 34 28, NPD 28 49.3) is "a cluster, irregular figure, rich, one magnitude 6 or 7 star, stars from 11th to 14th magnitude".
Discovery Notes: (Need to add information about Caroline Herschel's observation.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 6.0 arcmin?.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 654
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 654
Below, a 7 arcmin wide SDSS image of the cluster
SDSS image of open cluster NGC 654

NGC 655 (= PGC 6262)
Discovered (Dec 12, 1885) by
Ormond Stone
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0? pec) in Cetus (RA 01 41 55.1, Dec -13 04 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 654 (O Stone list I (#35), 1860 RA 01 34 30, NPD 103 45.2) is "extremely faint, extremely small, gradually brighter middle and nucleus". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 01 35 03.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 0.9 arcmin?
DSS image of region near peculiar lenticular galaxy NGC 655
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 655
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of peculiar lenticular galaxy NGC 655

NGC 656 (= PGC 6293)
Discovered (Sep 20, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0(rs)a?) in Pisces (RA 01 42 27.3, Dec +26 08 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 656 (= GC 5193, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 34 39, NPD 64 33.9) is "faint, very small, round, mottled but not resolved?".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 656
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 656
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 656

NGC 657 (= OCL 337)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1831) by
John Herschel
An open cluster or group of stars in Cassiopeia (RA 01 43 21.0, Dec +55 50 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 657 (= GC 388 = JH 146, 1860 RA 01 34 42, NPD 34 49.9) is "a cluster, pretty rich, 12th magnitude stars".
Physical Information: A widely scattered group of moderately bright stars covering most of the area shown in the image below (not just the small clump at the center of the image). Apparent size 7.0 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near open cluster NGC 657
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 657

NGC 658 (= PGC 6275)
Discovered (Nov 27, 1880) by
Édouard Stephan
Also observed (Sep 17, 1885) by Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Pisces (RA 01 42 09.7, Dec +12 36 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 658 (Stephan list XI (#1), Swift list II (#??), 1860 RA 01 34 42, NPD 78 06.4) is "pretty faint, pretty small, much extended, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.0 by 1.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 658
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 658
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 658

NGC 659 (= OCL 332)
Discovered (date?) by
Caroline Herschel?
Discovered (Nov 3, 1787) by William Herschel
An 8th-magnitude open cluster (type III1p) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 44 18.0, Dec +60 40 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 659 (= GC 389 = WH VIII 65, Caroline Herschel, 1860 RA 01 34 45, NPD 30 00.6) is "a cluster, a little rich, bright stars".
Discovery Notes: Dreyer credits both William and Caroline Herschel with observations of this object, but Steinicke only lists William; will find out why by the next iteration of this page.
Physical Information: Apparent size 6.0 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near open cluster NGC 659
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 659

NGC 660 (= PGC 6318)
Discovered (Oct 16, 1784) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a? pec) in Pisces (RA 01 43 02.3, Dec +13 38 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 660 (= GC 390 = WH II 253, 1860 RA 01 35 34, NPD 77 03.8) is "pretty bright, pretty large, extended, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 8.3 by 3.2 arcmin? A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2), and a polar ring galaxy.
Wikimedia Commons image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 660, superimposed on an SDSS image to fill in missing areas
Above, the image below overlaid on a 12-arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 660
Below, a 9 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit Wikimedia Commons)
Wikimedia Commons image of spiral galaxy NGC 660
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the central portion of the galaxy
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons)
Raw HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 660

NGC 661 (= PGC 6376)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
Also observed (Oct 11, 1882) by Edward Barnard
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Triangulum (RA 01 44 14.6, Dec +28 42 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 661 (= GC 391 = JH 147 = WH II 610, 1860 RA 01 36 21, NPD 62 01.4) is "faint, small, round, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 661
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 661
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 661

NGC 662 (= PGC 6393)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1884) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) in Andromeda (RA 01 44 35.5, Dec +37 41 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 662 (Stephan list XIII (#12), 1860 RA 01 36 24, NPD 53 00.6) is "faint, small, round, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 662
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 662
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 662

