Online Astronomy eText: Appendices
The Messier Catalog: Galaxies Link for sharing this page on Facebook
(also see Charles Messier's Catalog: Nebulae / Open Clusters / Globular Clusters)
Page last updated Oct 7, 2016

Messier Galaxy QuickLinks:
M31, M32, M33, M49, M51, M58, M59, M60, M61, M63, M64, M65, M66, M74,
M77, M81, M82, M83, M84, M85, M86, M87, M88, M89, M90, M91, M94, M95,
M96, M98, M99, M100, M101, M102, M104, M105, M106, M108, M109, M110

Note: M104 through M110 were added to the Catalog in the 1900's

M31 (=
NGC 224 = PGC 2557), The Andromeda Galaxy
Known to Isfahan (Persian) astronomers before 905 CE
Recorded (964) by Abd-al-Rahman Al-Sufi (in his Book of Fixed Stars)
Seen by innumerable other observers through the ages
Observed/recorded (Aug 3, 1764) by Charles Messier as M31
A magnitude 3.4 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)b?) in Andromeda (RA 00 42 44.3, Dec +41 16 08)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
A 2 degree wide DSS image of the Andromeda Galaxy, spiral galaxy NGC 224, also known as M31

M32 (=
NGC 221 = PGC 2555 = Arp 168)
Discovered (Oct 29, 1749) by Guillaume Le Gentil
Observed (1757) by Charles Messier
Recorded (Aug 3, 1764) by Charles Messier as M32
A magnitude 8.1 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Andromeda (RA 00 42 41.8, Dec +40 51 57)
A satellite of M31 (namely, the small galaxy near the disk of M31)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
A 20 arcmin wide DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 221, also known as M32

M33 (=
NGC 598 = PGC 5818), The Triangulum Galaxy
Discovered (before 1654) by Giovanni Hodierna
Recorded (Aug 25, 1764) by Charles Messier as M33
A magnitude 5.7 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)cd?) in Triangulum (RA 01 33 51.9, Dec +30 39 29)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
DSS image of the Triangulum Galaxy, spiral galaxy NGC 598, also known as M33

M49 (=
NGC 4472 = PGC 41220 = Arp 134)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1771) by Charles Messier and recorded as M49
A magnitude 8.4 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 46.7, Dec +08 00 00)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
The image below shows a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, also known as M49

M51 (=
NGC 5194 = PGC 47404), The Whirlpool Galaxy
(also, with NGC 5195 = Arp 85)

Discovered (Oct 13, 1773) by Charles Messier
Discovered (Jan 5, 1774) by Johann Bode
Recorded (Jan 11, 1774) by Charles Messier as M51
A magnitude 8.4 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)bc? pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 29 52.6, Dec +47 11 44)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
An extensive "bridge" connects the 60 thousand light year wide M51 with its smaller companion, NGC 5195. Clusters of hot bright young stars and gases heated by their radiation illuminate the spiral arms and clearly define them. Thick dust lanes straddle the arms, sweep across the "bridge" and partially obscure the companion. The pair is just over 30 million light years away. (S. Beckwith (STScI) Hubble Heritage Team, (STScI/AURA), ESA, NASA, postprocessing by Robert Gendler, apod091226)
HST image of the Whirlpool Galaxy, spiral galaxy NGC 5194, also known as M51

M58 (=
NGC 4579 = PGC 42168)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1779) by Charles Messier and recorded as M58
A magnitude 9.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)b?) in Virgo (RA 12 37 43.7, Dec +11 49 06)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Steve Mandel, Adam Block, AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4579, also known as M58

M59 (=
NGC 4621 = PGC 42628)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1779) by Johann Koehler
Discovered (Apr 15, 1779) by Charles Messier and recorded as M59
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.6 elliptical galaxy (type E5?) in Virgo (RA 12 42 02.2, Dec +11 38 50)
A member of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies.
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
The image below shows a 7 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4621, also known as M59

