Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3250 - 3299) ←NGC Objects: NGC 3300 - 3349 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (NGC 3350 - 3399)
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3300, 3301, 3302, 3303, 3304, 3305, 3306, 3307, 3308, 3309, 3310, 3311, 3312, 3313, 3314, 3315, 3316,
3317, 3318, 3319, 3320, 3321, 3322, 3323, 3324, 3325, 3326, 3327, 3328, 3329, 3330, 3331, 3332, 3333,
3334, 3335, 3336, 3337, 3338, 3339, 3340, 3341, 3342, 3343, 3344, 3345, 3346, 3347, 3348, 3349

Page last updated June 25, 2020
Updated all Steinecke physical data, Corwin positions
Added original NGC entries, historical data and verified identifications
WORKING 3314, 3316+, 3328, 3346++: checking links. types, adding pix
NEXT: If possible, find Vogel's observation of 3332
NEXT: Check Dreyer notes/errata in NGC, notes in IC1/2, 1912 Herschel papers, etc
FINALLY: Add physical information, check PGC IDs, Gottlieb comments

NGC 3300 (= PGC 31472)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 3, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB(rl)0/a?) in Leo (RA 10 36 38.4, Dec +14 10 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3300 (= GC 2148 = JH 727 = JH 3273 = WH III 55, 1860 RA 10 29 11, NPD 75 06.5) is "considerably faint, considerably small, round, pretty much brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, among bright stars". The position precesses to RA 10 36 39.3, Dec +14 10 04, on the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits (keeping in mind the difference between centuries-old visual observations and modern photographs) and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3080 km/sec, NGC 3300 is about 145 million light years away, in good agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 140 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.85 by 0.95 arcmin (from the image below), it is about 70 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region around lenticular galaxy NGC 3300
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3300
Below, a 2.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3300

NGC 3301 (=
NGC 3760 = PGC 31497)
Discovered (Mar 12, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3301)
Also observed (Feb 24, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3301)
Also observed (Feb 23, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3301)
Also observed (Feb 21, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3760)
A magnitude 11.4 lenticular galaxy (type SAB(r)0/a?) in Leo (RA 10 36 56.0, Dec +21 52 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3301 (= GC 2149 = GC 2150 = JH 728 = WH II 46, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 29 18, NPD 67 23.6) is "considerably bright, small, a little extended 53°, pretty suddenly brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 10 36 56.6, Dec +21 52 57, barely northeast of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Note About The Duplicate Entry: d'Arrest made a one hour of time error in his recorded right ascension on Feb 21, hence the entry for the otherwise nonexistent NGC 3760; but as discussed in the entry for that object, there is no doubt that it was actually the same object he observed as WH II 46 = JH 728 on Feb 23 and two later dates, which eventually became NGC 3301.
Physical Information: 3.3 by 1.0?? arcmin apparent size. 3.1 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3301
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3301
Below, a 3.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3301

NGC 3302 (= PGC 31391 = ESO 437-007)
Discovered (Jan 28, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 lenticular galaxy (type SA(rs)0/a?) in Antlia (RA 10 35 47.4, Dec -32 21 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3302 (= GC 2151 = JH 3274 = GC 2152 = JH 3275, 1860 RA 10 29 21, NPD 121 37.9) is "extremely faint, small, round". The position precesses to RA 10 35 47.8, Dec -32 21 19, well within the northern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 1.8 by 1.3 (from the images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3302
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3302
Below, a 2 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3302

NGC 3303 (= PGC 31508 =
Arp 192)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 25, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)bc? pec) in Leo (RA 10 37 00.1, Dec +18 08 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3303 (= GC 2153 = JH 730 = WH III 66, 1860 RA 10 29 27, NPD 71 08.8) is "very faint, very small, very little extended, gradually a little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 10 37 00.4, Dec +18 07 45, only 0.4 arcmin south southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Use By The Arp Atlas: NGC 3303 is used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with narrow filaments, with the note "Diffuse faint arms off both sides, spike comes from stellar companion." However, the narrow spike seen in the northwestern part of Arp's image is not associated with any stellar object, and moreover, has disappeared from all subsequent images of the galaxy! The true nature of the spike wasn't discovered until late 2009, when it was identified as a trail caused by an asteroid that just happened to be passing in front of the galaxy on the night that Arp exposed his plate. Arp's image turns out to be the earliest known observation of the asteroid (which was "discovered" in 2002), and as a result of its presence on Arp's image, asteroid TU240 has been renamed 84447 jeffkanipe, after one of the authors of a 2006 publication in which the spike in Arp's image was listed as one of several "challenges" for astronomers to try to resolve questions raised by Arp's Atlas.
Physical Information: NGC 3303 is the result of the collision and/or merger of the galaxy listed above and the much smaller "companion" discussed in the following entry. It is a spectacular example of the chaos that can be caused by such encounters, and essentially defies any standard classification. (More to follow later.)
 LEDA Sa? mag 14.5 Sy3, NED 3K CMB 6613 Vr 6613 km/sec, mag 14.5 "pec", 3.0 by 2.1 arcmin
  From the images below, the central bright region containing the colliding/merging galaxies is about 0.65 by 0.5 arcmin, while the scattered debris caused by their interaction spans 2.55 by 2.45 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 3303 and its interacting/merging companion, PGC 93104
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3303
Below, a 3.2 by 3.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its companion, PGC 93104
SDSS image of peculiar spiral galaxy NGC 3303 and its interacting/merging companion, PGC 93104

PGC 93104
Not an NGC object but listed here as an interacting companion of
NGC 3303
A magnitude 15(?) galaxy (type S? pec) in Leo (RA 10 36 59.4, Dec +18 08 16)
Physical Information: NED 3K CMB Vr 6508 km/sec, type Sb?, 0.5 by 0.4 arcmin?, Sy3; LEDA magnitude 15?, Sbc
SDSS image of compact galaxy PGC 93104 and part of its much larger companion, NGC 3303
Above, a 1 arcmin wide image of PGC 93104 and its companion, NGC 3303 (which see for more images)

NGC 3304 (= PGC 31572)
Discovered (Mar 17, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 11, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)a?) in Leo Minor (RA 10 37 37.9, Dec +37 27 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3304 (= GC 2154 = JH 729 = WH III 615, 1860 RA 10 29 34, NPD 51 49.4) is "very faint, considerably small, pretty suddenly brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 10 37 37.7, Dec +37 27 07, barely south of the nucleus of the galaxy listed above and well within its overall outline, the description is reasonable and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 1.6 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3304
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3304
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3304

NGC 3305 (= PGC 31421 = ESO 501-030)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Hydra (RA 10 36 11.8, Dec -27 09 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3305 (= GC 2155 = JH 3277, 1860 RA 10 29 39, NPD 116 26.3) is "very faint, small, round, 2nd of 9", the others being NGC 3285, 3307, 3308, 3309, 3311, 3312, 3314 and 3316. The position precesses to RA 10 36 14.2, Dec -27 09 44, about 0.5 arcmin east of the center of the galaxy listed above and just outside its eastern rim, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 0.75 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below)
PanSTARRS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3305
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3305
Below, a 2 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3305
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3305

NGC 3306 (= PGC 31528)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(sr)cd?) in Leo (RA 10 37 10.2, Dec +12 39 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3306 (Swift list III (#57), 1860 RA 10 29 40, NPD 76 39.0) is "faint, small, round". The position precesses to RA 10 37 06.2, Dec +12 37 32, about 1.9 arcmin southwest of the galaxy listed above (a fairly typical error for Swift's method of measuring positions), the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is considered certain.
Physical Information: 1.45 by 05.5 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3306
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3306
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3306

