Celestial Atlas
Historical Reference Papers for the NGC / IC Objects Link for sharing this page on Facebook
(work in progress)
Page last updated July 5, 2017
Completed basic list; working on URLs for online papers & those not in Steinicke's list
(linking & backing up: S99)

 This (incomplete) listing of the reference papers for the NGC/IC objects is based on Wolfgang Steinicke's list of such papers (indicated by S and a number if from his list), supplemented by papers not in his list (indicated by the author's initials and publication date). The entire list is in alphabetical order, to allow easy access to papers by a given author. When complete it will include links to online versions of all the papers, almost entirely located on other websites, but if no longer available anywhere else, backed up on this site (though hopefully, their presence on this page will eventually cause them to be backed up on the Internet Archive's Wayback Machine, which is already the repository for many of them).

What To Do If A Link Below Is Broken
 Sometimes websites or pages disappear or are moved, and their links no longer work. If any of the links below fail to work, let me know and I'll try to fix the problem.

The New General Catalogue, Index Catalogue, and Second Index Catalogue
Modern Sites Devoted to Historical Study of the NGC/IC Objects
Corwin, Harold, Historically-aware NGC/IC Positions and Notes
Gottlieb, Steve, Steve Gottlieb's NGC Notes
Steinicke, Wolfgang, Astronomy

Reference Papers for the NGC/IC Objects
AF1868 Abbott, Francis, 1868, On the variability of η Argus and Surrounding Nebula, MNRAS 28 (No 7), pp. 200 - 202
AF1871 Abbott, Francis, 1871, Some Further Observations on the Variable Star η Argus, MNRAS 31 (No 8), pp. 226 - 235 (with comments and letters by various individuals including John Herschel and George Airy)
AG1836 Airy, George, 1836, History of nebulae and clusters of stars, MNRAS 3 (No 20), pp. 167 - 174 (see yellow comments)
S1. Aitken, Robert, 1900, A New Planetary Nebula, PASP 12 (No 75), p. 203
S2. Aratos, circa 260 B.C.E., The Heavenly Display (from Phainomena), 1885 translation by Robert Brown, Jr. (includes a lucid discussion of the archaic, purely descriptive nature of the work)
S3. Archenhold, Friedrich, 1892, Ein ausgedehnter Nebel bei ξ Persei, AN 129 (No 3082), pp. 153 - 158
S4. Al-Sufi, 964, Book of Fixed Stars (link is to 1874 French and Arabic translation/transcription by H. C. F. C. Schjellerup, not to the original Arabic text and images; if anyone knows of a link to the original, please let me know)
AE1888 Austin, Edward, 1888, Nebulae, AnHar 13, pp. 62 - 85
AE1908 Austin, Edward, 1908, Photographic Plates, AnHar 60, plates 1 - 5
S5. Auwers, Arthur von, 1862, Aus einem Schreiben des Herrn Dr. Auwers, AN 58 (No 1391), pp. 361 - 364
AA1862 Auwers, Arthur von, 1862, Verzeichniss der Oerter von vierzig Nebelflecken, AN 58 (No 1392), pp. 369 - 378
S6. Auwers, Arthur von, 1862, William Herschel's Verzeichnisse von Nebelflecken und Sternhaufen, pp. 154 - 227
S7. Auwers, Arthur von, 1856, Entdeckung eines neuen Nebelflecks, Unterhaltungen im Gebiete der Astronomie, Geographie und Meteorologie 10, p. 292