M60 (=
NGC 4649 = PGC 42831, and with NGC4647 = Arp 116)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1779) by Johann Koehler
Discovered (Apr 12, 1779) by Barnaba Oriani
Observed/recorded (Apr 15, 1779) by Charles Messier as M60
Also observed (Apr 11, 1825) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.8 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Virgo (RA 12 43 39.8, Dec +11 33 11)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
M60 is a 120 thousand light-year wide elliptical galaxy in the Virgo Cluster, 60 million light years distant. It is a massive galaxy, with thousands of globular clusters in addition to the trillions of stars in the galaxy itself. In the 12 arcmin wide SDSS image below, M60 is the bright elliptical at lower left. The more distant spiral galaxy above and to its right is NGC4647.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4649, also known as M60

M61 (=
NGC 4303 = PGC 40001)
Discovered (May 5, 1779) by Barnaba Oriani
Discovered/Recorded (May 11, 1779) by Charles Messier and recorded as M61
A magnitude 9.7 spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Virgo (RA 12 21 54.9, Dec +04 28 24)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
A member of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies. (Image Adam Block, AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4303, also known as M61

M63 (=
NGC 5055 = PGC 46153), The Sunflower Galaxy
Discovered (Jun 14, 1779) by Pierre Méchain
Confirmed/Recorded (Jun 14, 1779) by Charles Messier as M63)
A magnitude 8.6 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Canes Venatici (RA 13 15 49.0, Dec +42 01 59)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Bruce Hugo and Leslie Gaul/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of the Sunflower Galaxy, spiral galaxy NGC 5055, also known as M63

M64 (=
NGC 4826 = PGC 44182), the Black Eye Galaxy
Discovered (Mar 23, 1779) by Edward Pigott
Discovered (Apr 4, 1779) by Johann Bode
Observed/Recorded (Mar 1, 1780) by Charles Messier as M64
A magnitude 8.5 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 56 43.8, Dec +21 40 59)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(NASA and the Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI), S. Smartt (IoA) & D. Richstone (U. Michigan) et al., apod040211)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 4826, the Black Eye Galaxy, also known as M64

M65 (=
NGC 3623 = PGC 34612)
Discovered (Mar 1, 1780) by Charles Messier and recorded as M65
Often misattributed to Pierre Méchain
A magnitude 9.3 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Leo (RA 11 18 55.6, Dec +13 05 27)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Chuck Greenberg, Scott Tucker, Adam Block, AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 3623, also known as M65

M66 (=
NGC 3627 = Arp 16 = PGC 34695; part of Leo Triplet = Arp 317)
Discovered (Mar 1, 1780) by Charles Messier and recorded as M66
Often misattributed to Pierre Méchain
A magnitude 8.9 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)b?) in Leo (RA 11 20 15.1, Dec +12 59 24)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
     Only 35 million light years away, this hundred thousand light year wide spiral is a member of the Leo Triplet of galaxies. Gravitational interaction with other members of the small group has probably influenced the structure of its dust-filled arms, and the formation of clusters of bright young stars which light up those arms. (M. Neeser (Univ.-Sternwarte Munchen), P. Barthel (Kapteyn Astron. Institute), H. Heyer, H. Boffin (ESO), ESO, apod060902)
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 3627, also known as M66

M74 (=
NGC 628 = PGC 5974)
Discovered ("end of September" 1780) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (October 18, 1780) by Charles Messier as M74
Also observed (Sep 7?, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.4 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c?) in Pisces (RA 01 36 41.7, Dec +15 47 00)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Gemini Observatory, GMOS Team, apod030524)
Gemini Observatory image of spiral galaxy NGC 628, also known as M74

