Celestial Atlas
(NGC 7500 - 7549) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 7550 - 7599 Link for sharing this page on Facebook     → (NGC 7600 - 7649)
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7550, 7551, 7552, 7553, 7554, 7555, 7556, 7557, 7558, 7559, 7560, 7561, 7562, 7563, 7564, 7565, 7566,
7567, 7568, 7569, 7570, 7571, 7572, 7573, 7574, 7575, 7576, 7577, 7578, 7579, 7580, 7581, 7582, 7583,
7584, 7585, 7586, 7587, 7588, 7589, 7590, 7591, 7592, 7593, 7594, 7595, 7596, 7597, 7598, 7599

Page last updated Apr 14, 2017
Checked historical references, added Dreyer's NGC entries
WORKING 7550: Add/update Dreyer/Steinicke listings/data, check IDs

NGC 7550 (= PGC 70830, and with
NGC 7549 = Arp 99)
Discovered (Sep 18, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 26, 1827) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 15 16.0, Dec +18 57 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7550 (= GC 4915 = JH 2219 = WH III 181, 1860 RA 23 08 19, NPD 71 48.1) is "considerably faint, small, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.4 by 1.2 arcmin? Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a spiral galaxy (NGC 7549) with an elliptical companion. Some catalogs incorrectly include NGC 7547 as part of Arp 99, so see that entry for a discussion of why that is wrong. However, NGC 7547 probably is part of a triple system with the pair of galaxies that form Arp 99, as all three have similar radial velocities.

NGC 7551 (= PGC 70791 (?))
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pegasus (RA 23 15 22.0, Dec +15 56 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7551 (= GC 6152, Marth #548, 1860 RA 23 08 22, NPD 74 50) is "a nebulous star of 13th magnitude".
Physical Information: Save for its apparent size of about 0.3 by 0.2 arcmin, nothing seems to be known about NGC 7551. This is probably partly due to considerable confusion about which galaxy corresonds to this entry. An NED search for NGC 7551 lists the position above, and states that the galaxy is PGC 70791. But LEDA gives a position for PGC 70791 which is identical to PGC 70788, which is NGC 7540, and as a result every other search result I've seen for NGC 7551 shows NGC 7540 instead. There is a obviously a serious error somewhere, which I hope to clear up in the next iteration of this page.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7551
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy listed here as NGC 7551
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7551

NGC 7552 (=
IC 5294 = PGC 70884 = a member of the Grus Quartet)
Discovered (Jul 7, 1826) by James Dunlop (and later listed as NGC 7552)
Also observed (Sep 2, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7552)
Discovered (Oct 22, 1897) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 5294)
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(s)ab?) in Grus (RA 23 16 10.6, Dec -42 35 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7552 (= GC 4916 = JH 3977, Dunlop 475?, 1860 RA 23 08 25, NPD 133 21.5) is "bright, small, much extended 90°±, very suddenly brighter middle equal to 13th magnitude star".
Physical Information: A member of the Grus Quartet of spiral galaxies (NGC 7552, 7582, 7590 and 7599, as shown in the images below). Based on a recessional velocity of 1610 km/sec, NGC 7552 is about 75 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 70 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 3.4 by 2.7 arcmin, it is about 75 thousand light years across. Two of the four members of the Grus Quartet are also listed as members of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group, with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all of the Grus Quartet members are presumably also members of the larger group.
False-color Spitzer/SINGS/IRSA optical image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7552, a member of the Grus Quartet of galaxies
Above, a 12 arcmin wide false-color image centered on NGC 7552 (Image Credit SINGS/IRSA)
Below, a 4 arcmin wide monochromatic image of the galaxy (Image Credit as above)
Monochromatic version of false-color Spitzer/SINGS/IRSA optical image of spiral galaxy NGC 7552, a member of the Grus Quartet of galaxies
Below, a ? arcmin wide false-color HST image of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
Raw exaggerated-color HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 7552, a member of the Grus Quartet of galaxies
Below, a 45 arcmin wide DSS image of the Grus Quartet, using image overlays (NGC 7552 Image Credit SINGS/IRSA; NGC 7582, 7590 and 7599 Image Credit & © Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission)
DSS image of the Grus Quartet of spiral galaxies, comprising NGC 7552, 7582, 7590 and 7599, adding Observatorio Antilhue and Spitzer/SINGS/IRAS image overlays