S8. Bailey, Solon, 1908, A Catalogue of Bright Clusters and Nebulae, Ann. Harv. Obs. 60, pp. 199 - 229 plus 5 plates
S9. Barnard, Edward, 1884, A New and Faint Nebulosity, Sid. Mess. 3 (No 3), p. 96
S10. Barnard, Edward, 1885, New Nebulae, Obs. 8 (No 96), p. 123
S11. Barnard, Edward, 1886, New Nebulae, Sid. Mess. 5 (No 1), p. 25
BE1886 Barnard, Edward, 1886, (A note about GC 106 and the Andromeda Nebula), Sid. Mess. 5 (No 1), p. 23
S12. Barnard, Edward, 1890, A Cluster of eighteen small Nebulae discovered with the 36 inch Refractor of the Lick Observatory, AN 125 (No 2998), p. 379
S13. Barnard, Edward, 1891, A new Planetary Nebula, AN 126 (No 3017), p. 277
S14. Barnard, Edward, 1891, On the Nebulosities of the Pleiades and on a New Merope Nebula, AN 126 (No 3018), p. 293
S15. Barnard, Edward, 1891, On an Early Search for Winnecke's Comet Before Perihelion, AN, 127 (No 3038), p. 231
BE1891 Barnard, Edward, 1891, A New Nebula, AJ 11 (No 261), p. 168
S16. Barnard, Edward, 1892, Two Probably Variable Nebulae, AN 130 (No 3097), p. 7
S17. Barnard, Edward, 1892, A New Nebulous Star, and Corections to Dreyer's NGC, AN 130 (No 3101), pp. 77 - 80
BE1892 Barnard, Edward, 1892, Errata [A new nebula], AJ 12 (No 266), p. 16 (refers to an error on p. 168 of AJ 11, p. 168 of issue 261; was actually p. 168 of issue 241 = BE1891, above)
BE1892.1 Barnard, Edward, 1892, The nebula (1892.0): 23hOm40s +59° 39'.7., AN 130 (No 3110), p. 223 - 224
S18. Barnard, Edward, 1892, Photographic Nebulosities and Groups of Nebulous Stars, AN 130 (No 3111), p. 233
S19. Barnard, Edward, 1894, On a small Nebula close to M. 57, AN 134 (No 3200), p. 129
S20. Barnard, Edward, 1894, On the exterior Nebulosities of the Pleiades, AN 136 (No 3253), p. 193
S21. Barnard, Edward, 1894, Photographic Nebulosities and Star Clusters connected with the Milky Way, Astr. & Astro-Phys. 13 (No 3), pp. 177 - 183 (a postscript on p. 183 discusses Nebulae Near γ Cassiopeia)
S22. Barnard, Edward, 1894, Observations of Nebulae with the 36-inch Equatoreal of the Lick Observatory, Publ. Lick Obs. 2, pp. 168 - 181 (actually authored by Sherburne Burnham; relisted by me as S113a)
S23. Barnard, Edward, 1895, On a great photographic nebula near Antares, AN 138 (No 3301), pp. 211 - 214
BE1895 Barnard, Edward, 1895, On the New Merope Nebula, AN 139 (No 3315), p. 41
S24. Barnard, Edward, 1895, New Planetary Nebula, AN 139 (No 3315), p. 43
S25. Barnard, Edward, 1897, Nebulas near Castor, AJ 18 (No 422), p. 112
S26. Barnard, Edward, 1900, The Exterior Nebulosities of the Pleiades, MNRAS 60 (No 4), pp. 258 - 261
S27. Barnard, Edward, 1901, Peculiarity of Focal Observations of the Planetary Nebulae and Visual Observations of Nova Persei with the Forty-inch Yerkes Telescope, ApJ 14 (No 3), pp. 151 - 157
S28. Barnard, Edward, 1906, Groups of small Nebulae, AN 173 (No 4136), pp. 117 - 121
S29. Barnard, Edward, 1906, Group of small Nebulae, AN 173 (No 4136), p. 121
BE1906 Barnard, Edward, 1906, On a group of small nebulae, AN (No 4136), pp. 121 - 124
BE1907 Barnard, Edward, 1907, On a nebulous groundwork in the constellation Taurus, ApJ 25 (No 3), pp. 218 - 225
