Celestial Atlas
(NGC 6950 - 6999) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 7000 - 7049 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 7050 - 7099)
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Page last updated Apr 2, 2017
Checked Steinicke discovery data, added Dreyer NGC entries
WORKING 7000: Add/update Steinicke listings/data, check IDs

NGC 7000, The North America Nebula
Discovered (Oct 24, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 21, 1829) by John Herschel
A 5th-magnitude emission nebula in Cygnus (RA 20 59 18.0, Dec +44 31 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7000 (= GC 4621 = JH 2096 = WH V 37?, 1860 RA 20 53 48, NPD 46 13.1) is "faint, most extremely large, diffuse nebulosity".
Physical Information: One of the most famous bright nebulae in the heavens, the North America Nebula is shaped very much like its namesake. Despite its relative brightness, its large size and low surface brightness make it undetectable with the unaided eye except in very dark skies, and even then only by using special filters to increase the contrast of its line radiation. The North America and Pelican nebulae (IC 5070) are part of an approximately 100 light year wide ionized hydrogen region. Their shapes and apparent separation are due to clouds of obscuring dust lying between us and them. What star or stars are responsible for heating the gas has long been unknown. Recently, the 2MASS infrared telescope, concentrating on the area obscured by dust, has shown that there is a massive O-type star in the general area of the nebulae, which is the most likely source of their radiation. Estimates of the distance of the North America and Pelican nebulae vary considerably, ranging from as little as 1500 light years to as much as 2200 light years.
Luc Viator image of NGC 7000, the North America Nebula, and IC 5070, the Pelican Nebula
Above, a ? arcmin wide image of NGC 7000, the North America Nebula, and IC 5070, the Pelican Nebula
(Image Credit & © Luc Viatour GFDL/CC; used by permission)

NGC 7001 (= PGC 65905)
Discovered (Jul 21, 1827) by
John Herschel
Also observed (Sep 26, 1891) by Rudolf Spitaler
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Aquarius (RA 21 01 07.7, Dec -00 11 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7001 (= GC 4622 = JH 2095, 1860 RA 20 53 55, NPD 90 44.6) is "extremely faint, small, extended 0°". The first IC adds "7001 is pretty bright, according to Spitaler".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.1? arcmin

NGC 7002 (= PGC 66009)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E??) in Indus (RA 21 03 45.0, Dec -49 01 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7002 (= GC 4623 = JH 3848, 1860 RA 20 53 57, NPD 139 35.0) is "considerably faint, considerably small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.2? arcmin

NGC 7003 (= PGC 65887)
Discovered (Aug 26, 1864) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Delphinus (RA 21 00 42.3, Dec +17 48 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7003 (= GC 5982, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 20 54 09, NPD 72 44.5) is "very faint, very small, a little extended, 15th magnitude star close to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.8? arcmin

NGC 7004 (= PGC 66019)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Indus (RA 21 04 02.0, Dec -49 06 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7004 (= GC 4624 = JH 3849, 1860 RA 30 54 14, NPD 139 40.5) is "extremely faint, round, a little brighter middle, 11th magnitude star to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.6? arcmin

NGC 7005
Discovered (Aug 23, 1855) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A group of stars in Aquarius (RA 21 01 56.0, Dec -12 52 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7005 (= GC 5983, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 20 54 16, NPD 103 25.8) is "a cluster, small, poor (perhaps nebulosity?)". The second IC notes (per Howe) "No nebulosity".
Physical Information:

NGC 7006 (= GCL 119)
Discovered (Aug 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 11, 1825) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude globular cluster (type I) in Delphinus (RA 21 01 29.5, Dec +16 11 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7006 (= GC 4625 = JH 2097 = WH I 52, 1860 RA 20 54 58, NPD 74 21.5) is "bright, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 3.6 arcmin?
SDSS image of region near globular cluster NGC 7006
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7006
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the cluster
SDSS image of globular cluster NGC 7006

NGC 7007 (= PGC 66069)
Discovered (Jul 8, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Indus (RA 21 05 27.8, Dec -52 33 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7007 (= GC 4626 = JH 3850, 1860 RA 20 55 23, NPD 143 06.1) is "pretty bright, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, among stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.2? arcmin

