Celestial Atlas
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7217, 7218, 7219, 7220, 7221, 7222, 7223, 7224, 7225, 7226, 7227, 7228, 7229, 7230, 7231, 7232, 7233,
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Page last updated Apr 5, 2017
Checked Steinicke historical databases, added Dreyer NGC entries
WORKING 7200: Add/update Steinicke listings/data, check IDs

NGC 7200 (= PGC 68068)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Indus (RA 22 07 09.6, Dec -49 59 44)
Historical Identification: NGC 7200 (= GC 4748 = JH 3917, 1860 RA 21 58 08, NPD 140 40.8) is "pretty faint, small, round, suddenly much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.8? arcmin

NGC 7201 (= PGC 68040)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAa?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 06 32.0, Dec -31 15 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7201 (= GC 4749 = JH 3918, 1860 RA 21 58 27, NPD 121 55.5) is "faint, round, gradually brighter middle, 1st of 4", the others being NGC 7202, 7203 and 7204.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4415 km/sec, NGC 7201 is about 205 million light years away. This is not much further than apparently nearby NGC 7203, and if really at nearly the same distance, the two may be gravitationally bound (they are listed as possible group members in NED). Given its distance and apparent size of 1.6 by 0.5? arcmin, NGC 7201 is about 95 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7201, also showing part of  NGC 7203
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7201, also showing part of NGC 7203
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7201
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered between NGC 7201 and 7203
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7201 and lenticular galaxy NGC 7203

NGC 7202
Recorded (Aug 15, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude star in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 06 43.3, Dec -31 13 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7202 (= GC 4750 = JH 3920, 1860 RA 21 58 39, NPD 121 51.8) is "extremely faint, stellar, 2nd of 4", the others being NGC 7201, 7203 and 7204.

NGC 7203 (= PGC 68053)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB(r)0/a?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 06 43.8, Dec -31 09 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7203 (= GC 4751 = JH 3921, 1860 RA 21 58 40, NPD 121 49.7) is "considerably faint, round, stellar, 3rd of 4", the others being NGC 7201, 7202 and 7204.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 4060 km/sec, NGC 7203 is about 190 million light years away. Given that and its 1.6 by 0.9? arcmin apparent size, it is about 90 thousand light years across. Although considerably further away, NGC 7203 is in nearly the same direction as NGC 7204, which see for a wide-field image of the region between the two.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7203, also showing part of NGC 7201
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7203, also showing part of NGC 7201
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7203
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered between NGC 7201 and 7203
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7201 and lenticular galaxy NGC 7203

NGC 7204 (= PGC 68060 (= PGC 68054) + PGC 68061 (= PGC 2801173))
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A pair of interacting galaxies in Piscis Austrinus
PGC 68061 = 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) at RA 22 06 53.1, Dec -31 03 00
PGC 68060 = 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab? pec) at RA 22 06 55.0, Dec -31 03 13
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7204 (= GC 4752 = JH 3922, 1860 RA 21 58 48, NPD 121 43.5) is "pretty bright, large, a little extended, gradually brighter middle, 4th of 4", the others being NGC 7201, 7202 and 7203.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 2590 km/sec, galaxy pair NGC 7204 is about 120 million light years away. The more elongated southeastern Component 2 (PGC 68060) has a bright central region about 1.2 by 0.3, with a fainter western extension not quite the same size. Given that and its distance, the brighter portion is about 40 thousand light years across, and the overall extent of the galaxy is about 70 thousand light years. The irregularly round northwestern Component 1 (PGC 68061) has a bright central region about 0.6 by 0.4 arcmin, and fainter east-west extensions which approximately double that size. Given that and its distance, its brighter portion is about 20 thousand light years across, and the overall size of the galaxy is about 40 thousand light years. (Note: NED appears to reverse the size of the two components, although its coordinates agree with those listed above.) Even in the crude images below it is obvious that the two galaxies are strongly interacting, and a really good image of the pair would undoubtedly be quite spectacular.
DSS image of region near interacting galaxy pair NGC 7204
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7204
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the interacting pair of galaxies
DSS image of NGC 7204, an interacting pair of galaxies
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered between NGC 7204 and the more distant NGC 7203
DSS image of region between interacting galaxy pair NGC 7204 and the much more distant NGC 7203