NGC 3307 (= PGC 31430 = ESO 501-031)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type SAB(rs)0/a? pec) in Hydra (RA 10 36 17.2, Dec -27 31 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3307 (= GC 2156 = JH 3278, 1860 RA 10 29 41, NPD 116 52.6) is "most extremely faint, 3rd of 9", the others being NGC 3285, 3305, 3308, 3309, 3311, 3312, 3314 and 3316. The position precesses to RA 10 36 15.6, Dec -27 36 03, but there is nothing there that Herschel could have seen. However, there is a reasonable candidate just over 4 arcmin due north of the NGC position, the "5th and 6th of 9" in the list above are due east of the galaxy in question, and I can find no reference indicating any quibbling over the identification of NGC 3307 as the galaxy listed above, so the identification is apparently reasonably certain.
Physical Information: 0.95 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3307, also showing NGC 3308, NGC 3309 and NGC 3311
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3307, also showing NGC 3308, 3309 and 3311
Below, a 1 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
AladinLite/DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3307
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3307

NGC 3308 (= PGC 31438 = ESO 501-034)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Hydra (RA 10 36 22.4, Dec -27 26 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3308 (= GC 2157 = JH 3279, 1860 RA 10 29 48, NPD 116 42.8) is "faint, small, round, 4th of 9", the others being NGC 3285, 3305, 3307, 3309, 3311, 3312, 3314 and 3316. The position precesses to RA 10 36 22.9, Dec -27 26 15, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 1.6 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3308, also showing NGC 3307, NGC 3309 and NGC 3311
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3308, also showing NGC 3307, 3309 and 3311
Below, a 2 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3308
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3308

NGC 3309 (= PGC 31466 = ESO 501-036)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Hydra (RA 10 36 35.7, Dec -27 31 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3309 (= GC 2159 = JH 3280, 1860 RA 10 30 01, NPD 116 48.1) is "bright, large, round, western of a double nebula, 5th of 9", the others being NGC 3285, 3305, 3307, 3308, 3311, 3312, 3314 and 3316, and the "double nebula" being NGC 3309 and 3311. The position precesses to RA 10 36 35.8, Dec -27 31 34, barely south of the outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and "western of a double nebula" makes any other identification impossible.
Physical Information: 1.9 by 1.6 arcmin (from the Carnegie-Irvine image) Shares a common envelope with 3311, but there is no other sign of interaction between the two galaxies.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3309, also showing NGC 3307, NGC 3308, NGC 3311 and NGC 3312
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3309, also showing NGC 3307, 3308, 3311 and 3312
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide image of NGC 3309 and 3311
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of interacting elliptical galaxies  NGC 3309 and NGC 3311
Below, a 2.25 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit as above)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image ofelliptical galaxy NGC 3309

NGC 3310 (= PGC 31650 =
Arp 217)
Discovered (Apr 12, 1789) by William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 10, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.8 spiral galaxy (type (R'R')SA(rs)bc? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 10 38 45.9, Dec +53 30 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3310 (= GC 2158 = JH 731 = WH IV 60, 1860 RA 10 30 02, NPD 35 46.3) is "considerably bright, pretty large, round, very gradually then very suddenly much brighter middle and nucleus with 15 arcsec diameter." The position precesses to RA 10 38 45.8, Dec +53 30 09, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Usage By The Arp Atlas: NGC 3310 is used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with an adjacent loop, with the note "Much Hα emission incl. half arc outside galaxy."
Classification Note: NGC 3310 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type SA(rs)bc pec. However, the Atlas image does not show all of the faint outer structure, so I have slightly altered the type to reflect its presence.
Physical Information: 6.0 by 5.3 arcmin for extended structures, 3.05 by 2.75 arcmin for the brighter central regions (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3310
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3310
(The streaks at top left are due to magnitude 5.5 star HD 92095)
Below, a 7 arcmin wide image of the galaxy and its clouds of stellar debris
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3310, showing its extended clouds of stellar debris
Below, a 3.8 by 5.7 arcmin wide view of the central galaxy (Image Credit as above)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of the central part of spiral galaxy NGC 3310

NGC 3311 (= PGC 31478 = ESO 501-038)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.7 elliptical galaxy (type E2?) in Hydra (RA 10 36 42.9, Dec -27 31 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3311 (= GC 2160 = JH 3281, 1860 RA 10 30 10, NPD 116 49.3) is "bright, large, round, eastern of double nebula, 6th of 9", the others being NGC 3285, 3305, 3307, 3308, 3309, 3312, 3314 and 3316. The position precesses to RA 10 36 44.8, Dec -27 32 47, only 1.1 arcmin south southeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and between "eastern of double nebula" and "6th of 9", no other object can possibly fit the identification.
Physical Information: 2.35 by 2.1 arcmin (from the images below) Shares a common envelope with 3309, but there is no other sign of interaction between the two galaxies.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3311, also showing NGC 3307, NGC 3308, NGC 3309 and NGC 3312
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3311, also showing NGC 3307, 3308, 3309 and 3312
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide image of NGC 3309 and 3311
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of interacting elliptical galaxies  NGC 3309 and NGC 3311
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit as above)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3311

NGC 3312 (=
IC 629 = PGC 31513 = ESO 501-043)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1835) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3312)
Discovered (Feb 26, 1887) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 629)
A magnitude 11.9 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)b? pec) in Hydra (RA 10 37 02.5, Dec -27 33 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3312 (= GC 2161 = JH 3282, 1860 RA 10 30 29, NPD 116 51.7) is "considerably faint, extended, gradually brighter middle, 7th of 9", the others being NGC 3285, 3305, 3307, 3308, 3309, 3311, 3314 and 3316. The position precesses to RA 10 37 03.9, Dec -27 35 12, on the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: (See IC 629 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.4 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below) Part of the Hydra I galaxy cluster, also known as Abell 1060.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3312, also showing NGC 3309 and NGC 3311
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3312, also showing NGC 3309 and 3311
(Glare from magnitude 6.7 star HD 91964 to southwest and magnitude 5.5 star HD 92095 to northeast)
Below, an 8.25 by 7 arcmin image of NGC 3312, also showing NGC 3309 and 3311
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Suvey image of spiral galaxy NGC 3312, also showing NGC 3309 and NGC 3311
Below, a 3.5 arcmin wide image of NGC 3312 (Image Credit & © Capella Observatory; used by permission)
Capella Observatory image of spiral galaxy NGC 3312

NGC 3313 (= PGC 31551 = ESO 501-050)
Discovered (1886) by
Ormond Stone
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3313)
A magnitude 11.4 spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(rs, nr)ab?) in Hydra (RA 10 37 25.5, Dec -25 19 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3313 (Ormond Stone list I (#176), 1860 RA 10 30 35, NPD 114 35.7) is "extremely faint, pretty small, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle and nucleus, 15th magnitude star 3 arcsec to north." The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 10 30 47 and adds "The star is south of the nebula". The corrected position precesses to RA 10 37 25.4, Dec -25 19 14, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above, the original description fits (Howe having apparently reversed the position of the star) and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Overall appafent size including outer rings and psudeorings is about 5.0 by 4.9 arcmin, which the brighter central region is about 2.25 by 2.65 arcmin (from the images below). The star mentioned by Stone and Howe is so close to the nucleus of the galaxy that in low resolution images it appears to be part of the nucleus; but in the Carnegie-Irvine image of the galaxy the star is clearly visible just ouside the northwest part of the nuclear ring.
Classification Note: The de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies uses NGC 3313 as an example of type SB(r)b, but given its complex appearance I have chosen to use the NED classification as type (R')SB(rs)ab, albeit with a question mark to note the disageement, and the addition of (nr) for the tiny ring around the central nucleus.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3313
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3313
Below, a 6 arcmin wide DSS image of rhe galaxy and its extended rings and pseudorings
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3313
Below, a 3.75 by 3 arcmin wide image of the central galaxy
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by pemission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of central region of spiral galaxy NGC 3313

WORKING3314: Need to use the 2.4 arcmin wide HST image to re-measure the apparent sizes