NGC 663 (= OCL 333)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1783) by
Caroline Herschel
Discovered (Nov 3, 1787) by William Herschel
A 7th-magnitude open cluster (type III2m) in Cassiopeia (RA 01 46 16.0, Dec +61 12 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 663 (= GC 392 = WH VI 31, 1860 RA 01 36 29, NPD 29 27.7) is "a cluster, bright, large, extremely rich, pretty large (bright) stars".
Discovery Notes: Dreyer credits only William Herschel with an observation of this object, but Steinicke also lists Caroline; will find out why by the next iteration of this page.
Physical Information: Apparent size 15 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near open cluster NGC 663
Above, a 20 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 663

NGC 664 (= PGC 6359)
Discovered (Sep 24, 1830) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Pisces (RA 01 43 45.8, Dec +04 13 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 664 (= GC 393 = JH 148, 1860 RA 01 36 30, NPD 86 28.6) is "very faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 664
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 664
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 664

NGC 665 (= PGC 6415)
Discovered (Sep 4, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 01 44 56.1, Dec +10 25 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 665 (= GC 394 = WH II 588, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 37 31, NPD 80 17.2) is "faint, small, a little extended, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 665
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 665
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 665

NGC 666 (= PGC 6483)
Discovered (Nov 22, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S?) in Triangulum (RA 01 46 06.2, Dec +34 22 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 666 (Stephan list XIII (#13), 1860 RA 01 38 02, NPD 56 19.7) is "very faint star in extremely faint, extremely small nebulosity".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 666
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 666
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 666

NGC 667 (= PGC 6418)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 44 56.7, Dec -22 55 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 667 (Muller list II (#318), 1860 RA 01 38 05, NPD 113 39.1) is "extremely faint, small, round, 10th magnitude star 100 arcsec to northwest". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 01 38 21.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.5 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 667
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 667
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 667

NGC 668 (= PGC 6502)
Discovered (Dec 4, 1880) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Andromeda (RA 01 46 22.6, Dec +36 27 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 668 (Stephan list XI (#2), 1860 RA 01 38 13, NPD 54 14.5) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.2 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 668
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 668
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 668

NGC 669 (= PGC 6560)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1883) by
Édouard Stephan
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Triangulum (RA 01 47 16.2, Dec +35 33 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 669 (Stephan list XIII (#14), 1860 RA 01 39 09, NPD 55 08.4) is "pretty faint, pretty large, much extended, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.1 by 0.6 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 669
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 669
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 669

NGC 670 (= PGC 6570)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Triangulum (RA 01 47 24.9, Dec +27 53 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 670 (= GC 395 = JH 149 = WH II 611, 1860 RA 01 39 32, NPD 62 49.0) is "faint, small, a little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 670
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 670
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 670

NGC 671 (= PGC 6546)
Discovered (Sep 17, 1885) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S?) in Aries (RA 01 46 59.2, Dec +13 07 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 671 (Swift list II (#14), 1860 RA 01 39 50, NPD 77 35.0) is "extremely faint, pretty small, round, between star and double star". The second Index Catalog lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 01 39 31.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 0.5 arcmin? A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 671
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 671
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 671

NGC 672 (= PGC 6595)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)cd?) in Triangulum (RA 01 47 54.3, Dec +27 25 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 672 (= GC 396 = JH 150 = WH I 157, 1860 RA 01 40 00, NPD 63 16.1) is "faint, pretty large, much extended 80°".
Physical Information: Just under 20 million light years away. Apparent size 6.0 by 2.4 arcmin? A physical pair with IC 1727, which may be less than 90 thousand light years from its companion.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 672, showing the northeastern part of IC 1727
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 672, also showing part of IC 2717
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 672
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered between NGC 672 and IC 1727
SDSS image of region between NGC 672 and IC 1727

NGC 673 (= PGC 6624)
Discovered (Sep 4, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c?) in Aries (RA 01 48 22.5, Dec +11 31 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 673 (= GC 397 = WH II 589, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 40 58, NPD 79 10.4) is "pretty faint, pretty large, extended, a little brighter middle, 11th magnitude star 3 arcmin to northeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 1.7 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 673
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 673
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 673

