Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3300 - 3349) ←NGC Objects: NGC 3350 - 3399 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (NGC 3400 - 3449)
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Page last updated June 11, 2020
Updated all Steinicke physical data, Corwin positions
Corrected historical information for NGC 3351 (M95).
Original NGC entries posted, need to check GC, NGC notes, all other Dreyer papers

NGC 3350 (= PGC 32035)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1831) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 14.3 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Leo Minor (RA 10 44 23.0, Dec +30 43 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3350 (= GC 2183 = JH 742, 1860 RA 10 36 34, NPD 58 32.4) is "extremely faint, very small, 2 stars of 9th or 10th magnitude to south".
Physical Information:

NGC 3351 (=
M95 = PGC 32007)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed (Mar 24, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M95
Also observed (Mar 19, 1784) by William Herschel (as WH I 26, which see below)
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.7 spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Leo (RA 10 43 57.7, Dec +11 42 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3351 (= GC 2184 = JH 743 (= WH I 26), M95, 1860 RA 10 36 34, NPD 77 33.8) is "bright, large, round, pretty gradually much brighter middle and nucleus". The position precesses to RA 10 43 57.9, Dec +11 42 14, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and it fits the description, so the identification is certain.
Discussion of WH I 26: In the original NGC, as in the GC, WH I 26 is identified as JH 740, which is NGC 3345, but the NGC adds two question marks, indicating that although John Herschel equated the two observations, Dreyer was very uncertain about whether I 26 really was JH 740. As it turns out, Dreyer solved the problem while editing Sir William Herschel's Scientific Papers, in which he writes "(WH) I 26. Some error in the observed position, as there is no nebula near the place. According to the sweep (177), it was 3/4 of a minute of time east and 1° 1' south of a nebula which turns out to be (WH) II 77. It was probably M 95, which is not mentioned (in the sweep), and which is 1 minute 52 seconds of time east and 2° 2' south of II 77." That places I 26 just over a minute of time to the west and a degree to the north of M95, and although still "off" the position of the galaxy, close enough to it that given the size and brightness of the Messier object, for WH to have observed something at the position of I 26 and not even mentioned its position relative to M95 is essentially inconceivable. I have therefore added WH I 26 to Dreyer's entry for NGC 3351 (albeit in parentheses).
Conflation of NGC 3351 and NGC 3345: Since the NGC entry for NGC 3345 corresponds to two different objects -- the pair of stars represented by JH 740 and the galaxy (M95) almost certainly represented by WH I 26, some references treat the two NGC entries as duplicate observations of M95. However, since the NGC was basically an update of the GC, and the GC position for 3345 corresponds to that for JH 740, and as noted above Dreyer put double question marks on WH I 26 in the entry for 3345, I agree with Corwin's assessment of the situation, which is to treat NGC 3345 as the double star that it represented in the GC, and to simply reassign WH I 26 to its correct entry, namely this one.
Physical Information: M95 is a member of the Leo I galaxy group, which includes M96, M105, and a number of other galaxies, spread across a region about 40 million light years away. M96 has two ringlike structures (emphasized in the second and third images, below), one surrounding the inner half of the galaxy, which may just be an odd arrangement of the outer spiral arms as they wind toward the ends of the bar, and a much smaller one near the very center, which involves several bright regions enveloped in clouds of gas and dust and suggests a recent episode of intense star formation.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3351, also known as M95
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on M95, with North on top
Below, a detail (Image Credit & © Jean-Charles Cuillandre (CFHT), Hawaiian Starlight, CFHT; used by permission)
CFHT image of spiral galaxy NGC 3351, also known as M95
Below, a similar view with the 32" Misti Mountain telescope (Credit & © Jim Misti; used by permission)
Misti Mountain Observatory image of spiral galaxy NGC 3351, also known as M95
Below, a similar view with the 0.9 meter Kitt Peak telescope (AURA, NSF, NOAO)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 3351, also known as M95
Below, a closeup of the innermost core, considerably enlarged (Hillary Mathis, N.A.Sharp/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of innermost core of spiral galaxy NGC 3351, also known as M95

NGC 3352 (= PGC 32025
Discovered (Mar 19, 1880) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Leo (RA 10 44 14.9, Dec +22 22 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3352 (Stephan list X (#26), 1860 RA 10 36 39, NPD 66 53.6) is "pretty bright, small, round, brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information:

NGC 3353 (= PGC 32103)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 45 22.4, Dec +55 57 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3353 (= GC 2185 = JH 741 = WH III 842, 1860 RA 10 36 39, NPD 33 18.5) is "faint, considerably small, round, pretty gradually brighter middle, star 90 arcsec to south".
Physical Information:

NGC 3354 (= PGC 31941 = ESO 376-014)
Discovered (May 1, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type S?) in Antlia (RA 10 43 02.9, Dec -36 21 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3354 (= GC 2186 = JH 3292, 1860 RA 10 36 41, NPD 125 38.9) is "faint, small, very little extended, pretty suddenly brighter middle, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 3347 and 3358.
Physical Information:

NGC 3355
A lost or nonexistent object in
Hydra (RA 10 43 32.6, Dec -23 11 36 ??) Discovered (Apr 12, 1866) by Samuel Langley
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3355 (Langley (#215, HN29), 1860 RA 10 36 50, NPD 112 28) is a "nebula, no description".
Physical Information:
Corwin lists a possible but not probable identification of NGC 3355 at RA 10 42 38.1, Dec -23 56 09
and a less likely candidate at RA 10 41 25.9, Dec -23 23 04

NGC 3356 (= PGC 32021)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Sbc??) in Leo (RA 10 44 12.2, Dec +06 45 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3356 (= GC 2187 = JH 744 = WH III 107, 1860 RA 10 36 53, NPD 82 30.8) is "very faint, pretty small, round, brighter middle, 9th magnitude star about 150 arcsec to the south".
Physical Information: About 1.7 by 0.8 arcmin wide??
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3356
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3356, also showing NGC 3349
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3356

NGC 3357 (= PGC 32032)
Discovered (Apr 5, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Also observed (Feb 22, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Nov 18, 1881) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 12.7 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Leo (RA 10 44 20.8, Dec +14 05 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3357 (= GC 5533, Marth 202, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 36 55, NPD 75 10.9) is "faint, small, much brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3358 (= PGC 31974 = ESO 376-017)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Antlia (RA 10 43 33.0, Dec -36 24 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3358 (= GC 2188 = JH 3293, 1860 RA 10 37 12, NPD 125 39.0) is "considerably faint, very small, very little extended, very small (faint) star attached, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 3347 and 3354.
Physical Information:

NGC 3359 (= PGC 32183)
Discovered (Nov 28, 1793) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 2, 1832) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.6 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 46 36.9, Dec +63 13 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3359 (= GC 2189 = JH 745 = WH V 52, 1860 RA 10 37 21, NPD 26 02.4) is "pretty bright, large, extended 0°, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 7.2 by 4.4 arcmin?

NGC 3360 (= PGC 32026)
Discovered (1880) by
Andrew Common
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Sextans (RA 10 44 16.2, Dec -11 14 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3360 (Common (#4), 1860 RA 10 37 32±, NPD 100 42) is one of a "faint pair of nebulae, the eastern one the brighter", the other one (namely the eastern one) being NGC 3361. The second IC lists a corrected position (per Howe) of RA 10 37 18, NPD 100 52 and adds "very faint, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.2 by 0.9 arcmin?

NGC 3361 (= PGC 32044)
Discovered (1880) by
Andrew Common
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Sextans (RA 10 44 29.1, Dec -11 12 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3361 (Common (#4), 1860 RA 10 37 32±, NPD 100 42) is one of a "faint pair of nebulae, the eastern one the brighter", the other one (namely the western one) being NGC 3360. The second IC lists a corrected position (per Howe) of RA 10 37 28, NPD 100 53.4 and adds "much extended 160°".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.1 by 0.8 arcmin?

NGC 3362 (= PGC 32078)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
Also observed (Mar 18, 1882) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Leo (RA 10 44 51.7, Dec +06 35 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3362 (= GC 5534, Marth #203, Stephan list XII (#??), 1860 RA 10 37 33, NPD 82 40.0) is "very faint, pretty small, round, a little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 1.1 arcmin?

NGC 3363 (= PGC 32089)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1882) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Leo (RA 10 45 09.5, Dec +22 04 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3363 (Stephan list XII (#40), 1860 RA 10 37 33, NPD 67 11.1) is "faint, pretty small, irregularly round, a little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.8 arcmin?

NGC 3364 (= PGC 32314)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 4, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SBbc??) in Ursa Major (RA 10 48 29.8, Dec +72 25 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3364 (= GC 2190 = JH 746 = WH III 318, 1860 RA 10 38 02, NPD 16 50.1) is "very faint, large, round, very gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, double star to southeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.5 by 1.5 arcmin?

NGC 3365 (= PGC 32153)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1828) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type Sc??) in Sextans (RA 10 46 12.6, Dec +01 48 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3365 (= GC 2191 = JH 747, 1860 RA 19 39 00, NPD 87 28.5) is "considerably faint, large, extremely extended 159°, very gradually a very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.5 by 0.8 arcmin?