NGC 3314 ([{= PGC 31531 = PGC 751405 = "NGC 3314A"}
+ {PGC 31532 = "NGC 3314B"}] = ESO 501-046 = "PGC 3167313")

Discovered (Mar 24, 1835) by
John Herschel
A pair of galaxies in Hydra (RA 10 37 12.8, Dec -27 41 02)
PGC 31531 = A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SBab?) at RA 10 37 12.8, Dec -27 41 01
PGC 31532 = A magnitude 13(?) spiral galaxy (type SA(s)cd? pec) at RA 10 37 13.0, Dec -27 41 01
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3314 (= GC 2162 = JH 3283, 1860 RA 10 30 40, NPD 116 56.8) is the "8th of 9 nebulae", the others being NGC 3285, 3305, 3307, 3308, 3309, 3311, 3312 and 3316. The position precesses to RA 10 37 14.8, Dec -27 40 19, only 0.8 arcmin northeast of the center of the pair of galaxies listed above, and though there is no description, there is nothing comparable anywhere in the region, so the identification is certain.
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Sometimes the two components of NGC 3314 are referred to as NGC 3314A and NGC 3314B, but which is A and which is B is different in different references. In addition, NGC 3314B is sometimes used to refer to a completely different object, PGC 87327. This confused state of affairs can lead to serious errors when data for one object are incorrectly assigned to a completely different one, and since that apparently occurs in this entry, it is a particularly good example of why adding letters to NGC or other designations is a terrible idea.
Note About The PGC Designations: The designations for the individual galaxies are fine; but LEDA also assigns a designation for the pair, as shown at the end of the title for this entry. However, a search of the database for that designation returns no result, so it is shown in parentheses.
Physical Information: NGC 3314 looks like an interacting pair of galaxies, but is actually an accidental overlapping of two galaxies that just happen to be in the same direction. The unusual alignment of the galaxies allows a more detailed view than usual of the clouds of gas and dust in the foreground galaxy (PGC 31532). Normally such clouds are only visible in regions where hot bright stars have recently formed from the clouds, and heat and light them up; but in this case, dusty regions without stellar beacons are outlined by the stars in the background galaxy. In addition, the stars in the background galaxy are substantially dimmed and reddened by the dust lying between us and them. There is a problem with the recessional velocities listed for this system, probably due to confusion about the proper designation for the galaxies in the region (see the Warning About Non-Standard Designations above). Based on a recessional velocity of 2850 km/sec, PGC 31531 is about 135 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 85 to 140 million light years, and close to a Hubble Heritage Program distance estimate of 140 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.75 by 0.35 arcmin??, the galaxy is about 70 thousand light years across. However, the usually listed recessional velocity for PGC 31532 is in excess of 4600 km/sec, which must be wrong, since it obviously lies in front of its apparent companion; but a 2005 measurement by Jones et al. using the DR2/3 database assigns both galaxies essentially the same recessional velocity (within the error bars of the measurements), so they are probably at similar distances, albeit with PGC 31532 some unknown distance in front of PGC 31531 (an analysis of their structures suggest that PGC 31532 is at least several million and perhaps as much as 10 million light years closer to us than its apparent companion). Given that and its apparent size of 1.7 by 1.0 arcmin??, PGC 31532 is about 60 thousand light years across.
Usage By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: The pair of galaxies is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of types SA(s)c pec (for the one in front) and Sb (for the one in back).
HST image of overlapping spiral galaxies PGC 31531 and PGC 31532, which comprise NGC 3314, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas; also shown are NGC 3316 and PGC 87327, which is sometimes called NGC 3314B
Above, a 12 arcmin wide HST/DSS mosaic centered on NGC 3314, also showing NGC 3316 and PGC 87327
(Image Credit above & below NASA, ESA, the Hubble Heritage (STScI/AURA)-ESA/Hubble Collaboration,
W. Keel (University of Alabama), post-processing Courtney Seligman)

Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide HST image of NGC 3314 (PGC 31531 is in back, PGC 31532 in front)
(post-processing by Courtney Seligman to emphasize fainter outer regions)
HST image of overlapping spiral galaxies PGC 31531 and PGC 31532, which comprise NGC 3314
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide version of the image above
(Post-processing by Courtney Seligman to emphasize dust lanes and star-forming regions)HST image of overlapping spiral galaxies PGC 31531 and PGC 31532, which comprise NGC 3314
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide HST image of the central portion of the image above (Image Credit as above)
HST image of central portion of overlapping spiral galaxies PGC 31531 and PGC 31532, which comprise NGC 3314

PGC 87327 (not = "NGC 3314B")
Listed here because mistakenly identified as NGC 3314B in some references
A magnitude 14.3 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in
Hydra (RA 10 37 09.6, Dec -27 39 27)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: There is no standard for assigning "letter" designations to galaxies, so a given letter may be assigned to two different galaxies, causing considerable confusion about which data belong to which galaxy. In this case, "NGC 3314B" is sometimes used to refer to one of the galaxies in the pair known as NGC 3314, and sometimes to the galaxy listed here, which can lead to confusion about which data belong to a given galaxy (in fact, it is quite possible that some exceptionally large recessional velocities listed for the foreground galaxy in NGC 3314 almost certainly actually apply to PGC 87327). Needless to say this is not a good thing, and is a good example of why non-standard designations should never be used.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4455 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 87327 is about 205 to 210 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 180 to 190 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.26 by 0.18 arcmin (from the DSS image), the galaxy is about 15 thousand light years across.
Note About The Apparent Companion: In wide-field views it looks like the object 'attached' to the eastern side of the galaxy might be a companion of some sort. But as shown in the PanSTARRS image, it is actually a foreground star. This fact has also been confirmed by the GAIA space telescope, which was able to measure a parallax for the eastern object, which would be impossible if it were anything but a foreground star.
HST image of overlapping spiral galaxies PGC 31531 and PGC 31532, which comprise NGC 3314, overlaid on a DSS background to fill in missing areas; also shown are NGC 3316 and PGC 87327, which is sometimes called NGC 3314B
Above, the 12 arcmin wide composite image centered on NGC 3314, also showing NGC 3316 & PGC 87327
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 87327; the 'attached' object to its east is a magnitude 15 star
DSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 87327 and its apparent companion, which is actually a foreground star
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image more clearly shows the stellar nature of the eastern object
PanSTARRS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 87327 and its appaent companion, which is actually a foreground star

NGC 3315 (= PGC 31540 = ESO 501-048)
Discovered (1870) by
Edward Austin
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Hydra (RA 10 37 19.2, Dec -27 11 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3315 (Austin (#207, HN 40), 1860 RA 10 30 41, NPD 117 02) is "very faint, pretty large, irregularly round, gradually a very little brighter middle, star 1 arcmin to northwest". The position precesses to RA 10 37 15.7, Dec -27 45 31, but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there. Per Corwin, at one time he thought that this might have been an observation of NGC 3314, but the description does not fit that galaxy, and Austin separately observed 3414 on the same night, so there is no way that he could have made such a mistake. The most likely candidate for what Austin saw is an object 34 arcmin almost exactly due north of Austin's position (in several other cases Austin made a careful micrometric measurement of the position, but he did not do that for this object), as that nebula (namely the galaxy listed above) perfectly fits Austin's description, and although this identification cannot be considered absolutely certain (as admitted by Corwin himself) it is certainly reasonable, and is considered sufficiently certain to have been more or less universally adopted.
Physical Information: 0.55 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3315
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3315
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy and an "attached" foreground star
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3315 and 'attached' northwestern star
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy, showing the star as a separate object
The false-color PanSTARRS image is full of artifacts, such as the black lines between the galaxy and the star to its north;
to reduce those, this is a single-wavelength image in the "g" band, which more nearly corresponds to its visual appearance)
g-band PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3315 and nearby stars