S30. Barnard, Edward, 1907, A Nebula near the Nova [T Coronae], ApJ 25 (No 4), pp. 281 - 282 (the end of an article about T Coronae)
S31. Barnard, Edward, 1908, Some notes on nebulae and nebulosities, AN 177 (No 4239), pp. 231 - 236
S32. Barnard, Edward, 1897, The great nebula of Rho Ophiuchi and the smallness of the stars forming the groundwork of the Milky Way, PA 5 (No 5), pp. 227 - 232
S33. Barnard, Edward, 1886, A correction to Dr. Swift's list of new nebulae in A.N. 2746, AN 115 (No 2755), pp. 315 - 316
S34. Barnard, Edward, 1891, A New Nebula, AJ 11 (No 261), p. 168
S35. Barnard, Edward, 1906, On a planetary nebula, AN 172 (No 4112), p. 123
S36. Barnard, Edward, (1890?), Logbook (Lick Observatory), (unpublished)
S37. Barnard, Edward, 1885, Small nebula near the great Andromeda Nebula, AN 112 (No 2687), pp. 391 - 392
S38. Barnard, Edward, 1883, Editorial Notes (two notes), Sid. Mess. 1 (No 8), p. 238
S39. Barnard, Edward, 1883, Editorial Notes (one nebular note), Sid. Mess. 1 (No 6), p. 168
S40. Barnard, Edward, 1883, A small triangular hole in the Milky Way, Sid. Mess. 2 (No 8), p. 259
S41. Barnard, Edward, 1883, A new Nebula near φ Virginis, AN 104 (No 2490), p. 285
S42. Barnard, Edward, 1883, Editorial Notes (one note), Sid. Mess. 1 (No 5), p. 135
S43. Barnard, Edward, 1883, New Nebulae, Sid. Mess. 2 (No 7), p. 226
S44. Barnard, Edward, 1884, New Nebulae - Small black hole in the Milky-Way, AN 108 (No 2588), p. 369 - 372
S45. Barnard, Edward, 1884, A New Faint Nebula, Obs. 7 (No 89), p. 269
S46. Barnard, Edward, 1884, A New and Faint Nebula, Sid. Mess. 3 (No 6), p. 184
S47. Barnard, Edward, 1884, New Nebula, Sid. Mess. 3 (No 2), p. 254
S48. Barnard, Edward, 1884, (Two brief notes about nebulae), Sid. Mess. 3 (No 2), p. 60
S49. Barnard, Edward, 1884, New Nebula near General Catalogue No. 4510, AN 110 (No 2624), p. 125
S50. Barnard, Edward, 1885, Astronomical Notes: Comet Barnard, Sid. Mess. 4 (No 7), pp. 222 - 223 (previously known and new nebulae discussed on p. 223)
S51. Barnard, Edward, 1886, A Correction to Dr. Swift's list of New Nebulae in A.N. 2746, AN 115 (No 2755), pp. 315 - 316
S52. Barnard, Edward, 1886, Ring-Micrometer Observations of Comets and Nebulae, AN 115 (No 2756), pp. 323 - 328
S53. Barnard, Edward, 1886, New Nebulous Star, Sid. Mess. 5 (No 5), p. 154
S54. Barnard, Edward, 1886, An Excessively Faint Nebula, Sid. Mess. 5 (No 1), p. 27
S55. Barnard, Edward, 1895, Photograph of the Nebula N.G.C. 1499 near the Star ξ Persei, ApJ 2 (No 5), p. 350 + Plate 11
S56. Barnard, Edward, 1906, The nebula NGC. 6032, AN 173 (No 4136), p. 123
S56a. Barnard, Edward, 1913, Photographs of the Milky Way and of Comets made with the six-inch Willard Lens and Crocker Telescope during the years 1892 to 1895, Publ. Lick Obs. 11, pp. 1 - 46 plus numerous plates
S57. Baxendell, Joseph, 1880, A New Nebula, MNRAS 41 (No 1), p. 48
S58. Becker, Ernst, 1898, Straßburg (Jahresbericht der Sternwarten für 1897), Vierteljahrsschrift 33, pp. 152-157
S59. Becker, Ernst, 1909, Annalen der kaiserlichen Universitätssternwate in Strassburg, Dritter Band, Karlsruhe 1909, pp. ??