NGC 7205 (= PGC 68128)
Discovered (Jul 10, 1834) by
John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)bc) in Tucana (RA 22 08 33.2, Dec -57 26 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7205 (= GC 4753 = JH 3919, 1860 RA 21 58 54, NPD 148 06.5) is "pretty bright, large, considerably extended, gradually then pretty suddenly a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1685 km/sec, NGC 7205 is about 80 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 50 to 75 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 4.0 by 2.0 arcmin, it is about 90 thousand light years across.
Wikisky cutout (credited to Jim Riffle) of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7205
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 7205 (Image Credit Wikisky cutout uploaded by Jim Riffle)
Below, a 4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image credit as above)
Wikisky cutout (credited to Jim Riffle) of spiral galaxy NGC 7205

PGC 68083 (= "NGC 7205A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7205A
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c?) in
Tucana (RA 22 07 32.0, Dec -57 27 51)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7235 km/sec, PGC 68083 is about 340 million light years away. Given that and its 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin apparent size, it is about 120 thousand light years across. (Note: Other than being in roughly the same direction, there is no relationship between "NGC 7205A" and NGC 7205, which is almost 300 million light years closer.)
Wikisky cutout (credited to Jim Riffle) of region near spiral galaxy PGC 68083, which is also known as NGC 7205A, superimposed on a DSS background
Above, a 12 arcmin wide composite image centered on PGC 68083
(Image credit for all images currently posted: Wikisky cutout posted by Jim Riffle, superimposed on a DSS background)
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide composite image of the galaxy
Composite of Wikisky cutout (credited to Jim Riffle) of spiral galaxy PGC 68083, which is also known as NGC 7205A, superimposed on a DSS background
Below, a 12 arcmin wide image centered between PGC 68083 and the much closer NGC 7205
Wikisky cutout (credited to Jim Riffle) of region between spiral galaxies NGC 7205 and PGC 68083 (which is also known as NGC 7205A)

NGC 7206 (= PGC 68014)
Discovered (Aug 7, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pegasus (RA 22 05 40.9, Dec +16 47 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7206 (= GC 6022, Marth #462, 1860 RA 21 58 56, NPD 73 54) is "faint, small, a little extended, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 7207 (= PGC 68017)
Discovered (Aug 7, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pegasus (RA 22 05 45.6, Dec +16 46 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7207 (= GC 6023, Marth #463, 1860 RA 21 59 00, NPD 73 55) is "very faint, small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.2? arcmin

NGC 7208 (= PGC 68120)
Discovered (Sep 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 08 24.7, Dec -29 03 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7208 (= GC 4754 = JH 3923, 1860 RA 21 59 25, NPD 119 44.0) is "very faint, very small, round, almost a planetary nebula". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 22 00 23.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.6? arcmin

NGC 7209 (= OCL 215)
Discovered (Oct 19, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 14, 1829) by John Herschel
An 8th-magnitude open cluster (type III1p) in Lacerta (RA 22 05 08.0, Dec +46 29 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7209 (= GC 4755 = JH 2147 = WH VII 53, 1860 RA 21 59 42, NPD 44 11.6) is "a cluster, large, considerably rich, pretty compressed, stars from 9th to 12th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size 15? arcmin.

NGC 7210 (=
NGC 7487 = PGC 70496)
Discovered (Nov 17, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7210)
Discovered (Aug 3, 1886) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as NGC 7487)
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 06 50.5, Dec +28 10 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7210 (= GC 4756 = JH 2148, 1860 RA 21 59 58, NPD 63 34.3) is "extremely faint, round, brighter middle, very faint double star to northwest". The position precesses to RA 22 06 22.2, Dec +27 06 31, but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there, so until recently the object was thought to be lost or nonexistent. However, in April 2016 Corwin took a look at the record of Herschel's sweep, and found that Herschel made a one hour error in recording the right ascension (which was too small), and a one degree error in the NPD (which was too large). Correcting for that, the position becomes 1860 RA 22 59 58, NPD 62 34.3, which precesses to RA 23 06 44.2, Dec 28 11 03, about 1.4 arcmin west northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Herschel's GC entry (and a GC note about it) showed that he was very uncertain about the position of the object, and Corwin stated in his original discussion of the observation (when it appeared to be of a lost or nonexistent object) that the NPD in Herschel's original record differed from that in the GC by a degree, but that he was unable to find anything at either declination (as it turns out, due to the unrecognized error in the right ascension). Reviewing Herschel's reduction of the NPD shows that the original record was correct and Herschel and Dreyer's usage of the incorrect NPD in the GC led to a one degree error in the declination. The error in the right ascension is not as obvious, but as discussed in detail by Corwin in his current notes, the only right ascension recorded in the sweep has a position differing from the clock entry by an hour. Presuming the clock entry was correct produces a one hour change in the right ascension, and reasonably accurate positions for all three objects observed in the sweep (two double stars and JH 2148), thereby confirming the accuracy of the present identification of NGC 7210 as a prior observation of NGC 7487.
Physical Information: Given the relatively recent discovery of the duplicate entry, NGC 7210 is still listed as lost or nonexistent in most places; so see NGC 7487 for anything else.