WORKING HERE: Quoted sizes are obviously too big; re-measure using images below

NGC 3316 (= PGC 31571 = ESO 501-054)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type SB(rs)0^0) in Hydra (RA 10 37 37.3, Dec -27 35 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3316 (= GC 2162 = JH 3284, 1860 RA 10 31 00, NPD 16 52.8) is "faint, small, round, brighter middle, 9th of 9", the others being NGC 3285, 3305, 3307, 3308, 3309, 3311, 3312 and 3314. The position precesses to RA 10 37 35.1, Dec -27 36 20, only about 0.8 arcmin southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3940 km/sec, NGC 3316 is about 185 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 180 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.3 by 1.1 arcmin, it is about 70 thousand light years across. It appears to have a small companion, which is listed below as "HCC 015".
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3316, with an HST overlay of NGC 3314
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS/HST composite image centered on NGC 3316, showing NGC 3314 & 3317
(See NGC 3414 for Image Credit for HST overlay of that pair of galaxies)
Below, a 1 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 3316 and its apparent companion, HCC 015DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3316 and its apparent companion, HCC 015
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 3316 and its apparent companion, HCC 015PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3316 and its apparent companion, HCC 015

"PGC 6728480" (= HCC 015 = part of ESO 501-054)
Not an NGC object, but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 3316
A magnitude 15.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0? S?) in Hydra (RA 10 37 38.2, Dec -27 36 00)
Note About Designation: Although LEDA assigns this a PGC designation, a search of the database for that designation returns no result, hence its being place in parentheses. A search of either LEDA or NED for HCC 015 will return a result, hence the addition of that designation to the title for this entry.
Identification Note: Corwin lists this as a companion of NGC 3316, not as part of that NGC object.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 3995 km/sec, the galaxy is about 185 million light years away, or about the same distance as its likely companion. Given that and its 0.3 by 0.2 arcmin apparent size, the galaxy is about 15 thousand light years across.

NGC 3317 (= "PGC 5067702" = ESO 501-***55)
Recorded (1870) by
Edward Austin
Three stars in Hydra (RA 10 37 43.2, Dec -27 31 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3317 (Austin (210, HN 41), 1860 RA 10 31 00, NPD 116 48" is "a nebulous star, 5 arcmin north of h 3284," (JH) 3284 being NGC 3316. The position precesses to RA 10 37 35.2, Dec -27 31 32, but there is nothing that appears appropriate at the NGC position. However, Corwin notes that Austin did not give as precise a right ascension as stated by Dreyer, but only the approximate value of RA 10 31, so whatever Austin saw could have been several seconds of time east or west of the stated position and still fit Austin's description of its position relative to NGC 3316; and there is only one thing in that region that could have been seen with Austin's 15 inch refractor -- namely the close triple about 8 seconds of time to the east of the NGC position; so the identification as the group listed above is essentially certain.
Designation Note: For purposes of completeness LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost every NGC/IC object, regardless of its nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no result, so it is placed in parentheses. Similarly, NED returns a result for a search for NGC 3317, but with the ESO designation shown above (the *** meaning that it is a triple star, rather than an extragalactic object).
Physical Information: Approximate magnitudes for the stars are 14.6, 15.5 and 15.5, with the one in the middle being the brightest of the three.
DSS image of region near the trio of stars listed as NGC 3317, also showing NGC 3317
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3317, also showing NGC 3316
(The "bright" star at upper right is magnitude 5.5 star HD 92095)
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image showing that the apparent double is actually a trio of stars
PanSTARRS image of the trio of stars listed as NGC 3317

NGC 3318 (= PGC 31533 = ESO 317-052)
Discovered (Mar 2, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc? pec) in Vela (RA 10 37 15.5, Dec -41 37 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3318 (= GC 2164 = JH 3285, 1860 RA 10 31 06, NPD 130 54.4) is "considerably faint, pretty large, pretty much extended, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 10 37 16.2, Dec -41 37 56, within the southeastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 2.5 by 1.2 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3318
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3318
Below, a 2.6 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survery; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 3318

PGC 31373 (= ESO 317-050 = "NGC 3318A")
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 3318A
A magnitude 15.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in
Vela (RA 10 35 31.4, Dec -41 44 24)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: The use of non-standard "letter" designations of NGC/IC objects is an abomination. There are no standards for assigning the letters, so the same letters are often used for more than one galaxy, and more than one letter used for the same galaxy. This doesn't always cause confusion, but in many cases it causes the assignment of data belonging to one galaxy to a completely different one, and once made such errors are essentially impossible to stamp out, so such non-standard designations should never be used, and this entry is meant to serve only as a warning about the ill-considered practice.
Physical Information: 1.3 by 0.5 arcmin apparent size (from the images below) Classification Note: The poor quality of the available images hardly seems capable of determining anything other than the fact that this is a spiral galaxy; but in the absence of anything better I have assigned the NED classification to the galaxy type in the description line above.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 31373, which is sometimes mis-called NGC 3318A
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 31373
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 31373, which is sometimes mis-called NGC 3318A

PGC 31565 (= PGC 575365 = ESO 317-053 = "NGC 3318B")
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 3318B
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c? pec) in
Vela (RA 10 37 33.9, Dec -41 27 55)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: The use of non-standard "letter" designations of NGC/IC objects is an abomination. There are no standards for assigning the letters, so the same letters are often used for more than one galaxy, and more than one letter used for the same galaxy. This doesn't always cause confusion, but in many cases it causes the assignment of data belonging to one galaxy to a completely different one, and once made such errors are essentially impossible to stamp out, so such non-standard designations should never be used, and this entry is meant to serve only as a warning about the ill-considered practice.
Physical Information: 1.6 by 0.9 arcmin apparent size (from the images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC31565, which is sometimes mis-called NGC 3318B
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 31565
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 31565, which is sometimes mis-called NGC 3318B

NGC 3319 (= PGC 31671)
Discovered (Feb 3, 1788) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)cd) in Ursa Major (RA 10 39 09.5, Dec +41 41 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3319 (= GC 2165 = WH III 700, 1860 RA 10 31 07, NPD 47 36.5) is "considerably faint, large, irregularly extended, much brighter on south side of middle". The position precesses to RA 10 39 18.2, Dec +41 39 54, just over 2 arcmin southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and just outside its faint southeastern rim, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 6.5 by 3.5 arcmin apparent size (from the images below)
Classification Note: NGC 3319 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type SB(s)cd, and there is nothing in the images below to suggest that isn't perfectly correct, so I have used that type in the description line above.
NOAO image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3319, overlaid on a SDSS background to fill in missing areas
Above, a 12 arcmin wide composite image centered on NGC 3319
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF overlaid on SDSS background; used by permission)
Below, a 7 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit as above, but no SDSS background required)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 3319

NGC 3320 (= PGC 31708)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 7, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 39 36.5, Dec +47 23 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3320 (= GC 2166 = JH 732 = WH II 745, 1860 RA 10 31 13, NPD 41 51.5) is "faint, pretty small, much extended, 10th magnitude star to northeast." The position precesses to RA 10 39 37.6, Dec +47 24 53, on the northern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits (although the star is actually 11th magnitude, many of the estimates of stellar brightness in the NGC differ by considerably more than a single magnitude) and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 2.15 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3320
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3320
Below, a 2.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3320

NGC 3321 (=
NGC 3322 = PGC 31653)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3322)
Also looked for (Jan to Jun 1898) but not found by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3322)
Discovered (Jan 3, 1887) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 3321)
Also observed (Jan to Jun 1898) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3321)
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Sextans (RA 10 38 50.5, Dec -11 38 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3321 (Leavenworth list II (#423), 1860 RA 10 31 19, NPD 100 55.7) is "extremely faint, pretty small, much extended 160°, star on northwestern end." The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 10 31 53. The corrected position precesses to RA 10 38 49.8, Dec -11 39 19, on the southwestern end of the central region of the galaxy listed above and well within its extended outline, the description fits (though the position angle for the extension appears to have been measured from north through west instead of the usual way, from north through east) and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note (1): Leavenworth's right ascensions were often rough, but Howe was a skilled and careful observer, and his corrections to others' observations tended to be spot on.
Discovery Note (2): The star noted by Leavenworth (and for that matter, Common) is not the one to the northeast of the much fainter outer region of the galaxy, but the one on the western side of the bright central region. (Keep in mind that even the best visual and photographic observations of the 1800's were incapable of detecting features that look all too obvious in even the crudest images currently available.)
Physical Information: 2.95 by 1.35 arcmin (from the images below)
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3321
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 3321, also listed as NGC 3322
Below, a 2.75 by 3.2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3321