NGC 3366 (= PGC 31335 = ESO 264-007 =
IC 2592)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3366)
Discovered (1899) by DeLisle Stewart (and later listed as IC 2592)
A magnitude 11.3 spiral galaxy (type SBb??) in Vela (RA 10 35 08.3, Dec -43 41 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3366 (= GC 2192 = JH 3294, 1860 RA 10 39 04±, NPD 132 58.7) is "faint, extended, gradually brighter middle, 6.7 magnitude star very near".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.8 by 0.8 arcmin?

NGC 3367 (= PGC 32178)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 23, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 spiral galaxy (type SBc??) in Leo (RA 10 46 35.0, Dec +13 45 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3367 (= GC 2193 = JH 748 = WH II 78, 1860 RA 10 39 10, NPD 75 30.9) is "pretty bright, considerably large, irregularly round, very gradually a little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, 1st of 3", the others being NGC 3371 and 3373. The position precesses to RA 10 46 35.8, Dec +13 44 57, within the eastern rim of the galaxy listed above, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.5 by 2.4 arcmin?

NGC 3368 (=
M96 = PGC 32192)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Observed (Mar 24, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M96
Also observed (Mar 10, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.3 spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Leo (RA 10 46 45.7, Dec +11 49 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3368 (= GC 2194 = JH 749, Méchain, M96, 1860 RA 10 39 22, NPD 77 26.7) is "very bright, very large, a little extended, very suddenly very much brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 10 46 45.6, Dec +11 49 08, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: M96 is a member of the Leo I galaxy group, which includes M95, M105, and a number of other galaxies, spread across a region about 40 million light years away. One interesting feature of the region is a huge ring of cold gas which surrounds most of the galaxies in the group. A 2010 study of the ring with the CFHT telescope reveals its (very faint) visible structure, and in combination with computer modeling, indicates that the ring consists of material blown out of M96 and NGC 3384 in a direct collision between the two galaxies, about a billion years ago. During that time the two galaxies have moved nearly 40 million light years apart, so their connection to each other (and the gas ring) was not at all obvious, and it had been speculated that the gas was "primordial gas", left over from the formation of the Universe, which had never been inside any galaxy. As a result of the study, the search for such gas continues (none having been found anywhere, to date).
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3368, also known as M96, with post-processing for color correction and brightness adjustment
Above, a 10.7 arcmin wide SDSS image of M96, enhanced to show its outer structure
Below, a closeup of the dusty core (Adam Block/AURA/NSF/NOAO)
NOAO image of the dusty core of spiral galaxy NGC 3368, also known as M96
Below, a 16 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3368, also known as M96

NGC 3369 (= PGC 32191 = ESO 501-095
Discovered (1886) by
Ormond Stone
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Hydra (RA 10 46 44.6, Dec -25 14 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3369 (Ormond Stone list I (#177), 1860 RA 10 39 35, NPD 114 30.5) is "extremely faint, very small, round".
Physical Information: The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 10 40 04.

NGC 3370 (= PGC 32207)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)c) in Leo (RA 10 47 04.0, Dec +17 16 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3370 (= GC 2195 = JH 750 = WH II 81, 1860 RA 10 39 35, NPD 71 59.7) is "considerably bright, pretty large, very little extended, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 1280 km/sec, NGC 3370 is about 60 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 60 to 110 million light years. Given that and its (approximate) apparent size of 2.6 by 1.5 arcmin, it is about 45 thousand light years away.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3370
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 3370
Below, a (rotated) HST image (Image Credits: NASA, The Hubble Heritage Team and A. Riess (STScI)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 3370
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
HST image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3370 overlaid on an SDSS background to fill in missing areas

NGC 3371 (PGC 32292 =
NGC 3384)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3384)
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3384)
Recorded (Mar 23, 1830) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3371)
Also observed (Mar 2, 1880) by Christian Peters (and later listed as NGC 3371)
A magnitude 9.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/SB(s)0?) in Leo (RA 10 48 16.9, Dec +12 37 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3371 (= GC 2196 = JH 751, Peters, 1860 RA 10 39 37, NPD 75 28.4) is "extremely faint, round, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 3367 and 3373. (For now, see NGC 3373 for a brief discussion of the mistaken observations of NGC 3371 and 3373.)
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 3384 for anything else.