NGC 7211 (= PGC 68033)
Discovered (Aug 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth (464)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Aquarius (RA 22 06 21.8, Dec -08 05 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7211 (= GC 6024, Marth #464, 1860 RA 21 59 58, NPD 98 47) is "extremely faint, small, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7? arcmin
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7211
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7211
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7211

NGC 7212 (= PGC 68065)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Pegasus (RA 22 07 02.2, Dec +10 14 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7212 (Swift list V (#93), 1860 RA 22 00 06, NPD 80 26.6) is "extremely faint, very small, a little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.6? arcmin

NGC 7213 (= PGC 68165)
Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Grus (RA 22 09 16.2, Dec -47 10 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7213 (= GC 4757 = JH 3924, 1860 RA 22 00 29, NPD 137 50.6) is "very bright, pretty small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.1 by 2.8? arcmin

NGC 7214 (= PGC 68152)
Discovered (July 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc? pec) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 09 07.6, Dec -27 48 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7214 (= GC 4758 = JH 3926, 1860 RA 22 01 08, NPD 118 29.7) is "a globular cluster, pretty large, irregularly round, partially resolved (some stars seen)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.2 by 1.4? arcmin

NGC 7215 (= PGC 68127)
Discovered (Aug 11, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Aquarius (RA 22 08 34.5, Dec +00 30 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7215 (= GC 6025, Marth #465, 1860 RA 22 01 23, NPD 90 11) is "very faint, small, extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.4? arcmin

NGC 7216 (= PGC 68291)
Discovered (Jul 24, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Indus (RA 22 12 36.0, Dec -68 39 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7216 (= GC 4759 = JH 3925, 1860 RA 22 01 31, NPD 159 20.8) is "pretty faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.0? arcmin

NGC 7217 (= PGC 68096)
Discovered (Sep 7, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 5, 1829) by John Herschel
A 10th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Pegasus (RA 22 07 52.1, Dec +31 21 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7217 (= GC 4760 = JH 2149 = WH II 207, 1860 RA 22 01 37, NPD 59 19.4) is "bright, pretty large, gradually brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 by 3.4? arcmin

NGC 7218 (= PGC 68199)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1793) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 5, 1826) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Aquarius (RA 22 10 11.5, Dec -16 39 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7218 (= GC 4761 = JH 2150 = WH II 897, 1860 RA 22 02 35, NPD 107 20.2) is "pretty bright, a little extended, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.6 by 1.1? arcmin

NGC 7219 (= PGC 68312)
Discovered (Jun 22, 1835) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Tucana (RA 22 13 08.9, Dec -64 50 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7219 (= GC 4762 = JH 3927, 1860 RA 22 02 47, NPD 155 32.1) is "pretty bright, small, round, 2 stars near".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.0? arcmin

NGC 7220 (= PGC 68241)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Aquarius (RA 22 11 30.9, Dec -22 57 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7220 (Muller list II (#466), 1860 RA 22 02 50, NPD 113 40.7) is "extremely faint, very small, very little extended, gradually brighter middle, 10th magnitude star 3' to north". The second IC lists a corrected position (per Howe) of RA 22 03 43, NPD 113 38.2.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 7221 (= PGC 68235)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 11 15.1, Dec -30 33 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7221 (= GC 4763 = JH 3928, 1860 RA 22 03 14, NPD 121 14.4) is "faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, 2 very small (faint) stars near".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.6? arcmin