NGC 7553 (= PGC 70842)
Discovered (Nov 2, 1850) by
Bindon Stoney
Also observed (Sep 25, 1867) by Herman Schultz
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 15 33.0, Dec +19 02 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7553 (= GC 4913 = GC 6153, 3rd Lord Rosse, Schultz, 1860 RA 23 08 26, NPD 71 46.8) is "very faint, very small, round".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.4 by 0.4? arcmin.

NGC 7554 (= PGC 70850)
Discovered (Aug 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 15th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Pisces (RA 23 15 41.3, Dec -02 22 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7554 (= GC 6154, Marth #549, 1860 RA 23 08 29, NPD 93 09) is "extremely faint, extremely small, almost stellar, h 2220 to east", (JH) 2220 being NGC 7556.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.4 by 0.4? arcmin. Apparently on the outskirts of NGC 7556, which see for images.

NGC 7555
Recorded (Sep 11, 1828) by
John Herschel
A lost or nonexistent object in Pegasus (RA 23 15 30.0, Dec +12 34 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7555 (= GC 4918 = JH 2221, 1860 RA 23 08 30±, NPD 78 11±) is "faint, round, brighter middle, place very rough". Probably a misrecorded observation of NGC 7515, 7536, 7559, 7563, or 7570

NGC 7556 (= PGC 70855)
Discovered (Sep 20, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 16, 1827) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Pisces (RA 23 15 44.4, Dec -02 22 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7556 (= GC 4919 = JH 2220 = WH II 235, 1860 RA 23 08 32, NPD 93 09.1) is "considerably faint, pretty large, round, bright double star to east".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 2.5 by 1.6? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7556, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 7554
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7556, also showing NGC 7554
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxies, also showing J2315437-022309
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7556 and PGC 4662918, also showing elliptical galaxy NGC 7554

J2315437-022309 (= "PGC 4662918" = "NGC 7556A")
Not an NGC object, but listed here since often called NGC 7556A
A 15th-magnitude compact galaxy (type C??) in
Pisces (RA 23 15 43.7, Dec -02 23 09)
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.3 by 0.2? arcmin. Given the lack of absorption or obscuration by its neighbors, probably a foreground object merely in line with the halo of NGC 7556 (which see for images). However, given the large number of galaxies in the region, probably a member of the same cluster of galaxies. (Note: Although listed as PGC 4662918 in LEDA, a search for that object returns nothing, whereas a search for 2MASXJ23154371-0223089 or NGC 7556A does show the object.)

NGC 7557 (= PGC 70854)
Discovered (Sep 16, 1852) by
Bindon Stoney
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pisces (RA 23 15 39.7, Dec +06 42 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7557 (= GC 4917, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 23 08 33, NPD 84 03.3) is "very faint, very small, western of 2", the other presumably being NGC 7562.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.6 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 7558 (= PGC 70844)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 15th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 15 38.2, Dec +18 55 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7558 (= GC 6155, Marth #550, 1860 RA 23 08 41, NPD 71 51) is "most extremely faint, nebulous star of 13th magnitude".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.4 by 0.4? arcmin.

