Celestial Atlas
(IC 2900 - 2949) ←IC Objects: IC 2950 - 2999 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (IC 3000 - 3049)
Click here for Introductory Material
QuickLinks:
2950, 2951, 2952, 2953, 2954, 2955, 2956, 2957, 2958, 2959, 2960, 2961, 2962, 2963, 2964, 2965, 2966,
2967, 2968, 2969, 2970, 2971, 2972, 2973, 2974, 2975, 2976, 2977, 2978, 2979, 2980, 2981, 2982, 2983,
2984, 2985, 2986, 2987, 2988, 2989, 2990, 2991, 2992, 2993, 2994, 2995, 2996, 2997, 2998, 2999

Page last updated May 6, 2020
Completed IC 2983 due to misidentification as NGC 4006
Completed IC 2963, IC 2979 and 2981 as a result of a query
WORKING: Check positions, historical IDs (Corwin+), add basic pix, captions, tags

IC 2950 (= PGC 36287)
Discovered (Jun 13, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1187)
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type SABbc?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 41 37.8, Dec +37 59 33)
Apparent size 0.55 by 0.45 arcmin. A starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 2950
Above, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of IC 2950
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 2950

IC 2951 (= PGC 36436)
Discovered (Mar 5, 1897) by
Friedrich Bidschof (84)
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type Sa??) in Leo (RA 11 43 24.4, Dec +19 44 59)
Apparent size 1.4 by 0.7 arcmin?

IC 2952 (= PGC 36508)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1188)
A magnitude 14.9 spiral galaxy (type S??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 44 17.1, Dec +33 21 04)
Apparent size 0.4 by 0.3 arcmin?

IC 2953 (=
NGC 3855 = PGC 36530)
Discovered (May 8, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3855)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1896) by Stephane Javelle (1189) (and later listed as IC 2953)
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type SBb??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 44 25.8, Dec +33 21 21)
This entry will be primarily concerned with historical information; for anything else see NGC 3855.

IC 2954
Recorded (May 15, 1903) by
Stephane Javelle (1190)
A star in Leo (RA 11 45 03.2, Dec +26 47 12)

IC 2955 (= PGC 36603)
Discovered (Mar 28, 1886) by
Guillaume Bigourdan (406)
A magnitude 14.1 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Leo (RA 11 45 03.9, Dec +19 37 14)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.9 arcmin?
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 2955, also showing part of NGC 3862
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of IC 2955, also showing part of NGC 3862 (which see)

IC 2956 (= PGC 36625)
Discovered (May 15, 1903) by
Stephane Javelle (1191)
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type SBbc??) in Leo (RA 11 45 17.6, Dec +26 46 00)
Apparent size 1.2 by 0.8 arcmin?

IC 2957 (= PGC 36653)
Discovered (May 7, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1192)
A magnitude 14.1 lenticular galaxy (type SB0??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 45 37.0, Dec +31 17 58)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 2958 (= PGC 36665)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1193)
A magnitude 15.7 spiral galaxy (type SB??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 45 42.3, Dec +33 09 15)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 2959 (=
NGC 3871 = PGC 36702)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3871)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1896) by Stephane Javelle (1194) (and later listed as IC 2959)
A magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type Sb??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 46 10.1, Dec +33 06 34)
This entry will be primarily concerned with historical information; for anything else see NGC 3871.

IC 2960 (= PGC 36709)
Discovered (May 29, 1903) by
Stephane Javelle (1195)
A magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type S??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 46 19.7, Dec +35 00 15)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.3 arcmin?

IC 2961 (= PGC 36812)
Discovered (Jun 12, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1196)
A magnitude 14.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 47 49.5, Dec +31 20 43)
Apparent size 0.2 by 0.1 arcmin?

IC 2962
Recorded (Feb 22, 1898) by
Lewis Swift (XI-123)
A lost or nonexistent object in Crater (RA 11 49 05.7, Dec -12 18 40)

IC 2963 (= PGC 36933, but almost certainly not
NGC 3915 )
Almost certainly not observed (Apr 24, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3915)
Also certainly not observed (in or before 1881) by Christian Peters (and later listed as NGC 3915)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1892) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 2963)
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type SA(s)0/a?) in Virgo (RA 11 49 24.6, Dec -05 07 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 2963 (Bigourdan #284, 1860 RA 11 42 15, NPD 94 20) is "very difficult, 12th magnitude star 20 arcsec to west northwest". The position precesses to RA 11 49 24.3, Dec -05 06 41, only about 0.4 arcmin north of the nucleus of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Historical Misidentification as NGC 3915: IC 2963 is usually listed as a duplicate observation of NGC 3915, but as discussed in the entry for that object, it is almost certainly lost or nonexistent, and Bigourdan's description is about as far as imaginable from either Herschel's or Peters' descriptions of NGC 3915, and although several galaxies have been suggested as candidates for that entry, Corwin's notes list IC 2963 as the least likely of all of them to be correct, whence the warning in the title for this entry.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2035 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 2963 is about 95 million light years away, in fair agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 75 to 80 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.65 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 45 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 2963
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on IC 2963
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 2963
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy IC 2963