S60. Bellamy, Frank, 1904, A New Cluster in Cygnus, MNRAS 64 (No 7), pp. 662 - 669
S61. Bevis, John, 1750, Uranographia Britannica (extremely rare atlas and star catalog, due to the publisher going bankrupt before publication)
BG1839 Bianchi, Giuseppe, 1839, Schreiben des Herrn Bianchi, Directors der Sternwarte in Modena an den Herausgeber, AN 16 (No 383), pp. 371 - 376 (see yellow comments)
S62. Bidschof, Friedrich, 1898, Catalog der auf der k. k. Sternwarte zu Wien beobachteten Nebelflecken, AN 147 (No 3520), pp. 257 - 268
S63. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1887, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris, Comp. Rend. 105, pp. 1116 - 1119 (#51 - 102)
S64. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1887, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris, Comp. Rend. 105, pp. 926 - 929 (#1 - 50)
BG1891 Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1891, Sur une nébuleuse variable, Comp. Rend. 112, pp. 471 - 474
S65. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1891, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris, Comp. Rend. 112, pp. 647 - 650 (#103 - 152)
S66. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1891, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris, Comp. Rend. 112, pp. 703 - 705 (#153 - 208)
S67. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1891, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris, Comp. Rend. 112, pp. 848 - 850 (#209 - 244)
S68. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1892, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XV heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 36 (Observations 1884), pp. G41 - G103 (following S97 in the file linked here)
S69. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1896, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XXIII heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 40 (Observations 1888), pp. D9 - D107
S70. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1896, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris, Comp. Rend. 123, pp. 1243 - 1245 (#245 - 281)
S71. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1897, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris (suite), Comp. Rend. 124, pp. 133 - 135 (#328 - 356)
S72. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1897, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris (suite), Comp. Rend. 124, pp. 65 - 67 (#282 - 327)
S73. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1898, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XVII heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 42 (Observations 1890), pp. D153 - D241 (link includes S74 and introduction, at start of file)
S74. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1898, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XVI heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 42 (Observations 1890), pp. D49 - D151 (link includes an Introduction on pp. D1 - D48, and S73 at end of file)
S75. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1899, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XX heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 46 (Observations 1897), pp. G1 - G53
S76. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1899, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XXI heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 46 (Observations 1897), pp. G55 - G115 (same link as S75, but at end of that file)
S77. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1901, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris (equatorial de la tour l'Ouest), Comp. Rend. 132, pp. 1094 - 1097 (#357 - 371)
S78. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1901, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris (equatorial de la tour l'Ouest), Comp. Rend. 132, pp. 1465 - 1467 (#372 - 392)
S79. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1901, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris (equatorial de la tour l'Ouest), Comp. Rend. 133, pp. 206 - 208 (#433 - 455)
S80. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1901, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris (equatorial de la tour l'Ouest), Comp. Rend. 133, pp. 26 - 28 (#393 - 413)
S81. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1901, Nebuleuses nouvelles, decouvertes a l'observatoire de Paris (equatorial de la tour l'Ouest), Comp. Rend. 133, pp. 86 - 88 (#414 - 432)
S82. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1902, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XXII heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 47 (Observations 1898), pp. G1 - G99
BG1902 Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1902, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (V heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 47 (Observations 1898), pp. G101 - G131 (same link as for S82, but at end of file)
S83. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1904, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (VI heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 48 (Observations 1899), pp. F141 - F187 (same link as S84 below, but at end of file)
S84. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1904, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XIV heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 48 (Observations 1899), pp. F1 - F139
S85. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1904, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (III heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 49 (Observations 1900), pp. F143 - F207 (linked file also contains S86 at the start)