NGC 3372 (= "PGC 3517660" = ESO 128-EN013),
the Carina (or Keyhole) Nebula

Discovered (1751) by
Nicolas Lacaille
Also observed (Apr 4, 1826) by James Dunlop
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 1.0 emission nebula in Carina (RA 10 45 09, Dec -59 52 04)
Corwin lists a position of RA 110 44 47.0, Dec -59 40 48, and for the star as RA 10 45 03.5, Dec -59 41 04
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3372 (= GC 2197 = JH 3295, Lacaille III.6, Dunlop 309, 1860 RA 10 39 37, NPD 148 56.7) is "a remarkable object, the Great nebula, η Argûs" (Dreyer using the original constellation name, Argo Navis, instead of one of the three constellations (Carina, Vela and Puppis) that Lacaille proposed breaking it into, in 1752).
Designation Notes: For purposes of completeness LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost every NGC/IC object, regardless of its nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no results, so it is shown in quotes. Also, though often called the Carina Nebula, NGC 3372 is also called the η Carina Nebula, after the bright star near the so-called Keyhole.
Physical Information: The Carina Nebula, a star forming region 300 light years across and 7500 light years away, is a huge complex of glowing gas, and clusters of stars formed from that gas, embedded within the southern Milky Way. The full-field views below show the nebula as an irregularly circular cloud, separated by a very dark V-shaped pair of dust lanes. The portion above the V is much brighter than the rest of the nebula, and in shorter exposures, appears as a roughly triangular region, surrounded by the dark clouds of dust which divide it from the rest of the nebula. Near its lower apex, an exceptionally bright region is lit by the energetic radiation of η Carinae, one of the brightest, most massive stars in our galaxy. An irregularly shaped lane of dark dust which crosses the region lit by C Car is referred to as the Keyhole Nebula. In fact, the entire nebula was once referred to as the Keyhole Nebula because of this feature, and it is not unusual to see images of minute portions of the nebula labeled as the Keyhole, even though they have no relationship to the "original".
 Since there are so many clouds, pillars, dust lanes, star clusters, and other features scattered throughout the region, a page devoted to a multitude of NGC objects is not the appropriate place to discuss their myriad details. For that reason, a separate page, The Carina Nebula, discusses the nebula and its contents in detail, while this section only shows three full- or nearly-full nebular views, and one detail image, to clarify the location of η Car and the Keyhole.
Below: Image of NGC 3372 released to public domain on Wikipedia

Below: 1975 image by NSF/AURA, NOAO

Below: Slight closeup by K. Weis & W. J. Duschl (ITA, U. Heidelberg), apod990719

Below, the region near η(K. Weis & W. J. Duschl (ITA, U. Heidelberg), apod990523


NGC 3373 (probably =
NGC 3389 = PGC 32306)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3389)
Recorded (Mar 23, 1830) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3373)
A magnitude 11.9 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Leo (RA 10 48 27.9, Dec +12 32 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3373 (= GC 1298 = JH 753, 1860 RA 10 39 49, NPD 75 35.3) is "faint, round, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 3367 and 3371. The position precesses to RA 10 47 14.6, Dec +13 40 31, but there is nothing there. As noted by Corwin there is little doubt that JH somehow confounded his observations of NGC 3367, 3371 and 3373 with those for NGC 3379, 3384 and 3389, and as noted in the title for this entry, NGC 3373 is a misrecorded observation of NGC 3389. (More about this in the next iteration of this page.)
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 3389 for anything more.

NGC 3374 (= PGC 32266)
Discovered (Feb 3, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 3.7 spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 48 01.0, Dec +43 11 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3374 (= GC 2199 = JH 752 = WH III 701, 1860 RA 10 39 49, NPD 46 04.3) is "very faint, considerably small, irregularly round".
Physical Information:

NGC 3375 (= PGC 32205)
Discovered (Feb 21, 1878) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Also observed (Apr 23, 1881) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 12.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Sextans (RA 10 47 00.8, Dec -09 56 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3375 (Temple (list I#26 and) list V (#6), Stephan list XI (#??), 1860 RA 10 40 01, NPD 99 12.2) is "faint, small, round, gradually much brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3376 (= PGC 32231)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1863) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type S?) in Sextans (RA 10 47 26.6, Dec +06 02 53)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3376 (= GC 2200, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 40 10, NPD 83 12.6) is "very faint, small".
Physical Information:

NGC 3377 (= PGC 32249)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.4 elliptical galaxy (type E5?) in Leo (RA 10 47 42.3, Dec +13 59 09)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3377 (= GC 2201 = JH 754 = WH II 99, 1860 RA 10 40 17, NPD 75 16.7) is "very bright, considerably large, a little extended, suddenly very much brighter middle and bright nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.0 by 3.0 arcmin. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E5-6.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3377
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 3377
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy; the faint object at upper right is PGC 32226
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3377, also showing PGC 32226, sometimes called NGC 3377A

PGC 32226 (= "NGC 3377A")
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 3377A
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type SBm?) in
Leo (RA 10 47 22.3, Dec +14 04 09)
Physical Information:

NGC 3378 (= PGC 32189 = ESO 318-012)
Discovered (Feb 1, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Antlia (RA 10 46 43.3, Dec -40 00 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3378 (= GC 2202 = JH 3296, 1860 RA 10 40 22, NPD 129 17.0) is "considerably faint, small, round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3379 (= PGC 32256 =
M105)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1781) by Pierre Méchain
Neither observed nor recorded by Charles Messier
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel
Appended (1947) to the Messier Catalog by Helen Sawyer Hogg as M105
A magnitude 9.3 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Leo (RA 10 47 49.6, Dec +12 34 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3379 (= GC 2203 = JH 757 = WH I 17, Méchain, 1860 RA 10 40 26, NPD 76 40.9) is "very bright, considerably large, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 10 47 50.3, Dec +12 34 52, right on the galaxy listed above, so the identification is certain.
An Error in the General Catalog and the NGC: JH listed NGC 3381 as the "1st of 3" in his GC, but as noted in the entry for that object, it is 22 degrees to the north of the other two galaxies; in reality, NGC 3379 is the 1st of 3, the others being NGC 3384 and 3389.
Note About "M105": Although Méchain discovered this object before Messier finished compiling his published catalog, it was not added to the catalog. Méchain didn't measure its position until April 10, but that was still two or three weeks before it was too late for Messier to add it to the catalog, so it is not obvious why it was not included, especially since it is brighter than M95 and M96, which were discovered only a few days earlier and were included in the catalog. Whatever the reason for its original omission, since this object was found by Méchain in the same time frame as the last of the objects in the Messier Catalog, Helen Sawyer Hogg decided to add it to the catalog as M105 in 1947.
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.3 by 4.8 arcmin? M105 is a member of the Leo I galaxy group, which includes M95, M96 and a number of other galaxies spread across a region about 40 million light years away.
Color-corrected SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3379, also known as M105
Above, a 12 arcmin wide color-corrected SDSS image centered on NGC 3379, also showing NGC 3384
Below, a 6 arcmin wide color-corrected SDSS image of the galaxy
Color-corrected SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3379, also known as M105

NGC 3380 (= PGC 32287)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Leo Minor (RA 10 48 12.2, Dec +28 36 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3380 (= GC 2204 = JH 755 = WH II 360, 1860 RA 10 40 28, NPD 60 39.7) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information: 1.6 by 1.4 arcmin??

NGC 3381 (= PGC 32302)
Discovered (Mar 28, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.8 spiral galaxy (type SB? pec?) in Leo Minor (RA 10 48 24.8, Dec +34 42 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3381 (= GC 2205 = JH 756 = WH II 565, 1860 RA 10 40 33, NPD 54 33.3) is "pretty faint, considerably large, irregularly round, very gradually a little brighter middle, 1st of 3", the others supposedly being NGC 3384 and 3389.
A Mistaken Identification: Usually, NGC or similar references to the "xth of y" objects involve objects that are all at similar NPD's (and Declinations), but John Herschel's GC note for GC 2205, "1st of 3", is clearly wrong, as the other two objects are 22 degrees to the south of this galaxy; in reality, NGC 3379, or M 105, is the "1st of 3".
Physical Information:

NGC 3382 (= "PGC 5067621")
Discovered (Mar 24, 1878) by
Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse
and/or (on the same date) by John Dreyer
Possibly but probably not observed (Apr 5, 1874) by Ralph Copeland
and/or (on the same date) by Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse
A magnitude 14.8 and 15.6 pair of stars in Leo Minor (RA 10 48 25.6, Dec +36 43 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3382 (4th Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 10 40 35, NPD 52 32) is "faint, small, irregularly round, perhaps a small cluster?" The position precesses to RA 10 48 31.0, Dec +36 43 45, but there is nothing there, nor anywhere near there. However, the position lies just over an arcmin to the east of the pair of stars listed above, and they may be Dreyer's object, though there is less certainty about whether they are Copeland's (or Parsons') object.
Analysis of the Identification: Corwin notes that the observation made in 1874 and the one made in 1878 may not be of the same object, presents a detailed analysis of the original records, and an attempted identification of what was or was not observed. The entry for 1878 is discussed here; the one for 1874 is discussed in the next entry.
Mar 24, 1878: The observation reads (and essentially agrees with the NGC entry) "4.0 minutes (of time) preceding (west of) and 6± arcmin north of (GC) 2238 [= NGC 3432]. Very faint, small, irregularly round, only a small group of stars. 9th magnitude star at Position angle 192.0 degrees, distance 162.9 arcsec. (2 observations)" There is an 11th magnitude star at about the position specified for the "9th magnitude" star, presuming that the pair of stars listed above is indeed NGC 3382. And since the position recorded in the NGC is only about an arcmin east of that pair of stars, that identification is reasonably (though perhaps not absolutely) certain.
Note About PGC Designation: For purposes of completeness,= LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost all NGC/IC objects, regardless of their nature. However, a search of the database for that designation returns no result, hence its being placed in quotes.
Discoverers' Note: It is currently unknown who made the actual observation of the pair of stars. Per the NGC introductory notes, Ld R* (which is the way the NGC entry reads) means that the 4th Lord Rosse himself was the observer, while Copeland and Dreyer, though Lord Rosse's assistants, are listed as the observers in cases where they made the original observations. This is different than Dreyer's handling of observations made by the assistants of the 3rd Lord Rosse, who is listed as the discoverer even when one of his assistants made the observation; however, the 3rd Lord Rosse was more interested in the building and maintenance of the Leviathan, and made relatively few observations on his own, though he did apparently make sketches of the field near some of his assistants' discoveries by his assistants, while the 4th Lord Rosse is known to have made a number of observations of his own, even on nights when his assistants did most of the observations. So although Copeland made a number of observations on Apr 5, 1784, Lord Rosse himself may have been the one who first noticed the object recorded on that date; and the note "2 observations" for 1878 probably suggests that either Dreyer or Lord Rosse discovered the object observed on that date, and the other one confirmed it. The problem is that Lord Rosse may have discovered the object observed in 1874 and Copeland confirmed it, and that Dreyer may have discovered the object observed in 1878 and Lord Rosse confirmed it, and it was merely assumed that the two objects were the same, in which case Dreyer would have listed Lord Rosse as the discoverer, based on the earlier observation. But if, as noted above, the 1874 and 1878 observations were of different objects, then it is possible that Dreyer may have been the actual discoverer, and Lord Rosse merely confirmed the observation. As noted by Corwin, the only way to know for sure is to see if the original logbooks are still in existence at Birr Castle, and whether they indicate who actually did what.
Although it has been suggested that Dreyer was the actual observer in 1878, since he was Lord Rosse's assistant at the time, the NGC introduction states that for the 4th Lord Rosse, Ld R* (which was the way the NGC entry reads) is used for discoveries by Lord Rosse himself, while Copeland or Dreyer are listed as the discoverers if they made the observations.
Physical Information: The northwestern star has an apparent magnitude of 15.6, while the southeastern one has an apparent magnitude of 14.8. The pair is separated by about 0.6 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near the pair of stars listed as NGC 3382
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on Dreyer's NGC 3382

PGC 27480 (not =
NGC 3382)
Not an NGC object but listed here since a "Nova" associated with the 1878 observation of NGC 3382
Perhaps but probably not observed (Apr 5, 1874) by Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse
and/or (on the same date) by Ralph Copeland
A magnitude 15.5(?) galaxy (type Sab?) in Hydra (RA 09 38 29.9, Dec -03 34 50)
Historical Mis-Identification:
Basis of the Probable Mis-Identification: Corwin notes that the observation made in 1874 and the one made in 1878 may not be of the same object, and presents a detailed analysis of the original records, and an attempted identification of what was or was not observed. The entry for 1874 is discussed here; the one for 1874 was discussed in the previous entry.
Apr 5, 1874: The observation reads "About 4 minutes (of time) preceding (west of) (GC) 2238 [= NGC 3432]. Pretty faint, considerably large, round, brighter middle, 14th magnitude star in centre. 9th magnitude star at position angle 238°.0, Distance 173.7 arcsec." Corwin feels that there is a very good chance that this does not match Dreyer's object, and that an error in the identification of the comparison galaxy (GC 2238) may mean that a completely different object was observed by Lord Rosse or Copeland. Although, given the essential identity of Dreyer's observation and the NGC entry, the pair of stars listed above is almost certainly NGC 3382, it seems worth investigating the possibility that the "Nova" in Lord Rosse's 1881 paper may be a completely different object; and as a result, it is discussed in the next entry. However, even if Corwin's analysis for what Rosse/Copeland observed is correct, it seems to me that if the pair of stars observed by Dreyer is NGC 3382, then whatever Rosse or Copeland observed is a "not-NGC" object, meaning an object discovered prior to the publication of the NGC but (for one reason or another) not included in the NGC.
Discoverers' Note: It is currently unknown who made the actual observation in 1874. Since that is almost certainly not of the same object as NGC 3382, the NGC entry tells us nothing about who mad the observation. Apparently both Copeland and Lord Rosse worked at the telescope on the night in question, perhaps each confirming observations made by the other. Most of the observations are attributed to Copeland, but Dreyer attributed the one for the supposed NGC 3382 to Lord Rosse, so he probably observed whatever Copeland and Lord Rosse saw, and Copeland probably confirmed the observation or performed the measurements. However, since (as noted above) the object involved was probably not the galaxy listed here, and is almost certainly lost or nonexistent, it doesn't make much difference who really did the observation. (Corwin suggests that if the original logbooks are still in existence at Birr Castle, they might tell us who observed whatever was seen, but it seems doubtful that they would help identify what was supposedly observed.)
Although it has been suggested that Dreyer was the actual observer in 1878, since he was Lord Rosse's assistant at the time, the NGC introduction states that for the 4th Lord Rosse, Ld R* (which was the way the NGC entry reads) is used for discoveries by Lord Rosse himself, while Copeland or Dreyer are listed as the discoverers if they made the observations.
Physical Information:

NGC 3383 (= PGC 32224 = ESO 501-097)
Discovered (Mar 20, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Hydra (RA 10 47 19.2, Dec -24 26 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3383 (= GC 2206 = JH 3297, 1860 RA 10 40 40, NPD 113 41.6) is "faint, pretty large, irregularly round, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3384 (= PGC 32292, and probably =
NGC 3371)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3384)
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3384)
Also observed (Mar 23, 1830) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3371)
Also observed (Mar 2, 1880) by Christian Peters (and later listed as NGC 3371)
A magnitude 9.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/SB(s)0?) in Leo (RA 10 48 16.9, Dec +12 37 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3384 (= GC 2207 = JH 758 = WH I 18, 1860 RA 10 40 53, NPD 76 38.0) is "very bright, large, round, pretty suddenly much brighter middle, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 3379 and 3389. The position precesses to RA 10 48 17.2, Dec +12 37 44, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits (including the presence of the other two galaxies), and the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Both the GC and NGC include an error in the identification of the "1st of 3" galaxies involved, stating that it is NGC 3381; but as noted in the entry for that galaxy and NGC 3379 (= M 105), the latter galaxy is actually the "1st of 3".
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 705 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3384 is about 30 to 35 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 25 to 75 million light years (the Hubble press release uses a distance of 35 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 5.45 by 2.65 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 55 to 60 thousand light years across. In most respects the galaxy looks just like a typical elliptical or lenticular galaxy, with a smooth distribution of very old stars, but it has an unusual central region in which new stars are being formed, as shown in the HST image.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3384, also showing NGC 3379 (= M 105) and NGC 3389
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3384
Also shown are NGC 3379 (= M 105) and NGC 3389
Below, an 8 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 3384
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3384
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide HST image of the core of NGC 3384 (Image Credit ESA/Hubble/NASA, B. Lehmer et al.)
HST image of the core of lenticular galaxy NGC 3384

NGC 3385 (= PGC 32285)
Discovered (Apr 9, 1828) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Sextans (RA 10 48 11.6, Dec +04 55 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3385 (= GC 2209 = JH 760, 1860 RA 10 40 53, NPD 84 20.2) is "very faint, small, round, southern of 2", the other being NGC 3386.
Physical Information:
Cowin lists a possible companion to the ne () at RA 10 48 14.7, Dec +04 57 25
and one to the nw () at RA 10 48 08.9, Dec +04 57 56
NGC 3386 (= PGC 32284)
Discovered (Apr 9, 1828) by
John Herschel
A magnitue 13.8 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Sextans (RA 10 48 11.9, Dec +04 59 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3386 (= GC 2208 = JH 759, 1860 RA 10 40 54, NPD 84 15.4) is "very faint, small, a little extended, brighter middle, northern of 2", the other being NGC 3385.
Physical Information:

NGC 3387 (= "PGC 4662917")
Discovered (Mar 15, 1830) by
John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Three stars in Sextans (RA 10 48 16.7, Dec +04 58 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3387 (= GC 2210 = JH 762, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 40 57, NPD 84 15.9) is "extremely faint, extremely small".
Designation Note: For purposes of completeness LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost every NGC/IC object, regardless of its nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no results, so it is shown in quotes.
Physical Information:

NGC 3388 (=
NGC 3425 = PGC 32555)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3425)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3388)
A magnitude 13.1 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Leo (RA 10 51 25.5, Dec +08 34 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3388 (Common (#5), 1860 RA 10 41, NPD 80 40) is "faint, round".
Physical Information: Have to see whether to call this 3388 (as usually done) or 3425 (since that observation was correct).

Corwin lists a possible companion (PGC 213743) at RA 10 51 24.6, Dec +08 33 27

NGC 3389 (=
NGC 3373 = PGC 32306)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3389)
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3389)
Recorded (Mar 23, 1830) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3373)
A magnitude 11.9 spiral galaxy (type Sc) in Leo (RA 10 48 27.9, Dec +12 32 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3389 (= GC 2211 = JH 761 = WH II 41, 1860 RA 10 41 03, NPD 76 44.1) is "faint, large, extended east-west, very gradually a little brighter middle, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 3379 and 3384.
Physical Information:
Color-corrected Wikisky SDSS image of NGC 3389
Above, a 4 arcmin-wide color-corrected SDSS view of NGC 3389
Below, a 12 arcmin-wide region centered on the galaxy
Color-corrected SDSS image of region near NGC 3389