NGC 7222 (= PGC 68224)
Discovered (Aug 11, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Aquarius (RA 22 10 51.7, Dec +02 06 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7222 (= GC 6026, Marth #466, 1860 RA 22 03 45, NPD 88 35) is "very faint, small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 1.2? arcmin

NGC 7223 (= PGC 68197)
Discovered (Nov 8, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 1, 1828) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Lacerta (RA 22 10 09.2, Dec +41 01 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7223 (= GC 4764 = JH 2151 = WH III 862, 1860 RA 22 04 16, NPD 49 40.8) is "extremely faint, pretty small, a little extended, mottled but not resolved, among 3 stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.1? arcmin

NGC 7224 (= PGC 68242)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1863) by
Albert Marth
Discovered (Jul 25, 1870) by Édouard Stephan
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Pegasus (RA 22 11 35.3, Dec +25 51 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7224 (= GC 6027, Marth #467, Stephan list II (#??), 1860 RA 22 05 07, NPD 64 49.5) is "faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.0? arcmin

NGC 7225 (= PGC 68311)
Discovered (Jul 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a? pec) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 13 07.8, Dec -26 08 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7225 (= GC 4765 = JH 3929, 1860 RA 22 05 15, NPD 116 50.6) is "pretty faint, small, a little extended, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.0? arcmin

NGC 7226 (= OCL 226)
Discovered (Jun 20, 1881) by
Edward Holden
A 10th-magnitude open cluster (type I1p) in Cepheus (RA 22 10 27.0, Dec +55 23 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7226 (Holden (#22), 1860 RA 22 05 28, NPD 35 17) is "pretty bright, large, in cluster".
Physical Information: Apparent size 10? arcmin

NGC 7227 (= PGC 68243)
Discovered (Sep 1, 1872) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Lacerta (RA 22 11 31.3, Dec +38 43 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7227 (Stephan list IV (#8), 1860 RA 22 05 31, NPD 51 58.1) is "very faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle, northwestern of 2", the other being NGC 7228.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.6? arcmin

NGC 7228 (= PGC 68254)
Discovered (Sep 1, 1872) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Lacerta (RA 22 11 48.6, Dec +38 41 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7228 (= GC 6029, Stephan list IV (#9), 1860 RA 22 05 48, NPD 51 59.5) is "faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle, southeastern of 2", the other being NGC 7227.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 1.2? arcmin

NGC 7229 (= PGC 68344)
Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 14 03.3, Dec -29 23 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7229 (= GC 4766 = JH 3930, 1860 RA 22 06 05, NPD 120 04.1) is "faint, pretty large, round, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 1.5? arcmin

NGC 7230 (= PGC 68350)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1793) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 5, 1826) by John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Aquarius (RA 22 14 13.1, Dec -17 04 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7230 (= GC 4767 = JH 2152 = WH III 931, 1860 RA 22 06 37, NPD 107 45.7) is "very faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.9 by 0.9? arcmin

NGC 7231 (= PGC 68285)
Discovered (Oct 24, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 25, 1829) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Lacerta (RA 22 12 30.3, Dec +45 19 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7231 (= GC 4768 = JH 2153 = WH II 606, 1860 RA 22 06 43, NPD 45 20.9) is "extremely faint, small, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 7232 (= PGC 68431)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Grus (RA 22 15 37.6, Dec -45 51 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7232 (= GC 4769 = JH 3931, 1860 RA 22 06 57, NPD 136 32.5) is "pretty bright, small, pretty much extended, pretty suddenly brighter middle, western of 2", the other being NGC 7233.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.6 by 1.0? arcmin

PGC 68329 (= "NGC 7232A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7232A
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in
Grus (RA 22 13 41.1, Dec -45 53 37)
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 0.4? arcmin

PGC 68443 (= "NGC 7232B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7232B
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBm?) in
Grus (RA 22 15 52.4, Dec -45 46 50)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.5? arcmin

NGC 7233 (= PGC 68441)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Grus (RA 22 15 49.0, Dec -45 50 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7233 (= GC 4770 = JH 3932, 1860 RA 22 07 08, NPD 136 32.3) is "faint, very small, round, 8th magnitude star to east, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 7232.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.3? arcmin