NGC 7008
Discovered (Oct 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 24, 1829) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude planetary nebula in Cygnus (RA 21 00 32.8, Dec +54 32 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7008 (= GC 4627 = JH 2099 = WH I 192, 1860 RA 20 56 28, NPD 35 59.8) is "considerably bright, large, extended 45°±, mottled but not resolved, double star attached".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.43 arcmin?
Combination of a Misti Mountain Observatory image of region near planetary nebula NGC 7008 with a DSS background
Above, a 12 arcmin wide composite image centered on NGC 7008 (Misti Mountain image on a DSS background)
(Image Credit & © above and below Jim Misti, Misti Mountain Observatory; used by permission)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide Misti Mountain image of the planetary nebula
Misti Mountain Observatory image of planetary nebula NGC 7008

NGC 7009, the Saturn Nebula
Discovered (Sep 7, 1782) by
William Herschel
Also observed (1825) by Wilhelm Struve
Also observed (Sep 9, 1825) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Joseph Lalande
An 8th-magnitude planetary nebula in Aquarius (RA 21 04 10.8, Dec -11 21 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7009 (= GC 4628 = JH 2098 = WH IV 1, Lalande 40765, 1860 RA 20 56 33, NPD 101 54.9) is "a magnificent or otherwise interesting object, a planetary nebula, very bright, small, elliptic".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 arcmin?
Observatorio Antilhue image of NGC 7009, the Saturn Nebula, superimposed on a DSS background image of region near the planetary nebula
Above, a 12 arcmin wide composite image centered on NGC 7009 (Image below on a DSS background)
(Image Credit & © above & below Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide image of the planetary nebula
Observatorio Antilhue image of planetary nebula NGC 7009, the Saturn Nebula
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST image of the nebula (Image Credit B. Balick (U. Washington) et al., WFPC2, HST, NASA)
HST image of planetary nebula NGC 7009, the Saturn Nebula

NGC 7010 (=
IC 5082 = PGC 66039)
Discovered (Aug 6, 1823) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7010)
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 7010)
Discovered (Aug 27, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 5082)
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0 pec?) in Aquarius (RA 21 04 39.4, Dec -12 20 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7010 (= GC 4629 = JH 2100, 1860 RA 20 57 06, NPD 103 03.1) is "extremely faint, pretty large, round, mottled but not resolved". The second IC adds (per Howe) "RA 20 56 59, NPD 102 53.5, extremely faint, small, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.0 arcmin?

NGC 7011, the Mini Hyades
Discovered (Sep 19, 1829) by
John Herschel
A group of stars in Cygnus (RA 21 01 50.0, Dec +47 21 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7011 (= GC 4630 = JH 2101, 1860 RA 20 57 08, NPD 43 13.8) is "a cluster, no description".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4 arcmin?

NGC 7012 (= PGC 66116)
Discovered (Jul 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E5?) in Microscopium (RA 21 06 45.5, Dec -44 48 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7012 (= GC 4631 = JH 3851, 1860 RA 20 57 21, NPD 135 22.2) is "faint, pretty large, extended, very gradually a very little brighter middle, star to west".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.3? arcmin

NGC 7013 (= PGC 66003)
Discovered (Jul 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 15, 1828) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Cygnus (RA 21 03 33.6, Dec +29 53 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7013 (= GC 4632 = JH 2102 = WH II 203, 1860 RA 20 57 38, NPD 60 39.3) is "pretty bright, considerably small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, pretty bright star to northwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 by 1.4? arcmin

NGC 7014 (= PGC 66153)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Indus (RA 21 07 52.0, Dec -47 10 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7014 (= GC 4633 = JH 3852, 1860 RA 20 58 18, NPD 137 44.7) is "pretty faint, small, round, brighter middle, 2 stars of 12th magnitude to north".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.4? arcmin