IC 2964
Recorded (Apr 12, 1899) by
Guillaume Bigourdan (407)
A lost or nonexistent object in Leo (RA 11 49 52.4, Dec +12 03 01)

IC 2965 (=
NGC 3957 = PGC 37326)
Discovered (Feb 7, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3957)
Discovered (Feb 20, 1898) by Lewis Swift (XI-124) (and later listed as IC 2965)
A magnitude 11.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a??) in Crater (RA 11 54 01.5, Dec -19 34 08)
This entry will be primarily concerned with historical information; for anything else see NGC 3957.

IC 2966
Discovered (May 8, 1826) by
James Dunlop (266)
An emission nebula in Musca (RA 11 50 12.9, Dec -64 52 17)
Apparent size 3.0 by 2.0 arcmin?

IC 2967 (= PGC 37042)
Discovered (Jun 12, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1197)
A magnitude 13.7 elliptical galaxy (type E2??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 50 55.2, Dec +30 51 04)
Apparent size 0.9 by 0.7 arcmin?

IC 2968 (= PGC 37192)
Discovered (Apr 2, 1894) by
Hermann Kobold (5, K)
A magnitude 14.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a??) in Leo (RA 11 52 30.5, Dec +20 37 33)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 2969 (= PGC 37196)
Discovered (May 4, 1897) by
Lewis Swift (XI-125)
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc?) in Virgo (RA 11 52 31.2, Dec -03 52 23)
Apparent size 1.3 by 0.8 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy IC 2969
Above, a 1.8 arcmin wide DSS image of IC 2969
Below, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 2969

IC 2970
Recorded (May 12, 1898) by
Lewis Swift (XI-126)
A lost or nonexistent object in Crater (RA 11 53 09.0, Dec -23 07 24)

IC 2971 (= PGC 37275)
Discovered (Jun 12, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1198)
A magnitude 14.9 spiral galaxy (type S??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 53 27.5, Dec +30 41 51)
Apparent size 0.3 by 0.2 arcmin?

IC 2972 (=
NGC 3952 = PGC 37285)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1787) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3952)
Recorded (Mar 23, 1895) by Lewis Swift (XI-127) (and later listed as IC 2972)
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type Sm??) in Virgo (RA 11 53 40.1, Dec -03 59 50)
This entry will be primarily concerned with historical information; for anything else see NGC 3952.

IC 2973 (= PGC 37308)
Discovered (Jun 12, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1199)
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)d?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 53 50.7, Dec +33 21 57)
Apparent size 1.35 by 0.75 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 2973
Above, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of IC 2973
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 2973

IC 2974 (= PGC 37304)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1895) by
Lewis Swift (XI-128)
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Virgo (RA 11 53 48.7, Dec -05 10 06)
Apparent size 2.2 by 0.5 arcmin?

IC 2975
Recorded (1897) by
Lewis Swift (XII-9)
A lost or nonexistent object in Virgo (RA 11 54 06.0, Dec -05 33 42)

IC 2976 (=
NGC 3979 = PGC 37488)
Discovered (Apr 23, 1881) by Edward Holden (and later listed as NGC 3979)
Discovered (May 23, 1897) by Lewis Swift (XI-129) (and later listed as IC 2976)
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in Virgo (RA 11 56 01.1, Dec -02 43 14)
This entry will be primarily concerned with historical information; for anything else see NGC 3979.

IC 2977 (= PGC 37405)
Discovered (Dec 29, 1897) by
Lewis Swift (XI-130)
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type Sm??) in Centaurus (RA 11 55 14.5, Dec -37 41 46)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.7 arcmin?