NGC 7559 (= PGC 70864)
Discovered (Oct 19, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 12, 1825) by John Herschel
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 15 46.5, Dec +13 17 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7559 (= GC 4920 = JH 2222 = WH III 221, 1860 RA 23 08 46, NPD 77 28.4) is "faint, considerably small, round, brighter middle equal to 16th magnitude star, northwestern of 2", the other being NGC 7563.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.0 by 0.8 arcmin. Accompanied by a much fainter companion, PGC 70852, which is sometimes called NGC 7559B; however, it is not unusual for that galaxy to be mislabeled as NGC 7559 and the main galaxy as NGC 7559B, providing another example of why such non-standard designations should never be used.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7559, also showing NGC 7563
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7559, also showing NGC 7563
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 7559 and PGC 70852
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7559, also showing PGC 70852

PGC 70852 (= "NGC 7559B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 7559B
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in
Pegasus (RA 23 15 46.1, Dec +13 17 49)
Historical Identification: Despite its apparent proximity to NGC 7559, PGC 70852 is far to faint for Herschel to have seen, so even if it turns out to be a physical companion of the brighter galaxy, it would not be considered part of the NGC entry.
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: As in many cases where letters are added to NGC/IC designations to identify other objects, contradictory and confusing misidentifications have been applied to this object, which is sometimes misidentified as NGC 7559, leading its much brighter companion to be misidentified as NGC 7559B. For such reasons, the use of letters attached to NGC/IC designations should be strongly discouraged.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.3 by 0.2? arcmin.

NGC 7560
Recorded (Oct 5, 1864) by
Herman Schultz
A pair of stars in Pisces (RA 23 15 53.8, Dec +04 29 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7560 (= GC 6156, Schultz (#2, Nova X), 1860 RA 23 08 47, NPD 86 16.0) is "faint, very small, irregularly round, southwestern of 2", the other being NGC 7561.

NGC 7561
Recorded (Oct 5, 1864) by
Herman Schultz
Also observed (Nov 19, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A 14th-magnitude star in Pisces (RA 23 15 57.5, Dec +04 31 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7561 (= GC 6157, Schultz (#3, Nova XI), 1860 RA 23 08 51, NPD 86 14.5) is "faint, very small, irregularly round, northeastern of 2", the other being NGC 7560. The second IC adds "I assume this = Bigourdan 350, RA 23 08 50, NPD 86 15, extremely faint, stellar".

NGC 7562 (= PGC 70874)
Discovered (Oct 25, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 25, 1830) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Pisces (RA 23 15 57.6, Dec +06 41 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7562 (= GC 4921 = JH 2224 = WH II 467, 1860 RA 23 08 51, NPD 84 04.5) is "considerably bright, pretty small, irregularly round, pretty suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 2.2 by 1.7? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7562, also showing NGC 7557 and PGC 70880, which is also called NGC 7562A
Above, a 12 arcmin SDSS image centered on NGC 7562, also showing NGC 7557 and PGC 70880
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 7562

PGC 70880 (= "NGC 7562A")
Not an NGC object, but listed here since often called NGC 7562A
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sd?) in
Pisces (RA 23 16 01.3, Dec +06 39 11)
Historical Identification:
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.5 by 0.4? arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 70880, also known as NGC 7562A
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 70880; for a wide-field image, see NGC 7562

NGC 7563 (= PGC 70872)
Discovered (Oct 19, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 12, 1825) by John Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Pegasus (RA 23 15 55.9, Dec +13 11 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7563 (= GC 4922 = JH 2223 = WH III 222, 1860 RA 23 08 55, NPD 77 34.0) is "pretty faint, considerably small, round, suddenly brighter middle equal to 16th magnitude star, southeastern of 2", the other being NGC 7559.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.9 by 0.9? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7563, also showing NGC 7559
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7563, also showing NGC 7559
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7563

NGC 7564
Recorded (Oct 7, 1885) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A 14th-magnitude star in Pisces (RA 23 16 01.1, Dec +07 20 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7564 (Bigourdan (list II #96), 1860 RA 23 08 56, NPD 83 25) is "very faint, extremely small, stellar nucleus".