S86. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1904, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (0 heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 49 (Observations 1900), pp. F1 - F141 (linked file also contains S85 at the end)
S87. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1905, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (II heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 50 (Observations 1901), pp. F61 - F153 (same link as BG1905 below, but at end of file)
BG1905, Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1905, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (IV heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 50 (Observations 1901), pp. F1 - F59 (same link as S87 above)
S88. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1906, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (I heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 51 (Observations 1902), pp. F1 - F137
S89. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1907, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XVIII heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 43 (Observations 1891), pp. E1 - E73
BG1907 Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1907, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XIX heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 43 (Observations 1891), E75 - E111 (same link as above, but at the end of the other file)
S90. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1907, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (VII heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 52 (Observations 1903), pp. F1 - F75
S91. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1908, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (VIII heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 53 (Observations 1904), pp. F1 - F89
BG1910 Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1910, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (IX heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 44 (Observations 1892), pp. D1 - D119
S92. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1911, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (X heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 45 (Observations 1893), pp. E1 - E117 (Steinicke's reference incorrectly states this is for XIX heures)
S93. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1911, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XI heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 54 (Observations 1905), pp. E1 - E173
S94. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1912, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XII heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 55 (Observations 1906), pp. E1 - E243
S95. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1916, La decouverte de la nebuleuse d'Orion (N.G.C. 1976) par Peiresc, Comp. Rend. 162, pp. 489 - 490
S96. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1917, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (XIII heures), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 56 (Observations 1907), pp. E1 - E119
S97. Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1892, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (Introduction), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 36 (Observations 1884), pp. G1 - G40
BG1911 Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1917, Observations de Nebuleuses et d'Amas Stellaires (Introduction), Annales de l'Observatoire de Paris, vol. 56 (Observations 1907), pp. E121 - E422 (much longer than S97, with many additional notes; E121 lists all dates of observation and publication. At the end of the linked file for S96 but missing E409 - E416)
BG1911.2 Bigourdan, Guillaume, 1911, Les nébuleuses de la région des Pléiades, Bull. Astron. Serie I, vol. 28, pp. 417 - 424
S98. Block, Eugen, 1879, Schreiben des Herrn E. Block an den Herausgeber, AN 96 (No 2287), pp. 110 - 112

WORKING HERE (download S99, check reference for S100)

S99. Bode, Johann, 1777, Ueber einige neuentdeckte Nebelsterne und einem vollständigen Verzeichnisse der bisher bekannten, Astronomisches Jahrbuch für 1779, pp. 65 - 71
S100. Bode, Johann, 1779, extract?, Astronomisches Jahrbuch für 1782, p. 156
S101. Bond, George, 1864, List of New Nebulae seen at the Observatory of Harvard College , AN 61 (No ???), pp. 193 - 198
S102. Bond, George, 1866, A list of new nebulae seen at the observatory of Harvard College, 1847-1863, Proc. Am. Acad. Arts & Sci. 6, pp. 177 - 182
S103. Bond, George, 1859, Letter from Mr. Bond to Mr. Carrington, MNRAS 19, p. 224
S104. Bond, George, 1861, Schreiben des Herrn Prof. Bond, Directors der Sternwarte in Cambridge, an den Herausgeber , AN 56 (No ???), pp. 269 - 272
S105. Borrelly, Alphonse, 1872, Nebuleuses nouvelles, AN 79 (No ???), pp. 205 - 208
S106. Borrelly, Alphonse, 1872, New Nebulae discovered and observed by Alph. Borrelly at the Marseille Observatory with the Eichens Searcher, MNRAS 32, p. 248
S107. Bredichin, Theodor, 1877, Observations des Nebeleuses, Ann. Obs. Moscou, Vol. II, Part 2, p. 114
S108. Brorsen, Theodor, 1851, Auszüge aus Briefen des Herrn Observators Th. Brorsen an den Herausgeber, AN 32 (No ???), pp. 105 - 110
S109. Burnham, Sherburne, 1873, Third Catalogue of 76 New Double Stars, MNRAS 34, p. 59
S110. Burnham, Sherburne, 1879, Double Star Observations, Mem. Roy. Astr. Soc. 44, p. 169
S111. Burnham, Sherburne, 1890, Double Star Observations, AN 123 (No ???), pp. 1 - 30
S112. Burnham, Sherburne, 1891, New Nebulae, AN 127 (No ???), p. 425