IC 2978 (= PGC 37515)
Discovered (Jun 12, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1200)
A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type SBcd??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 56 23.1, Dec +32 02 19)
Apparent size 1.1 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 2979 (= PGC 37559)
Discovered (Jun 12, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 56 54.2, Dec +32 09 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 2979 (= Javelle #1201, 1860 RA 11 49 40, NPD 56 03.8) is "faint, small, round, a little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". Unfortunately, as noted by Corwin, Javelle's comparison star for IC 2979 and 2981 had a one degree error in its declination, so the NGC position precesses to RA 11 56 53.9, Dec +33 09 27, and there is nothing there nor anywhere near there. However, applying the appropriate correction to the comparison star's position, the corrected NGC position precesses to RA 11 56 53.8, Dec +32 09 27, which falls on the western rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits (the galaxy is actually extended, but the bright part that could be seen by Javelle is more nearly round than not) and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3405 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 2979 is about 155 to 160 million light years away, considerably less than a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 225 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 30 to 35 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy IC 2979
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on IC 2979 (the "bright" star is magnitude 8.0 HD 103719)
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 2979

IC 2980 (= PGC 37612)
Discovered (Jun 12, 1901) by
DeLisle Stewart (356)
A magnitude 12.4 elliptical galaxy (type E3??) in Musca (RA 11 57 30.0, Dec -73 41 06)
Apparent size 1.2 by 1.0 arcmin?

IC 2981 (= PGC 37462, and absolutely not =
NGC 3966)
Discovered (Jun 12, 1896) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 2981)
Also observed (Mar 28, 1906) by Max Wolf (and misidentified as NGC 3966)
Due to Max Wolf's misidentification of this object, it is still often misidentified as NGC 3966
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)b? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 11 55 42.6, Dec +32 11 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 2981 (= Javelle #1202, 1860 RA 11 50 36, NPD 56 01.9) is "faint, small, round, gradually a very little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 11 43 18.4, Dec +34 44 48, but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there. Fortunately, the problem involved in identifying Javelle's object is easily solved, as noted by Corwin. Namely, as in the case of IC 2979, Javelle made a one degree error in the declination of his comparison star, and in this case he also accidentally reversed the direction of the offset in right ascension. Applying corrections for those mistakes, Javelle's position falls within 3 arcsec of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so save for the confusion introduced by the errors noted above, the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Unfortunately, in an appendix of the IC2, Dreyer included a note based on Max Wolf's misidentification of this object as NGC 3966, stating "NGC 3966: RA is 11 48 29, Wolf list VIII (#178)". That note was incorrect in two ways: Less importantly, it used only part of Wolf's full position (1875 RA 11 49 15.2, NPD 57 06 56 = 1860 RA 11 48 28.5, NPD 57 01 56 = J2000 RA 11 55 42.9, Dec +32 11 20; and catastrophically, it "correctly" used Wolf's misidentification of the object. As it happens, Wolf's position falls on the northeastern outline of IC 2981, and as a result of Wolf's misidentification and Dreyer's IC2 note, IC 2981 is more often misidentified as NGC 3966 than correctly identified as IC 2981 (hence the need to point out that error in the title of this entry).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3715 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), IC 2981 is about 170 to 175 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.4 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 20 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 2981, which is often misidentified as NGC 3966
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 2981, which is often misidentified as NGC 3966
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 2981, which is often misidentified as NGC 3966

IC 2982 (= PGC 37636 = "NGC 4004B")
Discovered (Apr 28, 1894) by
Guillaume Bigourdan (285)
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Leo (RA 11 57 51.3, Dec +27 52 06)
Historical Identification:
Warning About Non-Standard Designation: IC 2982 is sometimes called "NGC 4004B". Such non-standard letter designations are always an abomination, especially in a case like this, where the object already has a perfectly good NGC/IC designation. (The link provides an explanation of why such non-standard designations should never be used, but is otherwise only a warning against such usage.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.5 by 0.3 arcmin?

IC 2983 (absolutely not =
NGC 4006)
Recorded (Mar 30, 1892) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A lost or nonexistent object in Virgo (RA 11 58 18.2, Dec -02 04 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, IC 2983 (= Bigourdan #286, 1860 RA 11 51 08, NPD 91 18) is "extremely faint". The position precesses to RA 11 58 18.2, Dec -02 04 46 (whence the position above), but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there that could possibly be Bigourdan's object, given how precise his measurements were. So although it is possible that Bigourdan #286 might be some unknown star, it must be considered lost or nonexistent.
Misidentification As NGC 4006: Since NGC 4006 is located only a few arcmin southwest of Bigourdan's position for IC 2983, some references list that as IC 2983; but Bigourdan observed NGC 4006 on the same night that he recorded IC 2983, so they cannot be the same object, and the misidentification is exactly that.
Physical Information: Since there is no way of knowing what the object is (or if it even existed), there is nothing available about its nature.
SDSS image of region near the lost or nonexistent IC 2983, also showing NGC 4006, which is NOT IC 2983
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the IC position for IC 2983, also showing NGC 4006