NGC 7015 (= PGC 66076)
Discovered (Sep 29, 1878) by
Édouard Stephan
Also observed (Sep 11, 1885) by Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Equuleus (RA 21 05 37.3, Dec +11 24 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7015 (Stephan list IX (#26), Swift list II (#87), 1860 RA 20 58 53, NPD 79 08.6) is "very faint, pretty small, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.6? arcmin

NGC 7016 (= PGC 66136)
Discovered (Jul 8, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0) in Capricornus (RA 21 07 16.2, Dec -25 28 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7016 (Leavenworth list I (#237), 1860 RA 20 59 15, NPD 116 03.1) is "very faint, extremely small, round, brighter middle and nucleus, 1st of 3", the others being NGC 7017 and 7018. The second IC lists a corrected position (per Howe) of RA 20 59 04, NPD 116 01.8.
Physical Information: NGC 7016 is the brightest member of the NGC 7016 group of galaxies, which includes at least the nearer member of the apparent double NGC 7017, the two members of NGC 7018, and PGC 69143. Based on a recessional velocity of 11045 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates a distance of about 515 million light years; but for objects at that distance we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. (This is of course a consideration for all the members of the NGC 7016 group.) Doing that shows that the galaxy was just under 495 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, a little over 500 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.0 by 0.9 arcmin, NGC 7016 is about 140 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7016, the namesake of the NGC 7016 galaxy group
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7016, also showing NGC 7017, 7018, and PGC 66149
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy, also showing NGC 7017
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 7016, the namesake of the NGC 7016 galaxy group

NGC 7017 (= PGC 66137 + PGC 2793723)
Discovered (Jul 8, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude galaxy pair in Capricornus
PGC 2793723 = A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) at RA 21 07 20.2, Dec -25 29 16
PGC 66137 = A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) at RA 21 07 20.3, Dec -25 29 15
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7017 (Leavenworth list I (#238), 1860 RA 20 59 15, NPD 116 03.1) is "extremely faint, very small, round, brighter middle and nucleus, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 7016 and 7018. The second IC lists a corrected position (per Howe) of RA 20 59 08, NPD 116 02.8.
Physical Information: NGC 7017 is comprised of a pair of galaxies, NGC 7017 NED01 (= PGC 2793723), and NGC 7017 NED02 (= PGC 66137). The former has a recessional velocity of 10385 km/sec, while the latter has a recessional velocity of 12890 km/sec, suggesting that they are not actually physically associated, but merely an optical double (the 2505 km/sec difference in recessional velocity corresponding to a difference in distance of more than 100 million light years). The western (and nearer) galaxy is a member of the NGC 7016 galaxy group, but the eastern (and more distant) galaxy is not. The apparent size of the pair is about 0.6 by 0.5? arcmin. (More to follow, including distances calculated using relativistic corrections.)
DSS image of the galaxy pair NGC 7017 (actually an optical double), the nearer of which is a member of the NGC 7016 galaxy group
Above, a 0.9 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 7017 (see NGC 7016 for a wide-field view)

NGC 7018 (= PGC 66141 = PGC 93985)
Discovered (Jul 8, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4? pec) in Capricornus (RA 21 07 25.4, Dec -25 25 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7018 (Leavenworth list I (#239), 1860 RA 20 59 15, NPD 116 01.1) is "very faint, very small, very little extended, gradually a little brighter middle, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 7016 and 7017. The second IC lists a corrected position (per Howe) of RA 20 59 13, NPD 115 59.3. Part of the NGC 7016 group of galaxies.
Physical Information: A double system consisting of NGC 7018 NED01 and NED02 (each PGC listing refers to the pair, not to either individual galaxy). Recessional velocity for NED01 is 11695 km/sec, for NED02 11515 km/sec. Apparent size 1.3 by 0.8? arcmin, but with an extended envelope about 2 arcmin across. (More to follow)
DSS image of galaxy pair NGC 7018, a member of the NGC 7016 galaxy group
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 7018; for a wide-field view, see NGC 7016

PGC 66149
Not an NGC object but listed here because part of the
NGC 7016 galaxy group
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Capricornus (RA 21 07 36.7, Dec -25 25 05)
Physical Information: Recessional velocity 11380 km/sec, apparent size 0.4 by 0.3? arcmin
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 66149, a member of the NGC 7016 galaxy group
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 66149; for a wide-field view, see NGC 7016