NGC 7565
Recorded (1865) by
Gaspare Ferrari
A lost or nonexistent object in Pisces (RA 23 16 19.0, Dec -00 03 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7565 (= GC 6158, Secchi (#2), 1860 RA 23 09 09, NPD 90 49.2) is "very faint".
Discovery Notes: Ferrari was a fellow of the Roman College Observatory, whose director was Angelo Secchi. Secchi wrote the paper announcing Ferrari's discoveries, so he received the credit in the corresponding NGC entries.

NGC 7566 (= PGC 70901)
Discovered (Sep 20, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 23, 1884) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Pisces (RA 23 16 37.4, Dec -02 19 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7566 (= GC 4923 = WH III 185, 1860 RA 23 09 09, NPD 93 06.9) is "very faint, pretty small, extended, extremely mottled but not resolved, 3 faint stars involved". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 23 09 26.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.4 by 0.7? arcmin.

NGC 7567 (= PGC 70885)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Pegasus (RA 23 16 10.8, Dec +15 51 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7567 (= GC 6159, Marth #551, 1860 RA 23 09 10, NPD 74 56) is "most extremely faint, very small, extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.9 by 0.2? arcmin.

NGC 7568 (=
NGC 7574 = PGC 70892)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest(and later listed as NGC 7574)
Discovered (Oct 17, 1876) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 7568)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pegasus (RA 23 16 24.9, Dec +24 29 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7568 (= GC 6160, Stephan list VIII (#28), 1860 RA 23 09 32, NPD 66 16.0) is "extremely faint, pretty large, irregularly round, several stars involved".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.9 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 7569 (= PGC 70914)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0? pec) in Pegasus (RA 23 16 44.5, Dec +08 54 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7569 (Swift list IV (#93), 1860 RA 23 09 40, NPD 79 51.4) is "very faint, small, round, 3 faint stars to southeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.0 by 0.7? arcmin.

NGC 7570 (= PGC 70912)
Discovered (Nov 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Pegasus (RA 23 16 44.7, Dec +13 29 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7570 (= GC 4924 = WH III 238, 1860 RA 23 09 43, NPD 77 16.9) is "extremely faint, extremely small".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.6 by 0.9? arcmin.

NGC 7571 (=
NGC 7597 = PGC 71006)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 7597)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1867) by Herman Schultz (and later listed as NGC 7571)
Also observed (Sep 23, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan (while listed as NGC 7571)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 18 30.3, Dec +18 41 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7571 (= GC 6161, Schultz, 1860 RA 23 09 50, NPD 71 47) is "very faint, considerably extended, several knots or groups of nebulae". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 23 10 12.
Discovery Notes: A reference to h 2219 (= NGC 7550) in Steinicke's Historical NGC/IC entry for NGC 7571 makes no sense to me; but I will try to resolve that question in the next iteration of this page.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.0 by 1.0? arcmin.

NGC 7572 (= PGC 70919)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Pegasus (RA 23 16 50.3, Dec +18 29 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7572 (= GC 6162, Marth #552, 1860 RA 23 09 52, NPD 72 18) is "most extremely faint, almost stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.8 by 0.2? arcmin.

NGC 7573 (= PGC 70893)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Aquarius (RA 23 16 26.3, Dec -22 09 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7573 (Muller list II (#473), 1860 RA 23 09 54, NPD 112 55.8) is "extremely faint, small, irregularly round, brighter on northwest, 10th magnitude star 4' to west". The second IC notes "RA is about 50 seconds too great (Howe)".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.3 by 1.1? arcmin.

NGC 7574 (=
NGC 7568 = PGC 70892)
Discovered (Oct 2, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest(and later listed as NGC 7574)
Discovered (Oct 17, 1876) by Édouard Stephan (and later listed as NGC 7568)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pegasus (RA 23 16 24.9, Dec +24 29 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7574 (= GC 6163, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 23 09 59, NPD 66 46.2) is "pretty faint, small, extended, partially resolved (some stars seen)".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 7568 for anything else.