NGC 7234 (=
NGC 7235 = OCL 229)
Discovered (Oct 16, 1787) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7234)
Discovered (Sep 24, 1829) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7235)
A magnitude 7.7 open cluster in Cepheus (RA 22 12 24.0, Dec +57 16 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7234 (= GC 4771 = WH VIII 63, 1860 RA 22 07 08, NPD 33 42.9) is "a cluster, small, poor, a little compressed". The position precesses to RA 22 12 06.7, Dec +56 58 33, but there is nothing there, or at least nothing obvious. Various suggestions have been made over the years, assigning one or more small groups of stars (corresponding to "small, poor") to this NGC entry, but most modern catalogs listed it as lost or nonexistent. As it happens the problem with Herschel's observation was solved by Arthur von Auwers in an 1862 publication of observations and corrections for objects in Herschel's catalogs. On page 197 of that work he lists a corrected position for (WH) VIII 63 of (1830) RA 22 06 21, Dec +56 26, which precesses to RA 22 12 22.0, Dec +57 16 18, right on the cluster recorded by John Herschel as JH 2154. Unfortunately, although Auwers' publication specifically noted the equivalence of the two observations, the younger Herschel failed to notice Auwers' correction when compiling his General Catalog, as did Dreyer when compiling his New General Catalog. So even though Auwers discovered the equivalence of what became NGC 7234 and NGC 7235 two years before the publication of the GC and 25 years before the publication of the NGC, what the elder Herschel had observed remained essentially unknown for well over a century.
Discovery Notes: As noted above John Herschel did not notice Auwers' correction when he compiled the GC, nor did Dreyer when he compiled the NGC; and though Dreyer's 1912 study of Herschel's papers revealed an error in the reduction of Herschel's position by his sister Caroline, Dreyer failed to realize that this meant that NGC 7234 = NGC 7235, and did not include "7234 = 7235" in his 1912 list of corrections to the NGC. As a result, for many years NGC 7234 was thought to be a completely different cluster, and was listed as such by Steinicke as recently as 2013; and since I used Steinicke's database when I entered the basic information for this page in 2012, NGC 7234 was also misidentified here until I received a private communication in early 2015. If I'd had time to get back to this entry earlier I would have noticed that Corwin's 2004 update of his database included a reference to Auwers' paper and the resulting equality of the two NGC entries, but as those following my work on this catalog are aware, it is a long-term project, so save for entries that include complete historical identifications there are probably many similar mistakes yet to be unearthed.
Physical Information: Given the centuries-long error in the identification of NGC 7234, see NGC 7235 for anything else.
DSS image of the region near Herschel's incorrect published position for his VIII 63, also showing the position of the cluster therefore long thought to be NGC 7234, the correct position for Herschel's VIII 63, and John Herschel's JH 2154 = NGC 7235
Above, a 45 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Herschel's incorrect published position for his VIII 63, also showing the position of the cluster therefore long thought to be NGC 7234, the correct position for Herschel's VIII 63, and John Herschel's JH 2154 = NGC 7235

The "cluster" formerly known as NGC 7234
Not an NGC object but listed here since long thought to be
NGC 7234
A sparse grouping of stars in Cepheus (RA 22 12 28.0, Dec +57 02 30)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry above, until recently many catalogs incorrectly listed this grouping as NGC 7234 (though as many or more catalogs listed that NGC object as lost or nonexistent).
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.5? arcmin.
DSS image of region near the sparse grouping of stars formerly thought to be NGC 7234
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the "cluster" formerly thought to be NGC 7234

NGC 7235 (= OCL 229 and =
NGC 7234)
Discovered (Oct 16, 1787) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7234)
Discovered (Sep 24, 1829) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7235)
A magnitude 7.7 open cluster in Cepheus (RA 22 12 24.0, Dec +57 16 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7235 (= GC 4772 = JH 2154, 1860 RA 22 07 35, NPD 33 25.2) is "a cluster, pretty compressed, has a ruby 10th magnitude star".
Discovery Notes: See NGC 7234 for a discussion of the duplicate listing.
Physical Information: Apparent size 6 arcmin?
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 7235
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7235