NGC 7019 (= PGC 66107)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Capricornus (RA 21 06 25.8, Dec -24 24 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7019 (Leavenworth list I (#240), 1860 RA 20 59±, NPD 114 58.1) is "very faint, very small, round, suddenly brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.3? arcmin

NGC 7020 (=
NGC 7021 = PGC 66291)
Discovered (Jun 22, 1835) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7021)
Discovered (Aug 31, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7020)
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Pavo (RA 21 11 19.9, Dec -64 01 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7020 (= GC 4635 = JH 3853, 1860 RA 20 59 39, NPD 154 35.8) is "pretty bright, considerably small, a little extended, pretty gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.5 by 1.6? arcmin

NGC 7021 (=
NGC 7020 = PGC 66291)
Discovered (Jun 22, 1835) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7021)
Looked for (date?) but not found by DeLisle Stewart (while listed as NGC 7021)
Looked for (date?) but not found by Royal Frost (while listed as NGC 7021)
Discovered (Aug 31, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7020)
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Pavo (RA 21 11 19.9, Dec -64 01 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7021 (= GC 4636 = JH 3854, 1860 RA 20 59 39, NPD 154 05.6) is "pretty faint, considerably small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, 7th or 8th magnitude star to west". The second IC notes "Not seen, DeLisle Stewart and Frost (h. one observation)", "h." being John Herschel. (Obviously not seen because JH's NPD was half a degree too far to the north.)
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 7020 for anything else.

NGC 7022 (= PGC 66224)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Indus (RA 21 09 35.1, Dec -49 18 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7022 (= GC 4637 = JH 3855, 1860 RA 20 59 45, NPD 139 52.2) is "most extremely faint, small, round, bright triple star to southeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.1? arcmin

NGC 7023, The Iris Nebula (= OCL 235)
Discovered (Oct 18, 1794) by
William Herschel
A 7th-magnitude star, open cluster and emission nebula in Cepheus (RA 21 01 35.5, Dec +68 10 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7023 (= GC 4634 = WH IV 74, 1860 RA 20 59 51, NPD 22 23.3) is "a 7th magnitude star in an extremely faint, extremely large nebulosity".
Physical Information: The star and open cluster associated with it are about 1300 light years away. The nebulosity is a reflection nebula, and like most reflection nebulae exhibits an even bluer color (due to light scattered by the dust in the nebula) than the hot, bluish star which lights it up. (The fanciful name of the nebula is based on its flowerlike shape and bluish tint.) Modern images also show extended dark clouds surrounding the emission nebula, which are primarily observed by the infrared radiation they emit. The open cluster is about 10 arcmin wide, which at its distance corresponds to about 3 light years, while the reflection nebula is about twice that size. The 7th-magnitude star which provides the main illumination for the nebula is HD 200775, a Be star (an emission-line star with a surface temperature between 20 and 40 thousand Fahrenheit degrees, so that most of its radiation is in the ultraviolet). The star is believed to still be contracting toward the Main Sequence, and is probably between 5 and 15 times the mass of the Sun. Its formation probably began about 100 thousand years ago, and it heated up and mostly blew away the gas and dust obscuring it about 5 thousand years ago. Once it reaches the Main Sequence it should last about a hundred million years before going supernova and becoming a neutron star (or less likely, a black hole).
DSS image of the Iris Nebula, NGC 7023
Above, a 24 arcmin wide DSS image of the region near NGC 7023
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the nebula and cluster (Image Credit Hunter Wilson)
Hunter Wilson image of NGC 7023, the Iris Nebula
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the nebula (Image Credit Adam Block, AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO closeup of NGC 7023, the Iris Nebula

NGC 7024
Discovered (Oct 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 18, 1828) by John Herschel
A star group in Cygnus (RA 21 06 04.8, Dec +41 29 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7024 (= GC 4638 = JH 2103 = WH VIII 57, 1860 RA 21 00 46, NPD 49 04.0) is "a cluster, poor, a little compressed, stars from 10th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 10 arcmin?