M77 (=
NGC 1068 = PGC 10266 = Arp 37)
Discovered (October 29, 1780) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (December 17, 1780) by Charles Messier as M77
A magnitude 8.9 spiral galaxy (type (R)SA(rs)b?) in Cetus (RA 02 42 40.8, Dec -00 00 46)
Also known to be a Seyfert galaxy
Click on either image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1068, also known as M77 and Arp 37
Above, an NOAO image of M77 (Image Credit Francois and Shelley Pelletier/Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO
Below, the same image adjusted to enhance the fainter outer regions
Stretched-exposure NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 1068, also known as M77 and Arp 37

M81 (=
NGC 3031 = PGC 28630, and with M82, Bode's Nebulae)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1774) by Johann Bode
Recorded (1779) by Johann Koehler
Rediscovered (August 1780) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Feb 9, 1781) by Charles Messier as M81
Also observed (Aug 6, 1783) by William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 28, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 6.9 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Ursa Major (RA 09 55 33.5, Dec +69 04 02)
Gravitationally bound to and interacting with M82
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Image Credit ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), NASA)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 3031, also known as M81

M82 (=
NGC 3034 = PGC 28655, and with M81, Bode's Nebulae)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1774) by Johann Bode
Recorded (1779) by Johann Koehler
Rediscovered (August 1780) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Feb 9, 1781) by Charles Messier as M82
Also observed (Sep 30, 1802) by William Herschel
A magnitude 8.4 spiral galaxy (type Sd? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 09 55 54.0, Dec +69 40 59)
Gravitationally bound to and interacting with M81
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information. (Image Credit NASA, ESA, The Hubble Heritage Team, (STScI / AURA), M. Mountain (STScI), P. Puxley (NSF), J. Gallagher (U. Wisconsin), apod060425)
HST image of peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 3034, also known as M82

M83 (=
NGC 5236)
Discovered (1751) by Nicolas Lacaille
Observed/Recorded (Feb 17, 1781) by Charles Messier as M83
A magnitude 7.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Hydra (RA 13 37 00.2, Dec -29 52 02)
Click on either image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 5236, also known as M83
Above, an overall view of the galaxy (Image Credit FORS Team, 8.2-meter VLT Antu, ESO)
Below, a closeup of star-forming regions and new star clusters
(Image Credit ESA and the Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA); Acknowledgement: R. O'Connell (U. Virginia), NASA)
HST closeup of a portion of spiral galaxy NGC 5236, also known as M83

M84 (=
NGC 4374 = PGC 40455), part of Markarian's Chain
Discovered (May 5, 1779) by Johann Koehler
Rediscovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M84
Also observed (May 4, 1829) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.1 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Virgo (RA 12 25 03.6, Dec +12 53 13)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
SDSS image of 12 arcmin wide region centered on elliptical galaxy NGC 4374, also known as M84

M85 (=
NGC 4382 = PGC 40515)
Discovered (Mar 4, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier as M85)
A magnitude 9.1 lenticular galaxy (type S0(s)a? pec) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 25 23.9, Dec +18 11 27)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
SDSS image of 12 arcmin wide region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4382, also known as M85

M86 (=
NGC 4406 = PGC 40653), part of Markarian's Chain
Discovered (May 5, 1779) by Johann Koehler
Rediscovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M86
Also observed (Mar 13, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.9 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Virgo (RA 12 26 11.5, Dec +12 56 47)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
SDSS image of 12 arcmin wide region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4406, also known as M86

M87 (=
NGC 4486 = PGC 41361 = Arp 152)
Discovered (May 5, 1779) by Johann Koehler
Rediscovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M87
Also observed (Mar 10, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.6 elliptical galaxy (type E1? peculiar) in Virgo (12 30 49.4, Dec +12 23 26)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Credit & © J.-C. Cuillandre (CFHT), Coelum, Hawaiian Starlight, apod040616; used by permission)
CFHT image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87 and Arp 152

M88 (=
NGC 4501 = PGC 41517)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M88
A magnitude 9.6 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)b?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 31 59.0, Dec +14 25 11)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
Although in Coma Berenices, M88 is one of fifteen Messier objects which are members of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, the nearest major cluster to our galaxy. It is about 60 million light years away and over 100 thousand light years in diameter. (Jim Quinn/Adam Block/AURA/NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4501, also known as M88