NGC 674 (=
NGC 697 = PGC 6848)
Discovered (Sep 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 697)
Discovered (Dec 2, 1861) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 674)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)c?) in Aries (RA 01 51 17.5, Dec +22 21 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 674 (= GC 398, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 41 29, NPD 68 21.3) is "pretty bright, very much extended, 14th magntude star 8 seconds of time to east".
Discovery Notes: Apparently originally(?) known as NGC 697, and only later identified as a duplicate of NGC 674; but since the lower number usually trumps the higher, now generally called NGC 674
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 by 1.3 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 674
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 674
Below, a 4.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 674

NGC 675 (= PGC 6665)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S?) in Aries (RA 01 49 08.6, Dec +13 03 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 675 (Swift list V (#17), 1860 RA 01 41 35, NPD 77 38.6) is "very faint, small, round, a little brighter middle, southwestern of 2", the other being NGC 677.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.4 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 675, also showing NGC 677
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 675, also showing NGC 677
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 675

NGC 676 (= PGC 6656)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Pisces (RA 01 48 57.3, Dec +05 54 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 676 (= GC 400 = JH 151 = WH IV 42, 1860 RA 01 41 38, NPD 84 47.2) is "very faint, extended 161°, suddenly brighter middle equivalent to 9th magnitude star", and in the images below it appears that there be a star of some brightness almost exactly superimposed on the nucleus of the galaxy.
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 by 1.0 arcmin? Listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 676
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 676
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 676

NGC 677 (= PGC 6673)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Aries (RA 01 49 14.0, Dec +13 03 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 677 (Swift list V (#16), 1860 RA 01 41 40, NPD 77 38.4) is "most extremely faint, small, round, northeastern of 2", the other being NGC 675.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 2.0 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 677, also showing NGC 675
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 677, also showing NGC 675
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, also showing part of NGC 675
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 677 and part of NGC 675

NGC 678 (= PGC 6690)
Discovered (Sep 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SB(s)b?) in Aries (RA 01 49 24.8, Dec +21 59 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 678 (= GC 399 = WH II 228, 1860 RA 01 41 42, NPD 68 42.0) is "pretty bright, small, irregularly round, much brighter middle, western of 2", the other being NGC 680.
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.5 by 0.8 arcmin? Used by de Vaucouleurs as an example of galaxy type Sa sp.
NOAO image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 678, also showing NGC 680, superimposed on an SDSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a NOAO image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide SDSS background centered on NGC 678,
also showing NGC 680 (Image Credit above and below Richard & Leslie Maynard/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 4.8 arcmin wide NOAO image of the galaxy
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 678

NGC 679 (= PGC 6711)
Discovered (Sep 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Andromeda (RA 01 49 43.8, Dec +35 47 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 679 (= GC 401 = WH III 175, 1860 RA 01 41 51, NPD 54 53.9) is "faint, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.9 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 679
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 679
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 679

NGC 680 (= PGC 6719)
Discovered (Sep 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E1? pec) in Aries (RA 01 49 47.3, Dec +21 58 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 680 (= GC 402 = WH II 229, 1860 RA 01 42 04, NPD 68 43.5) is "pretty bright, small, irregularly round, much brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 678.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.6 arcmin?
NOAO image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 680, also showing spiral galaxies NGC 678 and IC 1730, superimposed on an SDSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a NOAO image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 680, also showing
NGC 678 and IC 1730 (Image Credit above and below Richard & Leslie Maynard/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide NOAO image of the galaxy
NOAO image of elliptical galaxy NGC 680

NGC 681 (= PGC 6671, the Little Sombrero Galaxy)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)ab?) in Cetus (RA 01 49 10.8, Dec -10 25 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 681 (= GC 404 = JH 2436 = WH II 481, 1860 RA 01 42 15, NPD 101 07.3) is "pretty faint, considerably large, round, gradually a little brighter middle, small (faint) star 90 arcsec to west".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.7 by 1.8 arcmin?
NOAO image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 681 superimposed on an SDSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a NOAO image overlaid on a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 681
(Image Credit above and below Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 3 arcmin wide NOAO image of the galaxy
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 681