NGC 3322 (=
NGC 3321 = PGC 31653)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3322)
Also looked for (Jan to Jun 1898) but not found by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3322)
Discovered (Jan 3, 1887) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 3321)
Also observed (Jan to Jun 1898) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3321)
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Sextans (RA 10 38 50.6, Dec -11 38 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3322 (Common (#3), 1860 RA 10 31 47, NPD 100 39) is "faint, irregular figure, star to west." The second IC states for NGC 3322, "Not found by Howe (2 nights). Probably = 3321". The NGC position precesses to RA 10 38 44.1, Dec -11 22 37, but there is nothing there nor near there, so it is hardly surprising that Howe could not find Common's object. However, the position is nearly due north of NGC 3321, and not only is Common's description similar to Leavenworth's description of NGC 3321, but that galaxy is the only one of significant brightness within a considerable distance of Common's position, so Howe's proposal that 3322 and 3321 are the same object is almost certainly correct, and the identification of 3322 as an incorrectly recorded observation of 3321 is equally certain.
Discovery Note (1): Howe's note about 3322 reads "I searched for this on two evenings without success. On each evening 3321 was seen. Their descriptions are similar, and their right ascensions agree fairly; I am inclined to think them the same, though Common's approximate declination for 3322 differs from mine for 3321 by over 15'. There is a like discrepancy between his observations and mine in the case of his pair 3360-1."
Discovery Note (2): The star noted by Common (and for that matter, Leavenworth) is not the one to the northeast of the much fainter outer region of the galaxy, but the one on the western side of the bright central region. (Keep in mind that even the best visual and photographic observations of the 1800's were incapable of detecting features that look all too obvious in even the crudest images currently available.)
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 3321 for anything else.

NGC 3323 (= PGC 31712)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1877) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SBbc? pec) in Leo Minor (RA 10 39 39.0, Dec +25 19 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3323 (Stephan list IX (#22), 1860 RA 10 31 57, NPD 63 56.9) is "very faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 10 39 39.6, Dec +25 19 27, on the eastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 1.45 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3323Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3323
Below, a 1.5 by 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3323

NGC 3324 ("PGC 3517659" = ESO 128-EN006; includes
IC 2599)
Discovered (May 1, 1826) by James Dunlop
Also observed (Mar 7, 1831) by John Herschel
Also observed (May 10, 1893) but misrecorded by Edward Pickering
An emission nebula in Carina (RA 10 37 22.3, Dec -58 37 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3324 (= GC 2167 = JH 3286, Dunlop #322?, 1860 RA 10 32 03, NPD 147 53.8) is "pretty bright, very very large, round, a little brighter middle." The second IC lists a corrected position (per Harv. Ann. xxvi. p.207) of RA 10 32 08, NPD 148 00, but as discussed in the first Discovery Note below that should be ignored, and the original NGC position used to find the modern position of the object. Precessing that position to J2000 yields RA 10 37 23.3, Dec -58 37 23, essentially dead center on the position for the emission nebula listed above, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note (1): What the note in the Harvard Annals actually says is that the position of 3324 on a plate of the region near the Carina Nebula is nearly that of AGC 14528 (= HD 92207), which is actually on the southern rim of the nebula. (AGC refers to Benjamin Gould's 1885 catalog of southern stars, the Argentine General Catalog; so this is star #14528 in that catalog.) However, Corwin's personal copy of the IC2 includes a note next to the entry for NGC 3324 stating, "No. Pickering was wrong." The reason for this is covered in Corwin's discussion of IC 2599, in which he points out that Herschel used the 8th magnitude double star (HD 92206 = AGC 14525 + AGC 14526) at essentially the NGC position for NGC 3324 as his position for the nebula, and stated that the nebula "extends to a magnitude 6.7 star half a field distant southwards, and almost as far north..." and per Corwin's note AGC 14258 is the 6.7 magnitude star in question, so it is certainly not in "nearly the same position" as the nebula . For more, see IC 2599, which is the southern "lobe" of the overall nebula. (Note: The entry for IC 2599 is unfinished, so the previous sentence will be of use only at some later date.)
Designation Notes (2+): For purposes of completeness LEDA assigns almost all NGC/IC objects a PGC designation regardless of their nature; but a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no result, hence its being in quotes. Also, though not the same as NGC 3324, IC 2599 is part of the NGC object, hence its inclusion in the title for this entry. Finally, although Dunlop's observation was considered uncertain in the 1800's, it is now considered certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 16 by 14 to 15 arcmin (from the images below). Per Corwin and Brian Skiff, the double star at Herschel's position is a pair of O6 Main Sequence stars, which have the brightness and more importantly the intense ultraviolet spectral emissions capable of causing the nebula's fluorescence. AGC 14528, the star at the southern end of the nebula, is a type A0 supergiant, and though very bright is too cool to light up such a nebula; so it is simply superimposed on the nebula and has nothing to do with its visibility, though it may be related to the star-forming region within the nebula.
ESO image of emission nebula NGC 3324
Above, a 23 arcmin wide image of NGC 3324, showing the positions of HD 92206 and AGC 14528
(Image Credit above & below ESO)
Below, a 16 by 20 arcmin wide portion of the image above
ESO image of emission nebula NGC 3324

NGC 3325 (= PGC 31689)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1880) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.7 elliptical galaxy (type E1-2) in Sextans (RA 10 39 20.4, Dec -00 12 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3325 (Stephan list X (#25), 1860 RA 10 32 10, NPD 89 28.4) is "faint, very small, very small (faint) star involved". The position precesses to RA 10 39 20.5, Dec -00 12 03, nearly dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 1.4 by 1.2 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3325
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3325
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3325

NGC 3326 (= PGC 31701)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth (196)
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type (R')S(rs)ab?) in Sextans (RA 10 39 31.9, Dec +05 06 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3326 (= GC 5527, Marth #196, 1860 RA 10 32 12, NPD 84 10) is "very faint, extremely small, stellar". The position precesses to RA 10 39 28.7, Dec +05 06 21, less than 0.8 arcmin west of the galaxy listed above, it fits the description and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Marth's discoveries were published in Lassell's compilation of southern observations.
Physical Information: 0.95 by 0.7 arcmin for bright inner galaxy, 2.0 by 1.95 arcmin including outer ringlike spiral arms (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3326 (small DSS overlay used to reduce glare from star at the top)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3326 (DSS overlay used to reduce glare from star at top)
Below, a 2.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3326

NGC 3327 (= PGC 31729)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 19, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs, nr)bc? pec) in Leo Minor (RA 10 39 57.9, Dec +24 05 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3327 (= GC 2168 = JH 734 = WH II 348, 1860 RA 10 32 18, NPD 65 11.0) is "very faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle, very small (faint) star attached." The position precesses to RA 10 39 58.7, Dec +24 05 20, well within the southeastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 1.2 by 0.7 arcmin for inner bright region, 1.9 by 1.6 for faint outer ringlike arms (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3327
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3327
Below, a 2.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3327

WORKING HERE: Uncertain identification(s)