NGC 7575 (= PGC 70946)
Discovered (Aug 29, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pisces (RA 23 17 20.9, Dec +05 39 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7575 (= GC 6164, Marth #553, 1860 RA 23 10 10, NPD 84 07) is "faint, small, very little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.5 by 0.3? arcmin.

NGC 7576 (= PGC 70948)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1785) by
William Herschel
A 13th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Aquarius (RA 23 17 22.7, Dec -04 43 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7576 (= GC 4925 = WH II 454, 1860 RA 23 10 11, NPD 95 29.8) is "faint, small, suddenly much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.3 by 0.9? arcmin.

NGC 7577 (= PGC 70947)
Discovered (Oct 7, 1885) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
A 16th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pisces (RA 23 17 17.1, Dec +07 21 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7577 (Bigourdan (list II #97), 1860 RA 23 10 13, NPD 83 23) is "a magnitude 13.5 star in a very faint nebula".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.3 by 0.2? arcmin.

NGC 7578 (= PGC 70933 + PGC 70934 = part of Hickson Compact Group 94)
Discovered (Sep 18, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 26, 1827) by John Herschel
A pair of 14th-magnitude galaxies in Pegasus
PGC 70933 = A lenticular galaxy (type S0?) at RA 23 17 11.9, Dec +18 42 05
PGC 70934 = An elliptical galaxy (type E1?) at RA 23 17 13.5, Dec +18 42 30
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7578 (= GC 4926 = JH 2225 = WH III 182, 1860 RA 23 10 14, NPD 72 04.3) is "very faint, among very small (faint) stars". The description is due to John Herschel; his father William only noted "faint". The position is not good enough to tell which of the two galaxies Herschel observed. PGC 70934 is a more intense point of light (having the same brightness in a smaller area, as stated below), so that may be what Herschel noticed; but keeping in mind the limit of brightness and resolution two hundred plus years ago, odds are that he saw the combined light of the pair.
Physical Information: PGC 70933 is about 0.8 by 0.8 arcmin, and PGC 70934 about 0.4 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near the pair of galaxies comprising NGC 7578
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7578
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, identifying the individual components
SDSS image of the pair of galaxies comprising NGC 7578

NGC 7579 (= PGC 70964)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude compact galaxy (type C??) in Pegasus (RA 23 17 38.8, Dec +09 26 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7579 (= GC 6165, Marth #554, 1860 RA 23 10 34, NPD 81 20) is "extremely faint, very small, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.5 by 0.4? arcmin.

NGC 7580 (= PGC 70962)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S?) in Pegasus (RA 23 17 36.6, Dec +14 00 05)
Historical Identification: Per NGC 7580 (Swift list V (#99), 1860 RA 23 10 35, NPD 76 45.7) is "very faint, pretty small, round, faint star to southwest". The second IC lists a corrected position (per Howe) of RA 23 10 19, NPD 76 40.7.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 0.8 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 7581 (=
NGC 7541 = PGC 70795)
Discovered (Aug 30, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7541)
Discovered (Jan 11, 1875) by Horace Tuttle or Edward Holden (and later listed as NGC 7581)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Pisces (RA 23 14 43.2, Dec +04 32 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7581 (= GC 6166, Holden, 1860 RA 23 10 38, NPD 86 05.8) is "very faint, much extended, 12th or 13th magnitude star close to east". (Based on notes by Corwin, it might be better to say that NGC 7581 might be a duplicate of NGC 7541, and perhaps "lost or nonexistent" would be still better; but there are many questions about this observation (aside from the ones noted below) that will have to wait for the next iteration of this page.)
Discovery Notes: There appears to be no publication that lists Holden as the observer of GC 6166 save Dreyer's 1878 Supplement to the GC and the NGC itself. The only other reference that mentions the observation is the United States Naval Observatory's Astronomical, magnetic and meteorological observations made during the Year 1875 at the United States Naval Observatory, which notes a nova discovered by Tuttle while searching for Comet Encke at a position (1875 RA 23 11.4, Dec +03 59) that precesses to the NGC's 1860 position (whence Tuttle's discovery credit above). However, the page listing the "nova" shows that Holden was observing a satellite of Neptune on that night, so (per Corwin) it is possible that Holden was the actual observer, and sent Dreyer a note correcting the error in the attribution, including the note about the star to the east, which is not mentioned in the USNO publication (hence his also being listed above).
Physical Information: Given the possible duplicate entry, for now see NGC 7541 for anything else.