NGC 7236 (= PGC 68384, and with
NGC 7237 and PGC 200377 = Arp 169)
Discovered (Aug 25, 1864) by Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/SB0?) in Pegasus (RA 22 14 45.0, Dec +13 50 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7236 (= GC 6030, Marth #468, 1860 RA 22 07 56, NPD 76 52) is "very faint, small, stellar".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7880 km/sec, NGC 7236 is about 365 million light years away, in poor agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of only 250 to 280 million light years. Assuming a distance corresponding to its redshift, its apparent size of 1.25 by 0.55 arcmin would represent a physical size of about 130 thousand light years. It is a contact companion of NGC 7237, meaning that whatever their distance, the two galaxies are at the same distance from us. A third galaxy in line with the pair, PGC 200377 (listed in NED as NGC 7237C), is probably not physically connected with them, but may be a member of the same group of galaxies. (Whether the pair is physically connected to PGC 200377 or not, the triplet is used by the Arp Atlas as an example of galaxies with diffuse counter-tails.)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy pair NGC 7236 and NGC 7237, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 200377; the three galaxies are also known as Arp 169
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7236 and 7237, also showing PGC 200377
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxies
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy pair NGC 7236 and NGC 7237, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 200377; the three galaxies are also known as Arp 169

NGC 7237 (= PGC 68383, and with
NGC 7236 and PGC 200377 = Arp 169)
Discovered (Aug 25, 1864) by Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Pegasus (RA 22 14 46.9, Dec +13 50 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7237 (= GC 6031, Marth #469, 1860 RA 22 07 58, NPD 76 52) is "very faint, small, stellar".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7870 km/sec, NGC 7237 is about 365 million light years away, in poor agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of only 250 to 280 million light years. Assuming a distance corresponding to its redshift, its apparent size of 1.8 by 0.7 arcmin would represent a physical size of about 190 thousand light years. It is a contact companion of NGC 7236 (which see for images), meaning that whatever their distance the two galaxies are at the same distance from us. (Whether the pair is physically connected to PGC 200377 or not, the triplet is used by the Arp Atlas as an example of galaxies with diffuse counter-tails.)

PGC 200377 (= "NGC 7237C", and with
NGC 7236 and NGC 7237 = Arp 169)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7237C
A magnitude 16(?) lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Pegasus (RA 22 14 48.8, Dec +13 50 01)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 7155 km/sec, PGC 200377 (listed in NED as NGC 7237C) is about 330 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.45 by 0.35 arcmin, it is about 45 thousand light years across. PGC 200377 is nearly in line with galaxy pair NGC 7237 and 7236 (which see for images), and may be a group member with them; but the 700 km/sec velocity difference between it and the pair implies that it is over 30 million light years closer to us. Even if PGC 200377 happened to be at the same distance as the pair and its difference in velocity is not due to a difference in distance but to a difference in the galaxies' peculiar velocities (that is, their random motions relative to each other), such a large velocity relative to its "companions" would prevent it from remaining in their sphere of influence for very long. So whether it is a foreground object or not, it is not a permanent companion of the two larger galaxies. (Whether the pair is physically connected to PGC 200377 or not, the triplet is used by the Arp Atlas as an example of galaxies with diffuse counter-tails.)

NGC 7238
Recorded (Sep 1, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A lost or nonexistent object in Pegasus (RA 22 15 20.5, Dec +22 31 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7238 (Swift list IV (#82), 1860 RA 22 08 45, NPD 68 10.5) is "pretty faint, small, round, much brighter middle, 4 stars to west".

NGC 7239 (= PGC 68388)
Discovered (Oct 1, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Aquarius (RA 22 15 01.3, Dec -05 03 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7239 (= GC 6032, Marth #470, 1860 RA 22 08 46, NPD 95 44) is "extremely faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.7? arcmin

NGC 7240 (= PGC 68415)
Discovered (Sep 24, 1873) by
Édouard Stephan
Probably observed (date?) by Edward Barnard
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Lacerta (RA 22 15 22.7, Dec +37 16 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7240 (= GC 6033, Stephan list V (#6), 1860 RA 22 09 16, NPD 53 25.1) is "extremely faint, extremely small, star attached on north, western of 2", the other being NGC 7242. The second IC notes "Barnard, A.N. 4136, gives a sketch of six nebulae, three of which must be 7240, 7242, and Bigourdan 449, but it is difficult to identify these".
Discovery Notes: Bigourdan did observe NGC 7240 (in 1885, 1889 and 1895), but his #449 is not that galaxy, but IC 5195, a compact galaxy on the northeastern rim of NGC 7242; hence my leaving his name out of the list of credited observers of NGC 7240.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 7241 (= PGC 68442)
Discovered (Sep 3, 1872) by
Édouard Stephan
Also observed (Aug 25, 1887) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc? pec) in Pegasus (RA 22 15 49.7, Dec +19 13 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7241 (= GC 6034, Stephan list IV (#10), 1860 RA 22 09 24, NPD 71 27.9) is "pretty faint, a little extended, 10th magnitude star attached on south". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 22 09 08.
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.4 by 1.1? arcmin.