NGC 7025 (= PGC 66151)
Discovered (Sep 17, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Delphinus (RA 21 07 47.4, Dec +16 20 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7025 (= GC 5984, Marth #433, 1860 RA 21 01 14, NPD 74 13) is "very faint, very small, round, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.2? arcmin

NGC 7026, the "Cheeseburger Nebula"
Discovered (Jul 6, 1873) by
Sherburne Burnham
Discovered (Nov 18, 1880) by Ralph Copeland
An 11th-magnitude planetary nebula in Cygnus (RA 21 06 18.6, Dec +47 51 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7026 (Burnham, 1860 RA 21 01 33, NPD 42 42.8) is "pretty bright, binuclear, planetary nebula". The position precesses to RA 21 06 21.1, Dec +47 50 50, which is close to the southeastern corner of the nebula; so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The brightest parts of NGC 7026 do have a binuclear appearance, which has led to its fanciful modern moniker; but the nebula is actually a much larger, more elongated structure than views of its brighter central region might lead one to suspect. NGC 7026 is about 6500 light years away. Given that and its 0.7 by 0.4 arcmin apparent size, its longest (north-south) dimension is a little over one light year.
Composite of DSS, HST and Chandra images of region near planetary nebula NGC 7026
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 7026 (Composite of Chandra, HST and DSS images)
Below, a ? arcmin wide image of NGC 7026 (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, partial postprocessing Hajian et al)
Partially processed HST image of planetary nebula NGC 7026
Below, a 2.4 arcmin closeup of the nebula (composite of Chandra, HST and DSS images)
Composite of DSS, HST and Chandra images of planetary nebula NGC 7026
Below, a 1.0 arcmin wide composite of visible and X-ray images of the nebula (Image Credit Chandra, HST)
Composite of HST and Chandra images of planetary nebula NGC 7026

NGC 7027
Discovered (1878) by
Édouard Stephan
Discovered (Nov 14, 1879) by Thomas Webb
A 9th-magnitude planetary nebula in Cygnus (RA 21 07 01.7, Dec +42 14 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7027 (Stephan list IX (#27), Webb, 1860 RA 21 01 48, NPD 48 19.6) is "a planetary nebula, stellar = 8.5 magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.3 by 0.2 arcmin; perhaps 3000 light years away, formed about 600 years before the light by which we see it was emitted. Unusually massive, with perhaps 3 solar masses in the cloud of expanding gas.
DSS view of region centered on planetary nebula NGC 7027
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7027
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the nebula shows its size but no structural details
DSS closeup of planetary nebula NGC 7027
Below, an early ? arcmin wide HST image reveals a complex structure (Image Credit H. Bond (STScI), NASA)
HST closeup of planetary nebula NGC 7027
Below, a later ? arcmin wide HST image reveals more detail
(Image Credit William B. Latter (SIRTF Science Center/Caltech), NASA/ESA)
HST/NICMOS closeup of planetary nebula NGC 7027
Below, a new ? arcmin wide version of the HST images
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive/ESA/NASA; Delio Tolivia Cadrecha)
HST closeup of planetary nebula NGC 7027
Below, X-ray imaging is added to the mix (Image Credit STScI/Caltech/J.Westphal & W.Latter/NASA)
HST/NICMOS/Chandra composite of planetary nebula NGC 7027

NGC 7028
Recorded (Sep 17, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A lost or nonexistent object in Delphinus (RA 21 08 15.0, Dec +18 28 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7028 (= GC 5985, Marth #434, 1860 RA 21 01 48, NPD 72 05) is "very faint, small, very little extended".