NGC 7582 (= PGC 71001 = a member of the Grus Quartet)
Discovered (Jul 7, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Sep 2, 1836) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by DeLisle Stewart
An 11th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(s)ab) in Grus (RA 23 18 23.5, Dec -42 22 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7582 (= GC 4927 = JH 3978, Dunlop 476?, 1860 RA 23 10 40, NPD 132 53.0) is "pretty bright, large, pretty much extended, gradually brighter middle". The second IC lists a corrected NPD (per DeLisle Stewart) of 133 07 and notes that Herschel made only one observation.
Physical Information: A member of the Grus Quartet of spiral galaxies (NGC 7552, 7582, 7590 and 7599 (see image of all four at NGC 7552). Based on a recessional velocity of 1575 km/sec, NGC 7582 is about 75 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 55 to 65 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 5.0 by 2.3 arcmin, it is about 100 thousand light years across. Two of the members of the Grus Quartet are also listed as part of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all the Grus Quartet galaxies are presumably members of the larger group.
Observatorio Antilhue image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7582, a member of the Grus Quartet
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 7582
(Image Credit & © above and below Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission)
Below, a 5 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
Observatorio Antilhue image of spiral galaxy NGC 7582, a member of the Grus Quartet
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST image of the eastern half of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
Raw HST image of eastern half of spiral galaxy NGC 7582, a member of the Grus Quartet
Below, an 18 arcmin wide composite image showing NGC 7582, 7590 and 7599
(Image Credit & © Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission, superimposed on DSS background)
Observatorio Antilhue image of Grus Quartet members NGC 7582, 7590 and 7599, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas

NGC 7583 (=
NGC 7605 = PGC 70975)
Discovered (Sep 2, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 7583)
Discovered (Nov 29, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 7605)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pisces (RA 23 17 52.8, Dec +07 22 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7583 (= GC 6167, Marth #555, 1860 RA 23 10 46, NPD 83 21) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.7 by 0.7? arcmin.

NGC 7584 (= PGC 70977)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 17 53.1, Dec +09 26 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7584 (= GC 6168, Marth #556, 1860 RA 23 10 48, NPD 81 20) is "extremely faint, very small, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.4? arcmin.

NGC 7585 (= PGC 70986)
Discovered (Sep 20, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 16, 1827) by John Herschel
An 11th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Aquarius (RA 23 18 01.3, Dec -04 39 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7585 (= GC 4928 = JH 2226 = JH 3979 = WH II 236, 1860 RA 23 10 48, NPD 95 24.8) is "pretty bright, pretty small, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.3 by 2.0? arcmin.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7585
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7585
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7585
Below, a HST image superimposed on the image above (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of the eastern portion of lenticular galaxy NGC 7585, superimposed on an SDSS image to fill in uncovered areas

NGC 7586 (= PGC 1349697)
Discovered (Sep 2, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 16th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0? in Pegasus (RA 23 17 55.5, Dec +08 35 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7586 (= GC 6169, Marth #557, 1860 RA 23 10 49, NPD 82 10) is "extremely faint, very small, almost stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.3? arcmin.

NGC 7587 (= PGC 70984)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Pisces (RA 23 17 59.1, Dec +09 40 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7587 (= GC 6170, Marth #558, 1860 RA 23 10 53, NPD 81 05) is "very faint, very small, a little extended, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.3? arcmin.