NGC 3328 (= "PGC 5067410")
Recorded (May 21, 1879) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Also observed (Mar 27, 1880) by Christian Peters
Probably not observed (Mar 21, 1892) by Rudolf Spitaler
A pair of stars in Leo (RA 10 39 53.1, Dec +09 17 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3328 (Tempel list V, Peters, 1860 RA 10 32 35, NPD 79 58) is "very faint, faint star involved." The first IC lists a corrected position (per Spitaler) of RA 10 32 19, NPD 80 03.4 and adds "very small cluster, not nebulous". For reasons related to the Discovery Notes below, I have ignored Spitaler's position. The original position (by Peters) precesses to RA 10 39 56.7, Dec +09 18 19, but there is no nebula object there nor near there that any of the three observers could have seen. However, the pair of stars listed above lies less than 0.9 arcmin southwest of Peters' position, adequately fit the NGC description, and given the note below, the identification is essentially certain.
Discovery Note (1): (Discussion of why Spitaler's observation cannot be what Tempel or Peters saw)
Discovery Note (2): (Discussion of Corwin's alternative identification of 3328 as the 15.4 and 15.5 pair of stars at RA 10 39 40.1, Dec +09 12 55, and the argument against that.)
Designation Note For purposes of completeness LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost all NGC/IC objects, regardless of their nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no result, hence its being in quotes.
Physical Information: Eastern star has magnitude 15.2, western 16.6

NGC 3329 (=
NGC 3397 = PGC 32059)
Discovered (Apr 2, 1801) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3397)
Also observed (Sep 2, 1828) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3329)
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type(R)SA(r)b?) in Draco (RA 10 44 39.4, Dec +76 48 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3329 (= GC 2169 = JH 733, 1860 RA 10 32 40, NPD 12 26.6) is "pretty bright, small, a little extended, pretty suddenly much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 10 44 36.3, Dec +76 49 33, about 1 arcmin nearly due north of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain. (See NGC 3397 for a discussion of the duplicate entry.)
Physical Information: 1.3 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3329
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3329, also known as NGC 3397
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3329
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3329

NGC 3330 (= OCL 806 = ESO 168-SC011 = "PGC 3518286")
Discovered (Apr 29, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Apr 6, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 7.4 open cluster (type II2p) in Vela (RA 10 38 47.0, Dec -54 08 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3330 (= GC 2171 = JH 3287, Dunlop #355, 1860 RA 10 33 02, NPD 143 24.1) is "a cluster, poor, stars from 9th magnitude." The position precesses to RA 10 38 40.6, Dec -54 07 46, near the brightest star in the cluster listed above and well within its outline, the description fits and there is no obvious alternative in the region, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Dunlop described the cluster as triangular, while Herschel stated that his position was for the "chief star of a poor cluster of 20 to 30 stars," which is the same as the number of stars and approximately the same shape as the group described by Gottlieb, below.
Designation Note For purposes of completeness LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost all NGC/IC objects, regardless of their nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no result, hence its being in quotes.
Physical Information: Per Gottlieb, a group of about 30 stars in a north-south region of about 6 by 3 arcmin apparent size (though in the image below I measure it as being about 7 by 4 arcmin), with more of the fainter stars (around 13th magnitude) in the northern half, and the brighter stars (primarily near 10th magnitude) more randomly scattered, but more toward the southern end. A comparison of the discovery comments with Gottlieb's decription means that even if some of the stars scattered around the region are part of a physical group, only the 7 by 4 arcmin wide group of stars should be considered to be part of the NGC object. The cluster is thought to lie a little less than 3000 light years from us, in which case its apparent size would give it a physical size of about 6 by 3 light years.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 3330
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3330

NGC 3331 (= PGC 31743 = ESO 501-072)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Jan 11, 1888) by Ormond Stone (while listed as NGC 3331)
Also observed (Jul 1899 to Jun 1900) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 3331)
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Hydra (RA 10 40 09.0, Dec -23 49 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3331 (Muller list II (#425), 1860 RA 10 33 04, NPD 113 05.7) is "very faint, small, very little extended 0°." The first IC lists a corrected RA (per Ormond Stone) of 10 32 18. The second IC adds "Howe gives the RA = 10 33 28, but this does not agree with that given in Publ. L. M'Cormick Obs. vi. p. 207 (10h 32m 18s) unless we assume that the sign of Δα (-35.4 seconds) is wrong, on which supposition there is perfect agreement with Howe's result". Based on the Discovery Note below, using Howe's RA and Muller's NPD precesses to J2000 RA 10 40 09.4, De -23 49 26, on the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note (1): " the sign of Δα is wrong" means that when Stone measured the difference in right ascension (Δα) between his comparison star and the nebula he reversed the direction, causing an error of twice the size of that difference in his "reduced" position, or more than a minute of time. Dreyer's note to that effect means that he felt that Howe's position was the correct one, and as proven by the close agreement between that position and the position of the galaxy, that feeling was correct.
Discovery Note (2): The reference to Stone's observation is for Muller list II (#425), with an observational date in early 1988, attributed to Muller, not Stone; so it is presumably a re-measurement or reduction of the same plate used by Muller in 1886; but between the misidentification of the object and Dreyer's comment about the sign of the offset, there is clearly some sort of blunder (or blunders) in Stone's "correction", hence my ignoring in favor of Howe's position.
Physical Information: .75 by .65 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3331
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3331
Below, a 1 arcmin AladinLite/PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3331

NGC 3332 (=
NGC 3342 = PGC 31768)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3342)
Discovered (Mar 4, 1796) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3332)
Also observed (Apr 26, 1862) by Eduard Schönfeld (and later listed as NGC 3332)
Also observed (Feb 16, 1878) by David Todd (and later listed as NGC 3332)
Also observed (date?) by Hermann Vogel (and later listed as NGC 3332)
A magnitude 12.3 lenticular galaxy (type (R')E/S0?) in Leo (RA 10 40 28.4, Dec +09 10 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3332 (= GC 2170 = WH I 272?, Schönfeld, Vogel, (Todd), 1860 RA 10 33 07, NPD 80 05.4) is "very faint, small, a little extended 130°." The position precesses to RA 10 40 28.4, Dec +09 10 53, nearly dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note (1): Todd's nebular discoveries were made as a side effect of his fruitless search for a large, nonexistent planet X beyond the orbit of Neptune, and were mostly neither noticed nor credited by Dreyer; but he is given credit where credit is due in modern historical studies, hence his name being added in parentheses to Dreyer's NGC entry.
Discovery Note (2): As noted by the question mark attached to WH I 272, Herschel's positions for this object were not very good, and if not for Schönfeld and Vogel's observations of the region, the identification of both NGC 3332 and the far more poorly recorded NGC 3342 (which see for detailed notes) might still be unidentified (though as noted in the entry for 3342, a diagram of the region makes the identification certain once it is realized that it might be this galaxy).
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.05 by 1.9 arcmin for the central galaxy, and about 3.2 by 3.2 arcmin for the faint outer regions (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near peculiar lenticular galaxy NGC 3332
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3332
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of peculiar lenticular galaxy NGC 3332

NGC 3333 (= PGC 31723 = ESO 376-002)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1835) by
John Herschel
Discovered (Dec 30, 1897) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SBbc) in Antlia (RA 10 39 49.8, Dec -36 02 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3333 (= GC 2172 = JH 3288, 1860 RA 10 33 26, NPD 125 19.3) is "extremely faint, very small, much extended, 15th magnitude star attached." The position precesses to RA 10 39 48.5, Dec -36 03 01, only 0.9 arcmin south southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Swift published his observation of this object in his list XI (#115), but subsequently realized that it was the same as NGC 3333, and thanks to his writing a letter to Herbert Howe stating that #115 and 116 of his list XI should be deleted, Dreyer heard about the deletion before publishing the second IC, thereby avoiding a duplicate entry.
Physical Information: about 1.9 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3333
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3333
Below, a 2.2 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3333