NGC 3390 (= PGC 32271 = ESO 437-062)
Discovered (Apr 29, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Hydra (RA 10 48 04.4, Dec -31 32 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3390 (= GC 2212 = JH 3298, 1860 RA 10 41 33, NPD 120 48.7) is "faint, small, pretty much extended 0°".
Physical Information:

NGC 3391 (= PGC 32347)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Also observed (Mar 19, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Leo (RA 10 48 56.4, Dec +14 13 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3391 (= GC 5535, Marth 204, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 10 41 34, NPD 75 02.5) is "faint, small, round, between 2 nearby stars".
Physical Information:

NGC 3392 (= PGC 32512)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1791) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.7 elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 51 03.0, Dec +65 46 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3392 (= GC 2213 = JH 763 = WH III 881, 1860 RA 10 41 36, NPD 23 28.7) is "very faint, small, pretty suddenly brighter middle, star near".
Physical Information:

NGC 3393 (= PGC 32300 = ESO 501-100)
Discovered (Mar 24, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Hydra (RA 10 48 23.5, Dec -25 09 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3393 (= GC 2214 = JH 3299, 1860 RA 10 41 42, NPD 114 25.6) is "faint, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, two 10th magnitude stars to east".
Physical Information:

NGC 3394 (= PGC 32495)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1791) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Ursa Major (RA 10 50 39.8, Dec +65 43 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3394 (= GC 2215 = JH 764 = WH II 872, 1860 RA 10 42 00, NPD 23 30.9) is "considerably faint, small, a little extended, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3395 (=
IC 2613 = PGC 32424, and with NGC 3396 = Arp 270)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3395)
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3395)
Discovered (May 13, 1896) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 2613)
A magnitude 12.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd pec?) in Leo Minor (RA 10 49 50.1, Dec +32 58 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3395 (= GC 2216 = JH 765 = WH I 116, 1860 RA 10 42 01, NPD 56 16.7) is "considerably bright, pretty small, irregularly a little extended, 1st of 2", the other being NGC 3396.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 0.9 arcmin. A starburst galaxy. Used by the Arp Atlas (with NGC 3396) as an example of galaxies with connected arms.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3395 and irregular galaxy NGC 3396, which comprise Arp 270
Above, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 3395 and 3396, which comprise Arp 270
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3395 and irregular galaxy NGC 3396, which comprise Arp 270

NGC 3396 (= PGC 32434, and with
NGC 3395 = Arp 270)
Discovered (Dec 7, 1785) by William Herschel
Also observed (date?) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SBm? pec) in Leo Minor (RA 10 49 55.1, Dec +32 59 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3396 (= GC 2217 = JH 766 = WH I 117, 1860 RA 10 42 06, NPD 56 16.2) is "pretty bright, pretty small, irregularly a little extended, 2nd of 2", the other being NGC 3395.
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.6 by 1.0 arcmin. Used by the Arp Atlas (with NGC 3395, which see for images) as an example of galaxies with connected arms.

NGC 3397 (=
NGC 3329 = PGC 32059)
Discovered (Apr 2, 1801) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3397)
Discovered (Sep 2, 1828) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3329)
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Draco (RA 10 44 39.4, Dec +76 48 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3397 (= GC 2218 = WH I 284, 1860 RA 10 42 35, NPD 11 57.8) is "considerably bright, very small, irregular figure (place very uncertain?)".
Discovery Notes: Like a multitude of other objects observed by William Herschel on Apr 2, 1801, with large unexplicable errors, only recently explained as being due to his telescope being out of alignment with the meridian.
Physical Information: 1.9 by 1.1 arcmin

NGC 3398 (probably =
IC 644 = PGC 32564)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3398)
Discovered (May 8, 1890) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 644)
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type Sa? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 10 51 31.4, Dec +55 23 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3398 (= GC 2219 = WH III 792, 1860 RA 10 42 57, NPD 33 49.9) is "very faint, small, extended, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Discovery Notes: (See IC 644 for a discussion of the double listing. The uncertainty in the equivalence of the two listings will be discussed here in the next iteration of this page.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.3 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3398
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 3398
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 646 and PGC 32587
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3398, also showing spiral galaxy IC 646 and lenticular galaxy PGC 32587, which is sometimes misidentified as IC 644

NGC 3399 (= PGC 32395)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 12.9 lnticular galaxy (type S0?) in Leo (RA 10 49 27.6, Dec +16 13 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3399 (= GC 5536, Marth 205, 1860 RA 10 43 02, NPD 73 02) is "faint, very small".
Physical Information:
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3300 - 3349) ←NGC Objects: NGC 3350 - 3399→ (NGC 3400 - 3449)