NGC 7588 (= PGC 70983)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Discovered (Sep 25, 1867) by Herman Schultz
A 15th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type S??) in Pegasus (RA 23 17 57.7, Dec +18 45 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7588 (= GC 6171, Marth #559, 1860 RA 23 10 59, NPD 72 01) is "extremely faint, extremely small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.3 by 0.2? arcmin.

NGC 7589 (= PGC 70995)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Pisces (RA 23 18 15.6, Dec +00 15 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7589 (= GC 6172, Marth #560, 1860 RA 23 11 04, NPD 90 30) is "extremely faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.7? arcmin.

NGC 7590 (= PGC 71031 = a member of the Grus Quartet)
Discovered (Jul 14, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Sep 2, 1836) by John Herschel
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)bc?) in Grus (RA 23 18 54.6, Dec -42 14 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7590 (= GC 4929 = JH 3980, Dunlop 477 & 1, 1860 RA 23 11 09, NPD 132 59.9) is "pretty bright, pretty large, pretty much extended, gradually brighter middle, western of 2", the other being NGC 7599.
Physical Information: A member of the Grus Quartet of spiral galaxies (NGC 7552, 7582, 7590 and 7599; see image of all four at NGC 7552). Based on a recessional velocity of 1575 km/sec, NGC 7590 is about 75 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance of 60 to 90 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.7 by 1.0 arcmins, it is about 60 thousand light years across. NGC 7590 is listed as a member of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group, with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all Grus Quartet members are presumably members of the larger group.
Observatorio Antilhue image of region between spiral galaxies NGC 7590 and 7599, members of the Grus Quartet, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in otherwise missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide composite image centered between NGC 7590 and NGC 7599
(Observatorio Antilhue image superimposed on a DSS background)
(Image Credit & © above and below Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission)
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image of NGC 7590
Observatorio Antilhue image of spiral galaxy NGC 7590, a member of the Grus Quartet
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST image of the northern half of NGC 7590 (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
Raw HST image of the northern half of spiral galaxy NGC 7590, a member of the Grus Quartet
Below, an 18 arcmin wide region showing NGC 7590, 7582 and 7599
(Image Credit & © Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission, superimposed on DSS background)
Observatorio Antilhue image of Grus Quartet members NGC 7582, 7590 and 7599, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas

NGC 7591 (= PGC 70996)
Discovered (Aug 14, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A 13th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Pisces (RA 23 18 16.2, Dec +06 35 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7591 (= GC 6173, Marth #561, 1860 RA 23 11 10, NPD 84 11) is "pretty faint, small, round, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 0.8? arcmin.

NGC 7592 (= PGC 70999)
Discovered (Sep 20, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 2, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Aquarius (RA 23 18 22.0, Dec -04 24 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7592 (= GC 4930 = WH III 186, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 23 11 11, NPD 95 10.8) is "extremely faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.1 by 0.9? arcmin.

NGC 7593 (= PGC 70981)
Discovered (Oct 5, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Also observed (Oct 30, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Pegasus (RA 23 17 56.9, Dec +11 20 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7593 (= GC 6174, Marth #562, 1860 RA 23 11 17, NPD 79 25) is "faint, small, round". The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 23 10 53.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.6? arcmin.

NGC 7594 (=
IC 1478 = PGC 70991)
Discovered (August, 1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 7594)
Discovered (Aug 22, 1889) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 1478)
A 14th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Pegasus (RA 23 18 13.9, Dec +10 17 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7594 (Common (#27), 1860 RA 23 11 24, NPD 80 34) is "pretty faint, round, 3 stars to west".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 10850 km/sec, a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7594 is about 505 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances, we must take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 485 million light years away (in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 360 to 460 million light years) at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 495 million years ago (the difference between the distance and the light-travel time being due to the expansion of the intervening space during that time). Given its distance and an apparent size of 1.4 by 0.9 arcmin, NGC 7594 is about 200 thousand light years across. (Note: A Wikisky search for IC 1478 shows IC 1478 (labeled as such), but a search for NGC 7594 shows IC 5306 (incorrectly labeled as NGC 7594). This is probably due to historical confusion about the identity of NGC 7594, which will be addressed in the next iteration of this page.)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7594, also showing IC 5305, 5306 and 5307
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7594, also showing IC 5305, 5306, and 5307
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7594

NGC 7595 (= PGC 71004)
Discovered (August, 1880) by
Andrew Common
A 15th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 18 30.2, Dec +09 55 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7595 (Common (#28), 1860 RA 23 11 28, NPD 80 51) is "faint, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.5? arcmin.