NGC 7029 (= PGC 66318)
Discovered (Oct 10, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E??) in Indus (RA 21 11 51.7, Dec -49 17 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7029 (= GC 4639 = JH 3856, 1860 RA 21 02 07, NPD 139 51.4) is "bright, considerably small, round, pretty gradually much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.5 by 1.4? arcmin

NGC 7030 (= PGC 66283)
Discovered (Sep 3, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed by Ormond Stone
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Capricornus (RA 21 11 13.3, Dec -20 29 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7030 (Leavenworth list I (#241), 1860 RA 21 02 15, NPD 111 04.2) is "very faint, very small, irregularly round, brighter middle and nucleus". The first IC adds "Min of (1860) RA is 3 (Ormond Stone)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 7031 (= OCL 210)
Discovered (Sep 21, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 8, 1829) by John Herschel
A 9th-magnitude open cluster (type IV1p) in Cygnus (RA 21 06 52.0, Dec +50 50 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7031 (= GC 4640 = JH 2105 = WH VIII 74, 1860 RA 21 02 46, NPD 39 43.2) is "a cluster of triple stars, a little compressed".
Physical Information: Apparent size 15? arcmin

NGC 7032 (= PGC 66427)
Discovered (Jul 20, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Pavo (RA 21 15 22.9, Dec -68 17 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7032 (= GC 4641 = JH 3857, 1860 RA 21 02 47, NPD 158 52.0) is "very faint, considerably small, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 1.0? arcmin

NGC 7033 (= PGC 66228)
Discovered (Sep 17, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Pegasus (RA 21 09 36.2, Dec +15 07 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7033 (= GC 5986, Marth #435, 1860 RA 21 03 02, NPD 75 27) is "very faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.5? arcmin

NGC 7034 (= PGC 66227)
Discovered (Sep 17, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Pegasus (RA 21 09 38.1, Dec +15 09 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7034 (= GC 5987, Marth #436, 1860 RA 21 03 04, NPD 75 25) is "very faint, very small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 7035 (= PGC 66258)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Capricornus (RA 21 10 45.5, Dec -23 08 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7035 (Muller list II (#460), 1860 RA 21 03 15, NPD 113 39.2) is "extremely faint, small, irregularly round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7? arcmin

PGC 66257 (= "NGC 7035A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7035A
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in
Capricornus (RA 21 10 47.3, Dec -23 08 14)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.4? arcmin

NGC 7036
Discovered (Oct 11, 1825) by
John Herschel
Three stars in Pegasus (RA 21 10 12.0, Dec +15 22 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7036 (= GC 4642 = JH 2104, 1860 RA 21 03 37, NPD 75 07.1) is "a cluster, a little compressed".

NGC 7037
Discovered (Aug 5, 1829) by
John Herschel
A group of stars in Cygnus (RA 21 10 48.0, Dec +33 44 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7037 (= GC 4643 = JH 2106, 1860 RA 21 05 03, NPD 56 50.8) is "a cluster, pretty rich, irregular figure, stars from 11th to 15th magnitude".

NGC 7038 (= PGC 66414)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Indus (RA 21 15 07.5, Dec -47 13 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7038 (= GC 4644 = JH 3858, 1860 RA 21 05 39, NPD 137 47.8) is "pretty bright, pretty large, a little extended, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.1 by 1.4? arcmin

PGC 66421 (= "NGC 7038A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7038A
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in
Indus (RA 21 15 15.0, Dec -47 36 46)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.6? arcmin

NGC 7039 (= OCL 203)
Discovered (Sep 19, 1829) by
John Herschel
An 8th-magnitude open cluster (type III2p) in Cygnus (RA 21 11 12.0, Dec +45 39 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7039 (= GC 4645 = JH 2107, 1860 RA 21 06 14, NPD 44 53.5) is "a cluster, very large, pretty rich, extended, stars from 10th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 15? arcmin

NGC 7040 (= PGC 66366)
Discovered (Aug 18, 1882) by
Mark Harrington
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Equuleus (RA 21 13 16.5, Dec +08 51 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7040 (Harrington, 1860 RA 21 06 21, NPD 81 43) is "extremely faint, very large, much extended north-south (A. N. 2479)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.8? arcmin

NGC 7041 (= PGC 66463)
Discovered (Jul 7, 1834) by
John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Indus (RA 21 16 32.1, Dec -48 21 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7041 (= GC 4647 = JH 3859, 1860 RA 21 06 56, NPD 138 56.7) is "bright, considerably small, considerably extended, pretty suddenly much brighter middle, 10th magnitude star to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.6 by 1.5? arcmin