NGC 3334 (= PGC 31845)
Discovered (Mar 17, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 11, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type S(nr')0/a?) in Leo Minor (RA 10 41 31.2, Dec +37 18 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3334 (= GC 2173 = JH 735 = WH II 641, 1860 RA 10 33 28, NPD 51 58.3) is "considerably faint, very small, round, brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 10 41 29.2, Dec +37 17 56, about 0.9 arcmin south southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: about 1.2 by 1.2 arcmin (from the images below)
Classification Note: Although it is difficult to tell exactly what is going on in the center of the galaxy from the images below, there is definitely some sort of ringlike structure on the northeastern side of the nucleus, and the galaxy is listed as having some sort of central activity, hence my decision to indicate an at least partial nuclear ring, albeit with a question mark (most references list it as type S0, but also with a question mark).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3334
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3334
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3334

NGC 3335 (= PGC 31706 = ESO 501-071)
Discovered (1886) by
Frank Muller
A magnitude 13.1 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB(s')0/a?) in Hydra (RA 10 39 34.0, Dec -23 55 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NG 3335 (Muller list II (#425), 1860 RA 10 33 34, NPD 113 10.7) is "very faint, small, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle". The first IC lists a corrected RA (per Ormond Stone) of 10 32 54. The corrected position precesses to RA 10 39 35.1, De -23 54 23, less than an arcmin north northeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: about 0.85 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3335
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3335
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3335
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3335

NGC 3336 (= PGC 31754 = ESO 437-036)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c? pec) in Hydra (RA 10 40 17.0, Dec -27 46 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3336 (= GC 2174 = JH 3289, 1860 RA 10 33 44, NPD 117 01.7) is "very faint, pretty large, a little extended, gradually a little brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 10 40 19.9, Dec -27 45 27, about 1.3 arcmin northeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and less than half that distance from its northeastern outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: about 2.0 by 1.7 arcmin for the main galaxy, and about 2.4 by 1.8 arcmin counting faint outer regions (from the images below)
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3336
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3336
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3336

NGC 3337 (= PGC 31860)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Sextans (RA 10 41 47.6, Dec +04 59 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3337 (= GC 5538 = Marth #197, 1860 RA 10 34 30, NPD 84 17) is "extremely faint, very small, almost stellar". The position precesses to RA 10 41 46.4, Dec +04 59 11, only 0.3 arcmin southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: about 0.65 y 0.2 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near  lenticular galaxy NGC 3337
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3337
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of  lenticular galaxy NGC 3337

NGC 3338 (= PGC 31883)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 3, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 spiral galaxy (type SA(rs)bc) in Leo (RA 10 42 07.5, Dec +13 44 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3338 (= GC 2175 = JH 737 = WH II 77, 1860 RA 10 34 42, NPD 75 31.5) is "faint, considerably large, extended, very gradually brighter middle, 7th magnitude star 10 seconds of time to west." The position precesses to RA 10 42 08.7, Dec +13 44 40, on the southeastern rim of the nucleus of the galaxy listed above, the description fits (including the star to the west) and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information:apparent size of about 5.0 by 3.7 arcmin for the main galaxy and about 8.9 by 4.4 arcmin with its spiral arms' outer extensions arms (from the images below)
Classification Note: NGC 3338 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type SA(rs)bc. This is close enough to other references' classifications that I see no reason to alter that type in the description line.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3338
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3338
Below, a 7 by 10 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (North on right to allow for more detail)
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of spiral galaxy NGC 3338
Below, a 2.25 arcmin wide image of the central region of the galaxy
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Fabian RRRR; post-processing Courtney Seligman)
HST image of central part of spiral galaxy NGC 3338

NGC 3339 (= "PGC 5067648")
Recorded (Jan 30, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 15.1 star in Sextans (RA 10 42 10.1, Dec -00 22 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3339 (= GC 5529, Marth #198, 1860 RA 10 35 01, NPD 89 38) is "extremely faint, stellar". The position precesses to RA 10 42 11.3, Dec -00 21 51, only 1.8 arcmin northwest of the galaxy listed as NGC 3340, but that is accounted for by Marth #199, observed on the same night, so it cannot be NGC 3339 as well. Instead, given the description, the only reasonable candidate for NGC 3339 is the star listed above, which lies only 0.4 arcmin southwest of the NGC position. So despite the presence of a galaxy that might mislead someone determined to assign such an object to every NGC entry, there is no doubt that NGC 3339 is merely a star that Marth mistook for an "extremely faint, stellar" nebula.
Designation Note For purposes of completeness LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost all NGC/IC objects, regardless of their nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no result, hence its being in quotes.
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near the star listed as NGC 3339, also showing NGC 3340
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the star listed as NGC 3339, also showing NGC 3340

NGC 3340 (= PGC 31892)
Discovered (Jan 30, 1865) by
Albert Marth (199)
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Sextans (RA 10 42 18.0, Dec -00 22 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3340 (= GC 5530, Marth #199, 1860 RA 10 35 08, NPD 89 39) is "faint, small, round". The position precesses to RA 10 42 18.3, Dec -00 22 52, well within the southern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the combination of Marth's observations for NGC 3339 and 3340 makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: 0.95 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3340, also showing the star listed as NGC 3339
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3340, also showing the star listed as NGC 3339
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3340

NGC 3341 (= PGC 31915)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.0 peculiar galaxy (type SAB(rs)ab? pec) in Sextans (RA 10 42 31.5, Dec +05 02 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3341 (= GC 5531, Marth #200, 1860 RA 10 35 15, NPD 84 14) is "very faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 10 42 31.4, Dec +05 02 08, only 0.5 arcmin south of the center of the multiple galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The result of a merger of three galaxies: a giant spiral and two much smaller objects (apparently dwarf ellipticals, seen within the northern and northeastern outline of the overall structure). The smaller galaxies are estimated as having 25 and 50 times less mass than the larger galaxy. Despite that large difference in mass, the merger has severely disrupted the spiral, so that it is usually not given any classification save "peculiar" (though I have done what I could, based on the detailed image below, to describe the 'type' in more detail). Multi-spectral studies show that the eastern dwarf is actually an "off-center quasar", meaning that it is a galaxy with a black hole that is accreting large amounts of gas, presumably as a result of the ongoing merger, and is emitting an exceptional amount of X-rays in our direction. The apparent size of the entire structure is about 1.6 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below). The resolution of even the more detailed image is not good enough to estimate accurate sizes for the dwarf ellipticals, but their nearly stellar appearance essentially guarantees that they are ineed "dwarfs", despite the fact that the large distance of the assemblage makes everything look smaller than it would at a smaller distance (in which case this would be a truly spectacular object).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3341 and its merging dwarf ellipticals
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3341 and its dwarf companions
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy; lines point to its merging companions
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3341 and its merging dwarf ellipticals

NGC 3342 (=
NGC 3332 = PGC 31768)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3342)
Discovered (Mar 4, 1796) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3332)
A magnitude 12.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Leo (RA 10 40 28.4, Dec +09 10 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3342 (= GC 2177 = WH III 5, 1860 RA 10 35 26, NPD 79 49.7) is "extremely faint, extremely small". The position precesses to RA 10 42 47.5, Dec +09 26 25, but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there, save for a few stars. However, per the Discovery Note below, although Herschel's position for III 5 was certainly wrong, his description of the field makes it clear that this must have been a misrecorded observation of what became NGC 3332, as shown above.
Discovery Notes: Per Corwin, Herschel did not do well with his positions for this galaxy. As quoted by Dreyer in the 1912 Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel, Herschel wrote for his first observation [which became III 5 and NGC 3342], "The faintest and smallest nebula imaginable. I viewed it a long while and with a higher power than the sweeper [a lower power eyepiece with a wider field of view]. Having no person at the clock, I went in to write down the time and found it impossible to recover the nebula [his eyesight would have taken some time to recover from the light required to read the clock]. It appeared like a very small [faint] nebulous star, and it is probably of the cometic sort; there was another very small star south-following (I think, or rather, am pretty sure), and it preceded a pretty bright star [per Dreyer, the nebula is south-preceding of a star by about 6 arcmin, from a diagram]. It should have been secured before I went into the light. Its place must be about 2 1/2 deg following rho Leonis and about 10 arcmin more north than that star." Per Corwin, this description of the field is clear enough to unmistakably identify NGC 3342 as NGC 3332, even though the position is off by more than 2 minutes of time and 15 arcmin of declination. Dreyer noted that neither Spitaler nor Bigourdan could find the object -- understandably, given the incorrect position they had. Per Corwin, Herschel's other observations, listed as H I 272 (= NGC 3332) are somewhat better, but even those led to questions about the identification, as shown in that entry.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 3332 for anything else.