NGC 7596 (=
IC 1477 = PGC 70932)
Discovered (Sep 28, 1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 7596)
Discovered (Sep 16, 1892) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 1477)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Aquarius (RA 23 17 12.0, Dec -06 54 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7596 (Leavenworth list I (#262), 1860 RA 23 11, NPD 97 40.8) is "very faint, pretty small, a little extended 0°, a little brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.5? arcmin.

NGC 7597 (=
NGC 7571 = PGC 71006)
Discovered (Oct 23, 1864) by Albert Marth (and later listed as NGC 7597)
Discovered (Sep 25, 1867) by Herman Schultz (and later listed as NGC 7571)
A 14th-magnitude lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pegasus (RA 23 18 30.3, Dec +18 41 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7597 (= GC 6175, Marth #563, 1860 RA 23 11 33, NPD 72 06) is "extremely faint, very small, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 7571 for anything else.

NGC 7598 (= PGC 71011)
Discovered (Nov 3, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Discovered (Sep 25, 1867) by Herman Schultz
A 15th-magnitude elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Pegasus (RA 23 18 33.3, Dec +18 44 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7598 (= GC 6176, Marth #564, 1860 RA 23 11 35, NPD 72 01) is "extremely faint, extremely small, stellar".
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.3 by 0.2? arcmin.

NGC 7599 (=
IC 5308 = PGC 71066 = a member of the Grus Quartet)
Discovered (Jul 14, 1826) by James Dunlop (and later listed as NGC 7599)
Discovered (Sep 2, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7599)
Discovered (Aug 8, 1897) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 5308)
A 12th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c?) in Grus (RA 23 19 20.8, Dec -42 15 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7599 (= GC 4931 = JH 3981, Dunlop 477 & 2, 1860 RA 23 11 37, NPD 133 01.1) is "faint, pretty large, pretty much extended, gradually brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 7590.
Physical Information: A member of the Grus Quartet of spiral galaxies (NGC 7552, 7582, 7590 and 7599; see image of all four at NGC 7552). Given a recessional velocity 1650 km/sec, NGC 7599 is about 75 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 60 to 75 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 4.4 by 1.3 arcmin, it is about 100 thousand light years across. NGC 7599 is listed as a member of a group of galaxies in or near Sculptor with recessional velocities of about 1500 to 1800 km/sec (this is not "the" Sculptor Group, a close neighbor to our Local Group, with an average recessional velocity of less than 300 km/sec); so all Grus Quartet members are presumably members of the larger group.
Observatorio Antilhue image of region between spiral galaxies NGC 7590 and 7599, members of the Grus Quartet, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in otherwise missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide composite image centered between NGC 7599 and NGC 7590
(Image Credit & © above and below Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission, on DSS background)
Below, a 4 arcmin wide image of NGC 7599
Observatorio Antilhue image of spiral galaxy NGC 7599, a member of the Grus Quartet
Below, an 18 arcmin wide image showing NGC 7599, 7582 and 7590
(Image Credit & © Daniel Verschatse, Observatorio Antilhue, Chile; used by permission, on DSS background)
Observatorio Antilhue image of Grus Quartet members NGC 7582, 7590 and 7599, superimposed on a DSS background to fill in missing areas
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 7500 - 7549) ←     NGC Objects: NGC 7550 - 7599     → (NGC 7600 - 7649)