M89 (=
NGC 4552 = PGC 41968)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M89
A magnitude 9.8 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Virgo (RA 12 35 39.9, Dec +12 33 22)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
SDSS image of 12 arcmin wide region centered on elliptical galaxy NGC 4552, also known as M89

M90 (=
NGC 4569 = PGC 42089, and with IC 3583 = Arp 76)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M90
A magnitude 9.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)ab?) in Virgo (RA 12 36 50.0, Dec +13 09 50)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Image Credit NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4569, also known as M90, and with IC 3583 comprising Arp 76

M91 (=
NGC 4548 = PGC 41934)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and listed as M91 but "lost" for centuries
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel and later listed as NGC 4548
A magnitude 10.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 35 26.4, Dec +14 29 47)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Image Credit AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4548, also known as M91

M94 (=
NGC 4736 = PGC 43495)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Mar 24, 1781) by Charles Messier as M94
A magnitude 8.2 spiral galaxy (type (R)SA(r)ab?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 50 53.1, Dec +41 07 127)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
     M94 is a spiral galaxy about 15 million light years distant, in the constellation of Canes Venatici. The central bright "spiral" is about 30 thousand light years across, but the galaxy also has a broad faint ring of stars extending an additional 30 to 40 thousand light years beyond the central region. Recent investigation has shown that the outer ring has a spiral structure with currently active star formation, as well. (Image Credit Adam Block, AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4736, also known as M94

M95 (=
NGC 3351 = PGC 32007)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Mar 24, 1781) by Charles Messier as M95
A magnitude 9.7 spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Leo (RA 10 43 57.8, Dec +11 42 12)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
M95 is a member of the Leo I galaxy group, which includes M96, M105 and a number of other galaxies scattered across a region about 40 million light years away. (Image Credit AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 3351, also known as M95

M96 (=
NGC 3368 = PGC 32192)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Mar 24, 1781) by Charles Messier as M96
A 9th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Leo (RA 10 46 45.8, Dec +11 49 12)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
M96 is a member of the Leo I galaxy group, which includes M95, M105 and a number of other galaxies scattered across a region about 40 million light years away. (Image Credit AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 3368, also known as M96

M98 (=
NGC 4192 = PGC 39028)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Apr 13, 1781) by Charles Messier as M98
A magnitude 10.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)ab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 13 47.8, Dec +14 53 58)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
Partially color-corrected SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4192, also known as M98

M99 (=
NGC 4254 = PGC 39578)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Apr 13, 1781) by Charles Messier as M99
A magnitude 9.9 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 18 49.3, Dec +14 25 03)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
SDSS image of 6 arcmin wide region centered on spiral galaxy NGC 4254, also known as M99

M100 (=
NGC 4321 = PGC 40153)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed/Recorded (Apr 13, 1781) by Charles Messier as M100
A 9th-magnitude spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 22 54.9, Dec +15 49 22)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Image Credit FORS Team, 8.2-meter VLT, ESO, apod060307)
ESO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4321, also known as M100, also showing supernova SN 2006X

M101 (=
NGC 5457 = PGC 50063 = Arp 26), The Pinwheel Galaxy
Discovered (Mar 27, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Recorded (without observational verification) by Charles Messier as M101
Also observed (later in 1781) by Charles Messier
A magnitude 7.9 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd?) in Ursa Major (RA 14 03 12.4, Dec +54 20 58)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(ESA, CFHT, NOAO; Acknowledgement - K.Kuntz (GSFC), F.Bresolin (U.Hawaii),
J.Trauger (JPL), J.Mould (NOAO), Y.-H.Chu (U. Illinois), NASA)