NGC 682 (= PGC 6663)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Cetus (RA 01 49 04.6, Dec -14 58 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 682 (= GC 406 = JH 154 = WH II 501, 1860 RA 01 42 18, NPD 105 39.9) is "considerably faint, small, round, gradually very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.1 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 682
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 682
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 682

NGC 683 (= PGC 6718)
Discovered (Oct 17, 1825) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type S(rs)cd?) in Aries (RA 01 49 46.7, Dec +11 42 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 683 (= GC 405 = JH 153, 1860 RA 01 42 20, NPD 79 00.6) is "extremely faint, two 14th magnitude stars 90 arcsec to west".
Physical Information: Apparent size of 0.9 by 0.75 arcmin (from images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 683
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 683
Below, a 1.0 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 683

NGC 684 (=
IC 165 = PGC 6759)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 684)
Also observed (Jan 4, 1832) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 684)
Also observed (Sep 26, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 684)
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz (and later listed as NGC 684)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1890) by Edward Swift (and later listed as IC 165)
Also observed (1897) by Isaac Roberts (while listed as NGC 684 and IC 165)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Triangulum (RA 01 50 14.0, Dec +27 38 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 684 (= GC 403 = JH 152 = WH II 612, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 01 42 21, NPD 63 03.1) is "faint, very little extended, 13th magnitude star 100 arcsec to east". (See IC 165 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3535 km/sec, NGC 684 is about 165 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 125 to 155 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 3.2 by 0.6 arcmin(?), it is about 150 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 684
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 684
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 684

NGC 685 (= PGC 6581)
Discovered (Oct 3, 1834) by
John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (SB(rs)c?) in Eridanus (RA 01 47 42.8, Dec -52 45 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 685 (= GC 407 = JH 2438, 1860 RA 01 42 21, NPD 143 29.1) is "faint, very large, round, very gradually very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.6 by 3.1 arcmin? Used by de Vaucouleurs as an example of galaxy type SB(rs)cd.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 685
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 685
Below, a 4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 685

NGC 686 (= PGC 6655)
Discovered (Oct 26, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0??) in Fornax (RA 01 48 56.2, Dec -23 47 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 686 (= GC 408 = JH 155 = JH 2437 = WH III 459, 1860 RA 01 42 21, NPD 114 29.5) is "very faint, very small, round, gradually brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved, 2 stars near".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.4 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 686
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 686
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 686

NGC 687 (= PGC 6782)
Discovered (Sep 21, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Andromeda (RA 01 50 33.2, Dec +36 22 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 687 (= GC 409 = WH III 561, 1860 RA 01 42 26, NPD 54 21.9) is "very faint, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.4 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 687
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 687
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 687

NGC 688 (= PGC 6799)
Discovered (Sep 16, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)b?) in Triangulum (RA 01 50 44.2, Dec +35 17 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 688 (= GC 5194, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 42 35, NPD 55 24.4) is "very faint, very small, mottled but not resolved?".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.5 arcmin? A starburst galaxy. (Note: Many sites that purport to discuss NGC 688 actually discuss NGC 6888, the Crescent Nebula; so an internet search for NGC 688 can lead to many dead ends.)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 688
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 688
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 688

NGC 689 (= PGC 6724)
Discovered (1886) by
Ormond Stone
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(r)ab? pec) in Fornax (RA 01 49 51.8, Dec -27 28 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 689 (Ormond Stone list I (#36), 1860 RA 01 42 35, NPD 118 07.0) is "very faint, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.6 arcmin? (How anyone could determine a detailed galaxy type such as that listed above from the poor images shown below is beyond me, so there must be better images somewhere; but as of this writing I haven't been able to find them.)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 689
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 689
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 689

NGC 690 (= PGC 6587)
Discovered (Nov 9, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c?) in Cetus (RA 01 47 48.1, Dec -16 43 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 690 (Leavenworth list I (#37), 1860 RA 01 42 35, NPD 107 26.0) is "very faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.8 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 690
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 690
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 690