S113. Burnham, Sherburne, 1892, Observations of Nebulae with the 36-inch Equatoreal of the Lick Observatory, MNRAS 52, pp. 440 - 461
S113a (replaces S22) Burnham, Sherburne, 1894, Observations of Nebulae With the 36-Inch Refractor of the Lick Observatory, Publ. Lick Obs. 2, pp. 168 - 181 (identical to S113, but an easier download)
S114. Burnham, Sherburne, 1894, New Nebulae, Publ. Lick Obs. 2, pp. 153 - 156
S115. Burnham, Sherburne, 1900, General Catalogue of Double Stars, Publ. Yerkes Obs. 1, p. 296
S116. Burnham, Sherburne, 1904, Measures of Double Stars, Publ. Yerkes Obs. 2, p. 51

S117. Cacciatore, Niccolò, 1827, Neuer Nebelfleck, AN 5 (No ???), p. 281
S118. Chacornac, Jean, 1863, Nebuleuse variable de zeta Taureau, Comp. Rend. 56, p. 637
CD1940 Carlson, Dorothy, 1940, Some Corrections to Dreyer's Catalogues of Nebulae and Clusters, ApJ 91, pp. 350 - 359
S119. Coddington, Edwin, 1898, A Large New Nebula in Ursa Major, PASP 10, p. 123
S120. Common, Andrew, 1882, New Nebulae, Copernicus I, p. 50
S121. Cooper, Edward, 1848 - 56, Catalogue of Stars Near the Ecliptic Observed at Markree, London
S122. Copeland, Ralph, 1877, On Schmidt's Nova Cygni, AN 90 (No ???), p. 351
S123. Copeland, Ralph, 1884, Experiments in the Andes, Copernicus III, p. 206
S124. Copeland, Ralph, 1884, Spectroscopic Observations made at the Earl of Crawford's Observatory, Dun Echt, Aberdeen, MNRAS 45, pp. 90 - 91
S125. Cysat, Johann, 1619?, Mathematic astronomica De Loco

S126. Darquier, Antoine, 1777, Observations Astronomiques faites Toulouse, Avignon
dA1852 d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1852, From Letters of Professor d'Arrest to the Editor, AJ 2, pp. 130 - 131 (see yellow comment)
dA1855 d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1855, Verzeichniss von funfzig Messier'schen und Herschel'schen Nebelflecken aus Beobachtungen auf der Leipziger Sternwarte hergeleitet, AN 42 (No ???), pp. 193 - 200 (published Dec 1855)
S127. d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1857, Resulate aus Beobachtungen der Nebelflecke und Sternhaufen, Engelmann, Leipzig
S128. d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1861, Instrumentum magnum aequatoreum in Specula Universitatis Havniensis super erectum, Kopenhagen
dA1862 d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1862, Vorläufige Mittheilungen, betreffend eine auf der Kopenhagener Sternwarte begonnene Revision des Himmels in Bezug auf die Nebelflecken, AN 57 (No ???), pp. 337 - 348
S129. d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1865, Über einige am Kopenhagener Refractor beobachtete Objecte aus Lord Rosse's "List of nebulae not found", AN 63 (No ???), pp. 177 - 190
dA1865 d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1865, Zweites Verzeichniss von neuen Nebelflecken, aufgefunden am Kopenhagener Refractor im Winter 1864/65, AN 65 (No ???), pp. 1 - 8
dA1867 d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1867, Über drei am Himmel fehlende Nebelflecken erster Classe, nebst einigen nachträglichen Bemerkungen den Biela'schen Cometen betreffend, AN 68 (No ???), pp. 251 - 256
S130. d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1867, Siderum Nebulosorum Observationes Havnienses, Kopenhagen
dA1868 d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1868, Über eine Darstellung des grossen Orionnebels vom Jahre 1779, AN 70 (No ???), pp. 337 - 342
S131. d'Arrest, Heinrich, 1868, Struve's Beobachtung eines neuen Nebelflecks nahe bei Hind's variablem Nebel im Taurus, AN 71 (No ???), p. 143
S132. Dekker, Elly, 1990, "The Light and the Dark: A Reassessment of the Discovery of the Coalsack Nebula, the Magellanic Clouds and the Southern Cross, Ann of Sci. 47, pp. 529 - 560
S133. Denning, William, 1890, New Nebulae, MNRAS 51, p. 96
DW1890 Denning, William, 1890, Four New Nebulae, Obs 13, pp. 316 - 318
DW1891 Denning, William, 1891, Comet-seeking at Bristol: New Nebulae, Obs. 14, pp. 88 - 90
DW1891.1 Denning, William, 1891, Variations in Nebulae, Obs. 14, pp. 196 - 197
S134. Denning, William, 1892, Notes on New and Old Nebulae, Obs 15, pp. 104 - 106
S135. Denning, William, 1893, New nebula, Astr. & Astro-Phys. 12, p. 189
DW1897 Denning, William, 1897, The Longevity of Astronomers, Obs 20, pp. 205 - 206 (not related to the NGC/IC, but an interesting historical tidbit)
S136. Denning, William, 1918, The cluster No. 361, Dreyer's Index Catalogue (1895), Obs 41, p. 140
Dr1878 Dreyer, John, 1878, A supplement to Sir John Herschel's "General catalogue of nebulae and clusters of stars.", Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, 26, pp. 381 - 426
Dr1887 Dreyer, John, 1887, On some nebulæ hitherto suspected of variability or proper motion, MNRAS 47, pp. 412 - 421
Dr1888 Dreyer, John, 1888, A New General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars, Being the Catalogue of the Late Sir John F.W. Herschel, Royal Astronomical Society, pp. 1 - 237
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S151. Gale, Walter, 1897, New Double Stars and a Ring Nebula, AN 143 (No ???), p. 293
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S256. Ptolemy, Almagest

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S259. Roberts, Isaac, 1896, Photograph of the Nebula H IV 75 Cephei, MNRAS 56, p. 380
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S263. Roberts, Isaac, 1903, On the Nebula h 2302 N.GC 7822 Cassiopeiae; the Region surrounding H II. 457 N.G.C. 1665 Eridani, with ten new nebulae; and H III. 558 N.GC 7492 Auqarii, MNRAS 63, pp. 301 - 302
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