NGC 3343 (= PGC 32143)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 4, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Draco (RA 10 46 10.5, Dec +73 21 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3343 (= GC 2176 = JH 736 = WH III 317, 1860 RA 10 35 30, NPD 15 54.8) is "pretty faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 10 46 17.0, Dec +73 21 11, less than 0.5 arcmin due east of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: about 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below)
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3343
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3343
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide AladinLite/DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3343
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
DSS image of region near lenticularl galaxy NGC 3343

NGC 3344 (= PGC 31968)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 19, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.9 spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(r)bc) in Leo Minor (RA 10 43 31.1, Dec +24 55 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3344 (= GC 2178 = JH 739 = WH I 81, 1860 RA 10 35 50, NPD 64 20.7) is "considerably bright, large, gradually brighter middle, star involved, 2 stars to east." The position precesses to RA 10 43 30.6, Dec +24 55 22, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 8.2 by 7.4 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3344
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3344
Below, a 9.75 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
(Image Credit & © Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of spiral galaxy NGC 3344
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image of part of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble & NASA)
HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 3344
Below, a 2.75 by 3 arcmin wide multi-filter image of part of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble, NASA)
Multi-filter HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 3344

NGC 3345 (= "PGC 5067538")
Not observed (Mar 19, 1784) by
William Herschel (WH I 26 is not this object)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1830) by John Herschel
A pair of magnitude 13.8 stars in Leo (RA 10 43 32.0, Dec +11 59 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3345 (= GC 2179 = JH 740 = WH I 26??, 1860 RA 10 36 09, NPD 77 16.7) is "most extremely faint (if anything)." The position precesses to RA 10 43 33.3, Dec +11 59 22, only 0.4 arcmin northeast of the double star listed above, the description is perfect for a visual observation of such an "object" and there is nothing else anywhere in the region that could possibly fit the description, so the identification is certain.
Conflation With M95: There is no doubt that the double star listed above is JH 740. However, that object was found in a search for his father's I 26 which, as noted by the double question mark in Dreyer's NGC entry, could not be found. As it turns out, between its position and description, I 26 must be M95; so based on that some references list NGC 3345 as a duplicate observation of M95. However, since the NGC is an update of the GC, and the GC position is that of JH 740, which is the double star listed above, I agree with Corwin's assessment that NGC 3345 should be treated as the double star, its having anything to do with WH I 26 should be ignored, and 3345 and 3351 (M95) should be treated as completely separate objects. (Note: Dreyer discovered the conflation when he edited The Scientific Papers of Sir William Herschel, so this discussion is repeated in a slightly different way in the entry for M95.)
Physical Information: Designation Note For purposes of completeness LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost all NGC/IC objects, regardless of their nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no result, hence its being in quotes.
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near the pair of stars listed as NGC 3345
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the pair of stars listed as NGC 3345

NGC 3346 (= PGC 31982)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 18, 1836) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.7 spiral galaxy (type SBc) in Leo (RA 10 43 38.9, Dec +14 52 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3346 (= GC 2180 = JH 3290 = WH V 7, 1860 RA 10 36 11, NPD 74 23.2) is "considerably faint, very large, round, very gradually a very little brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 10 43 38.7, Dec +14 52 51, well within the northern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 2.7 by 2.6 arcmin?

NGC 3347 (= PGC 31926 = ESO 376-013)
Discovered (May 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.3 spiral galaxy (type SBb) in Antlia (RA 10 42 46.6, Dec -36 21 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3347 (= GC 2181 = JH 3291, 1860 RA 10 36 24, NPD 125 37.8) is "pretty faint, small, much extended 0°±, very suddenly very much brighter middle, 1st of 3," the others being NGC 3354 and 3358. The position precesses to RA 10 42 47.6, Dec -36 21 44, barely outside the nucleus of the galaxy and well within its southeastern outline, the description fits and the only nearby objects are accounted for by NGC 3354 and 3358, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: 3.4 by 2.1 arcmin?

PGC 31761 (=ESO 376-004 = "NGC 3347A")
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 3347A
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SBc) in
Antlia (RA 10 40 20.6, Dec -36 24 40)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations:
Physical Information: 2.0 by 0.8 arcmin apparent size?

PGC 31875 (= ESO 376-010 = "NGC 3347B")
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 3347B
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SBcd) in
Antlia (RA 10 42 00.2, Dec -36 56 07)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations:
Physical Information: 3.2 by 0.8 arcmin apparent size?

PGC 31797 (= ESO 376-005 = "NGC 3347C")
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 3347C
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SBcd) in
Antlia (RA 10 40 53.7, Dec -36 17 17)
1.4 by 1.1 arcmin apparent size.

NGC 3348 (= PGC 32216)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 4, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 elliptical galaxy (type E0) in Ursa Major (RA 10 47 10.0, Dec +72 50 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3348 (= GC 2182 = JH 738 = WH I 80, 1860 RA 10 36 29, NPD 16 25.4) is "bright, small, irregularly a little extended, pretty suddenly brighter middle, 11h magnitude star 21 seconds of time distant at position angle 282°," said position angle being nearly due west, so that measuring the distance in time units makes sense. The position precesses to RA 10 47 06.7, Dec +72 50 32, within the northwestern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits, there is nothing else nearby, and the star to the west makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: 2.0 by 2.0 arcmin?

NGC 3349 (= PGC 31989)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc) in Leo (RA 10 43 50.6, Dec +06 45 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3349 (= Marth #201, 1860 RA 10 36 31, NPD 82 30) is "extremely faint, very small". The position precesses to 10 43 49.3, Dec +06 46 02, about 0.4 arcmin northwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Note About Probable Companion: NGC 3349 has a probable physical companion, PGC 2800964, which lies to its southwest, and is discussed in the entry immediately following this one. Despite being far more diffuse and considerably fainter than the galaxy listed above, the companion is sometimes listed as part of the NGC object (perhaps because some references incorrectly state that it is the brighter of the two galaxies), so its entry includes a warning about that error.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 8255 km/sec, NGC 3349 is about 385 million light years away. Given that and its 0.65 by 0.65 arcmin apparent size, it is about 75 thousand light years across. The aforementioned PGC 2800964 is probably a physical as well as apparent companion.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3349 and peculiar galaxy PGC 2800964
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 3349; also shown is PGC 2800964
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy; also shown is NGC 3356
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3349

PGC 2800964 ( not part of
NGC 3349
Mot an NGC object but listed here because an apparent (and probably physical) companion of NGC 3349
A magnitude 15(?) peculiar galaxy (type pec) in Leo (RA 10 43 52.7, Dec +06 45 25)
Listed in NED as VV514 NED03. Based on a recessional velocity of 8090 km/sec, PGC 2800964 is about 375 million light years away. Given that and its 0.75 by 0.5 arcmin apparent size, it is about 55 thousand light years across. Since it is in almost the same direction and at almost the same distance as NGC 3349 (which see for images), PGC 2800964 may be a physical companion of the other galaxy. Its distorted appearance suggests a gravitational interaction with some other object, which makes a link between the two galaxies seem even more likely.
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3250 - 3299) ←NGC Objects: NGC 3300 - 3349→ (NGC 3350 - 3399)