NGC 7242 (= PGC 68434)
Discovered (August? 1865) by
Auguste Voigt
Discovered (Sep 24, 1873) by Édouard Stephan
Also observed (date?) by Edward Barnard
A 13th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Lacerta (RA 22 15 39.3, Dec +37 17 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7242 (= GC 6035, Stephan list V (#??), (Voigt 10), 1860 RA 22 09 33, NPD 53 24.1) is "very faint, small, a little brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 7240. (See the second IC note for NGC 7240.)
Discovery Notes: Voigt's discovery was one of ten nebulae he discovered between March and August of 1865; but they were only noted in his observing records, and were not published until 1987, so Dreyer had no knowledge of his observation, hence his inclusion in the NGC entry in parentheses.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.3 by 1.7? arcmin

NGC 7243 (= OCL 221)
Discovered (Sep 26, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 8, 1829) by John Herschel
A 6th-magnitude open cluster (type IV2p) in Lacerta (RA 22 15 08.5, Dec +49 53 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7243 (= GC 4773 = JH 2155 = WH VIII 75, 1860 RA 22 09 41, NPD 40 48.9) is "a cluster, large, poor, a little compressed, stars very large (bright)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 30 arcmin?

NGC 7244 (= PGC 68468)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1872) by
Édouard Stephan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Pegasus (RA 22 16 26.7, Dec +16 28 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7244 (= GC 6036, Stephan list IV (#11), 1860 RA 22 09 41, NPD 74 13.5) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.4? arcmin

NGC 7245 (= OCL 225)
Discovered (Oct 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 8, 1831) by John Herschel
A 9th-magnitude open cluster (type II1p) in Lacerta (RA 22 15 12.0, Dec +54 20 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7245 (= GC 4774 = JH 2157 = WH VI 29, 1860 RA 22 10 02, NPD 36 22.0) is "a cluster, compressed, stars extremely small (faint)".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5 arcmin?

NGC 7246 (=
IC 5198 = PGC 68512)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1793) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7246)
Also observed (Jul 27, 1830) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7246)
Discovered (Oct 16, 1898) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 5198)
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Aquarius (RA 22 17 42.6, Dec -15 34 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7246 (= GC 4775 = JH 2156 = WH III 932, 1860 RA 22 10 09, NPD 106 15.7) is "very faint, small, very little extended, very gradually brighter middle, 13th magnitude star to north".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 0.8? arcmin

NGC 7247 (= PGC 68511)
Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Aquarius (RA 22 17 41.1, Dec -23 43 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7247 (Leavenworth list I (#248), 1860 RA 22 10 20, NPD 114 25.9) is "pretty faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle, bright double star 13 seconds of time to west". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 22 09 53.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 0.8? arcmin.

NGC 7248 (= PGC 68485)
Discovered (Nov 8, 1790) by
William Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Lacerta (RA 22 16 52.5, Dec +40 30 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7248 (= GC 4776 = WH III 863, 1860 RA 22 11 00, NPD 50 10.2) is "very faint, very small, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 0.9? arcmin

NGC 7249 (= PGC 68606)
Discovered (Oct 4, 1834) by
John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type SA0?) in Grus (RA 22 20 30.9, Dec -55 07 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7429 (= GC 4777 = JH 3933, 1860 RA 22 11 26, NPD 145 48.9) is "most extremely faint, round, doubtful object".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11945 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7249 is about 555 million light years away. However, for objects at that distance we must take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 530 million light years away when the light by which we see it was emitted, about 540 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light travel time). Given that and its apparent size of 1.1 by 0.8 arcmin, NGC 7249 is about 170 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7249
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7249
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7249
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 7150 - 7199) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 7200 - 7249     → (NGC 7250 - 7299)