IC 2984 (= PGC 37734)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1203)
A magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type SBcd?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 59 07.2, Dec +30 41 51)
Apparent size 1.0 by 0.7 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 2984
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of IC 2984
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 2985
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 2984, also showing IC 2985

IC 2985 (= PGC 37744)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1204)
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type SBc? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 11 59 12.5, Dec +30 43 52)
Apparent size 1.0 by 0.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 2985
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of IC 2985; for now see IC 2984 for a wider field

IC 2986 (= PGC 37795)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1205)
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type SB0??) in Ursa Major (RA 11 59 49.5, Dec +30 50 42)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.6 arcmin?

IC 2987 (= PGC 38088)
Discovered (Jun 13, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1206)
A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type S??) in Ursa Major (RA 12 03 24.6, Dec +38 48 48)
Apparent size 0.5 by 0.3 arcmin?

IC 2988
Recorded (Mar 21, 1898) by
Guillaume Bigourdan (408)
A star in Virgo (RA 12 03 42.2, Dec +03 25 46)

IC 2989 (=
NGC 4139 = PGC 38213)
Discovered (Aug 10, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4139)
Discovered (Mar 29, 1895) by Guillaume Bigourdan (287) (and later listed as IC 2989)
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0??) in NGC 4139 (RA 12 04 34.0, Dec +01 48 05)
This entry will be primarily concerned with historical information; for anything else see NGC 4139.

IC 2990 (= PGC 38219)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (792)
A magnitude 15.1 spiral galaxy (type S??) in Virgo (RA 12 04 38.5, Dec +11 03 00)
Apparent size 0.8 by 0.3 arcmin?

IC 2991 (= PGC 38273)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (793)
A magnitude 14.6 spiral galaxy (type Sbc??) in Virgo (RA 12 05 12.5, Dec +10 38 24)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.2 arcmin?

IC 2992 (= PGC 38277)
Discovered (Jun 6, 1896) by
Stephane Javelle (1207)
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type Sa??) in Ursa Major (RA 12 05 15.8, Dec +30 51 19)
Apparent size 0.6 by 0.5 arcmin?

IC 2993 (= PGC 3088758)
Discovered (May 26, 1903) by
Stephane Javelle (1208)
A magnitude 14.5 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 05 38.3, Dec +32 49 20)
Apparent size 0.7 by 0.55 arcmin. IC 2993 is sometimes misidentified as PGC 3167495, hence the discussion immediately following.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy IC 2993
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of IC 2993

PGC 3167495 (not =
IC 2993)
Not an IC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as IC 2993
A pair of galaxies in Ursa Major (RA 12 06 06.6, Dec +32 53 38)
(More to follow in the next iteration of this page.)
SDSS image of PGC 3167495, the pair of galaxies sometimes misidentified as IC 2993
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 3167495, which is not IC 2993

IC 2994 (= PGC 38291)
Discovered (May 7, 1904) by
Royal Frost (794)
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type S??) in Virgo (RA 12 05 27.9, Dec +12 42 11)
Apparent size 0.3 by 0.2 arcmin?

IC 2995 (= PGC 38330)
Discovered (Dec 30, 1898) by
Lewis Swift (XI-131)
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Hydra (RA 12 05 47.0, Dec -27 56 30)
Apparent size 3.0 by 0.8 arcmin?

IC 2996 (= PGC 38334)
Discovered (July, 1899) by
DeLisle Stewart (357)
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sbc??) in Hydra (RA 12 05 48.5, Dec -29 58 19)
Apparent size 1.6 by 0.4 arcmin?

IC 2997
Recorded (May 7, 1894) by
Guillaume Bigourdan (288)
A lost or nonexistent object in Coma Berenices (RA 12 05 45.0, Dec +20 16 54)

IC 2998
Recorded (Apr 13, 1896) by
Guillaume Bigourdan (289)
A lost or nonexistent object in Coma Berenices(RA 12 05 54.0, Dec +20 45 00)

IC 2999 (= PGC 38352)
Discovered (May 26, 1903) by
Stephane Javelle (1209)
A magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 05 57.5, Dec +31 20 54)
Based on a recessional velocity of 6975 km/sec, IC 2999 is about 325 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of 0.7 by 0.25 arcmins, it is about 65 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy IC 2999
Above, a 1.2 arcmin SDSS image of IC 2999
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy IC 2999
Celestial Atlas
(IC 2900 - 2949) ←IC Objects: IC 2950 - 2999→ (IC 3000 - 3049)