PGC 66519 (= "NGC 7041A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7041A
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBd?) in
Indus (RA 21 17 57.2, Dec -48 24 08)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.4? arcmin

PGC 129672 (= "NGC 7041B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7041B
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in
Indus (RA 21 17 49.6, Dec -48 23 26)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.3? arcmin

NGC 7042 (= PGC 66378)
Discovered (Oct 16, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 26, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Nov 7, 1868) by Herman Schultz
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Pegasus (RA 21 13 45.7, Dec +13 34 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7042 (= GC 4646 = WH III 209, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 21 07 05, NPD 77 00.0) is "very faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.8? arcmin

NGC 7043 (= PGC 66385)
Discovered (Aug 18, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Pegasus (RA 21 14 04.2, Dec +13 37 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7043 (= GC 5988, Marth #437, 1860 RA 21 07 23, NPD 76 57) is "very faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 1.0? arcmin

NGC 7044 (= OCL 198)
Discovered (Oct 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 1, 1828) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude open cluster (type II2r) in Cygnus (RA 21 13 09.4, Dec +42 29 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7044 (= GC 4648 = JH 2110 = WH VI 24, 1860 RA 21 07 45, NPD 48 04.7) is "a cluster, very faint, pretty large, very rich, very compressed, stars from 15th to 18th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 7? arcmin

NGC 7045
Recorded (Jul 16, 1827) by
John Herschel
Also observed (Nov 6, 1891) by Rudolf Spitaler
A pair of stars in Equuleus (RA 21 14 50.3, Dec +04 30 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7045 (= GC 4649 = JH 2108, 1860 RA 21 07 49, NPD 86 03.6) is "extremely faint". The first IC notes "7045 is not a nebula, but only a couple of very faint stars close together (Spitaler)".
Physical Information:

NGC 7046 (= PGC 66407)
Discovered (Oct 10, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 13, 1827) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Equuleus (RA 21 14 56.0, Dec +02 50 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7046 (= GC 4650 = JH 2109 = WH III 858, 1860 RA 21 07 53, NPD 87 44.3) is "extremely faint, pretty large, round, a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 1.4? arcmin

NGC 7047 (= PGC 66461)
Discovered (Aug 20, 1873) by
Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Aquarius (RA 21 16 27.4, Dec -00 49 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7047 (= GC 5989, Stephan list V (#5), 1860 RA 21 09 14, NPD 91 24.4) is "extremely faint, very small, binuclear east-west".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 7048
Discovered (Oct 19, 1878) by
Édouard Stephan
A 12th-magnitude planetary nebula in Cygnus (RA 21 14 15.2, Dec +46 17 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7048 (Stephan list IX (#28), 1860 RA 21 09 15 NPD 44 17.4) is "pretty faint, pretty large, diffuse, irregularly round, a very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1? arcmin
NOAO image of region near planetary nebula NGC 7048, superimposed on a DSS background
Above, a 12 arcmin wide NOAO/DSS composite image centered on NGC 7048
(Image Credit above & below Richard Robinson and Beverly Erdman/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide NOAO image of the nebula
NOAO image of planetary nebula NGC 7048

NGC 7049 (= PGC 66549)
Discovered (Aug 4, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Sep 30, 1834) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0(s)?) in Indus (RA 21 19 00.2, Dec -48 33 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7049 (= GC 4651 = JH 3860, Dunlop 406, 1860 RA 21 09 27, NPD 139 08.9) is "very bright, pretty small, extended, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.5 by 3.0? arcmin
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7049
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7049
Below, a 4.8 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7049
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide HST image of the nucleus (Image Credit W. Harris (McMaster University), NASA/ESA)
HST image of core of lenticular galaxy NGC 7049
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide version of the HST image with different post-processing
HST image of core of lenticular galaxy NGC 7049
Below, a 4.8 arcmin wide composite image shows the relative position of the HST images
HST image of core of lenticular galaxy NGC 7049, superimposed on a wider DSS view
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 6950 - 6999) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 7000 - 7049     → (NGC 7050 - 7099)