NGC 691 (= PGC 6793)
Discovered (Nov 13, 1786) by
William Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)bc?) in Aries (RA 01 50 41.7, Dec +21 45 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 691 (= GC 410 = WH II 617, 1860 RA 01 42 56, NPD 68 56.9) is "faint, considerably large, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.4 by 2.5 arcmin? The namesake of the NGC 691 group of galaxies, generally listed as consisting of NGC 678, NGC 680, IC 1730, NGC 691, IC 167, NGC 694, NGC 695 (but see for caveat) and NGC 697. (Located to the southeast of NGC 678 and 680.)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 691
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 691
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 691

NGC 692 (= PGC 6642)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc??) in Phoenix (RA 01 48 42.0, Dec -48 38 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 692 (= GC 411 = JH 2439, 1860 RA 01 43 02, NPD 139 20.0) is "bright, small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 1.8 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 692
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 692
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 692

NGC 693 (= PGC 6778)
Discovered (Dec 25, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a??) in Pisces (RA 01 50 30.8, Dec +06 08 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 693 (= GC 412 = JH 156 = WH II 859, 1860 RA 01 43 13, NPD 84 33.1) is "pretty faint, small, extended 90°, very gradually a little brighter middle, 10th magnitude star to northeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.2 by 1.1 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 693
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 693
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 693

NGC 694 (= PGC 6816)
Discovered (Dec 2, 1861) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) in Aries (RA 01 50 58.5, Dec +21 59 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 694 (= GC 413, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 01 43 13, NPD 68 42.3) is "faint, small, round, between two 15th magnitude stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.4 arcmin? Listed as a starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 694, also showing IC 167
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 694, also showing IC 167
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 694

NGC 695 (= PGC 6844)
Discovered (Nov 13, 1786) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Aries (RA 01 51 14.4, Dec +22 34 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 695 (= GC 414 = WH II 618, 1860 RA 01 43 29, NPD 68 07.9) is "very small, stellar".
Note About "Membership" In NGC 691 Group: Although generally listed as part of the NGC 691 Group, NGC 695 is not a member of the group, being merely a background galaxy. This is a very common problem with groups of galaxies, and even with mere pairs and triplets, as listings of such groups are almost always based only on apparent proximity in the sky, and unless recessional velocities or redshift-independent distance estimates are taken into account, whether the galaxies are actually close or merely in the same direction is either unknown or ignored. As another example, the Shapley-Ames list of members of the Virgo Cluster contains dozens of galaxies that have nothing to do with the Cluster, but are merely in the same part of the sky as the actual Cluster.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin? Given its exceptionally bright nucleus, perhaps a starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 695
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 695
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 695

NGC 696 (= PGC 6695)
Discovered (Nov 29, 1837) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a? pec) in Fornax (RA 01 49 31.2, Dec -34 54 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 696 (= GC 415 = JH 2440, 1860 RA 01 43 33, NPD 125 38.9) is "faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 0.6 arcmin?
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 696, also showing NGC 698
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 696, also showing NGC 698
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 696

NGC 697 (=
NGC 674 = PGC 6848)
Discovered (Sep 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 697)
Discovered (Dec 2, 1861) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 674)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)c?) in Aries (RA 01 51 17.5, Dec +22 21 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 697 (= GC 416 = WH III 179, 1860 RA 01 43 36, NPD 68 20.2) is "faint, considerably large, extended, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 674 for anything else.

NGC 698 (= PGC 6710)
Discovered (Nov 29, 1837) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab??) in Fornax (RA 01 49 43.7, Dec -34 49 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 698 (= GC 417 = JH 2441, 1860 RA 01 43 42, NPD 125 34.1) is "extremely faint, small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.8 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 698, also showing NGC 696
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 698, also showing NGC 696
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 698

NGC 699 (= PGC 6798)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc??) in Cetus (RA 01 50 43.7, Dec -12 02 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 699 (Muller list II (#319), 1860 RA 01 43 56, NPD 102 44.0) is "extremely faint, pretty small, extended 105°, brighter on northwest, curved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 0.3 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 699, also showing NGC 696
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 699, also showing NGC 696
Below, a 2.4arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 699
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 600 - 649) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 650 - 699     → (NGC 700 - 749)