HST/NOAO/CFHT image of spiral NGC 5457, also known as M101 and as Arp 26

M102 (probably =
NGC 5866 = PGC 53933, the Spindle Galaxy)
Discovered (Mar 27, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Recorded (without observational verification) by Charles Messier as M102
Observed (probably in early April 1781) by Charles Messier
Probably a magnitude 9.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Draco (RA 15 06 29.4, Dec +55 45 49)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(NASA, ESA, and The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), W. Keel (U. Alabama), apod060612) HST image of the Spindle Galaxy, lenticular galaxy NGC 5866 (also thought to be M102)

M103 is the end of the Messier Catalog As Completed in 1781 and Published in 1784
M104 through M110 Were Added in the 1900's


M104 (=
NGC 4594 = PGC 42407), The Sombrero Galaxy
Discovered (May 11, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Méchain's discovery was noted by Charles Messier, but was not added to his Catalog
Appended (1921) to the Messier Catalog by Camille Flammarion as M104
A magnitude 8.0 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 39 59.3, Dec -11 37 21)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
Historical Note: Like all the later Messier Catalog objects (M104 through M110), M104 was not added to the catalog by Messier; his compilation ended with M103.
Physical Information: M104 lies at the nearer edge of the 60 million light year distant Virgo cluster of galaxies, and at nearly a trillion solar masses, is one of the more massive galaxies in that group even though relatively small (about 50 thousand light years across). The massive central bulge of the galaxy almost totally obscures the structure of the spiral disk, but a recent reworking of this image, seen on a page about M104, reduces the glare from the nucleus, allowing the spiral structure to be better revealed. (The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA), NASA)
HST image of the Sombrero Galaxy, NGC 4594, also known as M104

M105 (=
NGC 3379 = PGC 32256)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Neither observed nor recorded by Charles Messier
Appended (1947) to the Messier Catalog by Helen Sawyer Hogg as M105
A magnitude 9.3 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Leo (RA 10 47 49.5, Dec +12 34 52)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
M105 is a member of the Leo I galaxy group, which includes M95, M96 and a number of other galaxies scattered across a region about 40 million light years away. This post shows a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3379.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3379, also known as M105

M106 (=
NGC 4258 = PGC 39600)
Discovered (July 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Apparently neither observed nor recorded by Charles Messier
Appended (1947) to the Messier Catalog by Helen Sawyer Hogg as M106
A magnitude 8.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 18 57.8, Dec +47 18 25)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
NOAO image of most of spiral galaxy NGC 4258, also known as M106
Above, a view of most of M106 (Bernie and Jay Slotnick, Adam Block, AOP, NOAO, AURA, NSF, apod030417)

M108 (=
NGC 3556 = PGC 34030)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1781) by Pierre Méchain but position not determined
Observed (Mar 24, 1781) by Charles Messier but position not determined until later
Appended (1953) to Messier's Catalog by Owen Gingerich as M108
A magnitude 10.0 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)cd?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 11 29.4, Dec +55 40 22)
Click on either image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 3556, also known as M108
Above, an NOAO image of M108 (AURA, NSF, NOAO)
Below, a 9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3556, also known as M108

M109 (=
NGC 3992 = PGC 37617)
Supposedly but undoubtedly not discovered (Mar 12, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Discovered (between late March and early May 1781) by Charles Messier but not added to his Catalog
Appended (1953) to Messier's Catalog by Owen Gingerich as M109
A magnitude 9.8 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 57 35.4, Dec +53 22 25)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information
(Image Credit AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 3992, also known as M109

M110 (=
NGC 205 = PGC 2429)
Discovered (Aug 10, 1773) by Charles Messier but too late to include in his Catalog
Appended (1966) to Messier's Catalog by Kenneth Glyn Jones as M110
A magnitude 8.1 elliptical galaxy (type E5 pec?) in Andromeda (RA 00 40 22.1, Dec +41 41 07)
Click on the image (below) or the NGC link (above) for more information SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 205, also known as M110
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image of M110
Online Astronomy eText: Appendices
The Messier Catalog: Galaxies
(also see Charles Messier's Catalog: Nebulae / Open Clusters / Globular Clusters)