Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3800 - 3849) ←NGC Objects: NGC 3850 - 3899 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (NGC 3900 - 3949)
Click here for Introductory Material
QuickLinks:
3850, 3851, 3852, 3853, 3854, 3855, 3856, 3857, 3858, 3859, 3860, 3861, 3862, 3863, 3864, 3865, 3866,
3867, 3868, 3869, 3870, 3871, 3872, 3873, 3874, 3875, 3876, 3877, 3878, 3879, 3880, 3881, 3882, 3883,
3884, 3885, 3886, 3887, 3888, 3889, 3890, 3891, 3892, 3893, 3894, 3895, 3896, 3897, 3898, 3899

Page last updated May 25, 2020
Completed the entry for NGC 3899 since it is a duplicate of NGC 3912
Altered the text for NGC 3850 to correct an error about its membership in the NGC 3898 group
Added Dreyer NGC and 1912 Corrections to NGC, Steinicke historical/physical data
Checked other historical references, Corwin positions
WORKING 3856, 3858, 3860+: Check IDs, add pix, update captions/formatting, Gottlieb observations

NGC 3850 (= PGC 36660, and not =
NGC 3889)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by William Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c) in Ursa Major (RA 11 45 35.7, Dec +55 53 13)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3850 (= GC 2532 = WH III 776, 1860 RA 11 37 02, NPD 33 19.9) is "extremely faint, pretty large, a little extended". The position precesses to RA 11 44 35.7, Dec +55 53 30, and although there is nothing there, there is a suitable candidate about a minute of time to the east, and it would be easy to suppose that Herschel simply made a single-digit error in recording his minutes (particularly since his logbook states "time inaccurate"), in which case the position would precess to the northeastern end of the galaxy listed above. However, that is almost certainly not the actual cause of the error. On some occasions Herschel's telescope was not correctly aligned with the Celestial Meridian (that is, due north and south in the sky), and when that happens the right ascensions are affected in a way that depends on the declinations of the objects observed. Corwin has done a study of all the observations made by Herschel on the night in question, and found that there is indeed a systematic error in the right ascensions of the twenty objects observed on that night. Given the overall trend, Herschel's position for his III 776 should be about half a minute to the west of the correct position, and his uncertain time probably accounts for the other half. In other words, WH III 776's position and description are a reasonably good or perfect fit to PGC 36660, and since there is nothing else in the region the identification with that galaxy can be considered certain.
Note About Misidentification: The RNGC (which has far more errors than the NGC) misidentifies NGC 3850 as NGC 3889 (hence the warning in the title for this entry). Because of that mistake, NGC 3850 is sometimes listed as a member of the NGC 3898 group of galaxies; but as it turns out, even though NGC 3850 cannot be NGC 3889, it is a member of the NGC 3898 group, as noted immediately below.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 1325 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3850 is about 60 to 65 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of 50 to 70 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 2.0 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 35 thousand light years across. Thanks to Donald Pelletier for pointing out a 1993 study by A. M. Garcia which shows that NGC 3850, despite not being NGC 3889, is a member of the NGC 3898 group (a group of 8 galaxies, plus an additional apparent member which is actually about five times further away), which is itself part of the M101 cluster of more than 120 galaxies.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3850
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3850
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3850

NGC 3851 (= PGC 36516)
Discovered (Feb 24, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 14.7 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Leo (RA 11 44 20.4, Dec +19 58 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3851 (= GC 2533 = JH 966 = WH III 378, 1860 RA 11 37 06, NPD 69 15.6) is "extremely faint, very small, round, 5th of 5", the others being NGC 3837, 3841, 3842 and 3845. The position precesses to RA 11 44 22.1, Dec +19 57 48, about 1.1 arcmin south southeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby that isn't accounted for by another NGC entry, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Dreyer's 1912 Corrections to the New General Catalogue states that NGC 3851 is not WH III 378, hence William Herschel's supposed observation is not listed above. The error was caused by John Herschel, who mistakenly equated his father's observation with JH 966, instead of JH 962 (= NGC 3842).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 6730 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3851 is about 310 to 315 million light years away, somewhat closer than redshift-independent distance estimates of about 365 to 380 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.45 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 40 thousand light years across. Along with the galaxies to its west, NGC 3851 is part of the core of Abell 1367.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3851, also showing NGC 3837, NGC 3840, NGC 3841, NGC 3842, NGC 3844 and NGC 3845
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3851
Also shown are NGC 3837, 3840, 3841, 3842, 3845 and 3845
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3851

NGC 3852 (=
NGC 3825? (= PGC 36348 = HCG 58B))
(if NGC 3825, a member of Hickson Compact Group 58)

Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3852)
Looked for but not found (Apr 5, 1896) by Guillaume Bigourdan (while listed as NGC 3852)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3825)
A lost or nonexistent object in Virgo (RA 11 44 25.2, Dec +10 17 24) or (if = NGC 3825),
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type SBa?) in Virgo (RA 11 42 23.7, Dec +10 15 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3852 (= GC 2534 = WH III 36, 1860 RA 11 37 12, NPD 78 56.0) is "extremely faint, very small". The position precesses to RA 11 44 25.2, Dec +10 17 24, but there is nothing there nor near there. As noted in the Discovery Note below, Dreyer later suggested that the RA was a minute of time too large, but the possible more westerly position precesses to RA 11 43 25.4, Dec +10 17 25, which is also nowhere near any particular galaxy, though it is in a region at the eastern end of numerous candidate galaxies. The simplest solution would be to presume that NGC 3852 is a lost or nonexistent object (as shown above), but Corwin points out that Herschel observed both III 35 and III 36 in the same sweep, and neither of his positions correspond to any object. However, NGC 3822 and NGC 3825 have the same declination as Herschel's "lost" objects (which became NGC 3848 and 3852), and their 3.2 arcmin separation is within Herschel's estimate of a 3 to 4 arcmin separation for the pair, so though not certain, it is possible that WH III 35 = NGC 3848 is a duplicate observation of NGC 3822, and WH III 36 = NGC 3852 is a duplicate observation of NGC 3825, whence the possible identification listed above.
Discovery Note: Dreyer's 1912 Corrections to the New General Catalogue states that for NGC 3852 the RA of III 36 is possibly 1 minute of time too great (not found by Bigourdan), Bigourdan presumably being unable to find NGC 3852 because there is nothing at or near its NGC position.
Physical Information: Since this is either a nonexistent object or a duplicate entry, see NGC 3825 for anything else.
DSS image of region near the (incorrect) NGC position for NGC 3852
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the NGC position for NGC 3852

NGC 3853 (= PGC 36535)
Almost certainly observed (Dec 30, 1783) by
William Herschel
Discovered (1871) by Alphonse Borrelly
A magnitude 12.4 elliptical galaxy (type E5?) in Leo (RA 11 44 28.3, Dec +16 33 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3853 (= GC 5578, Borrelly (#4), 1860 RA 11 37 13, NPD 72 39.5) is "small, round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 11 44 28.0, Dec +16 33 54, just north of the outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Herschel never published his observation of this object, but in his sweep notes (sweep 72) he logged (per Corwin, as pointed out by Steinicke) "Some minutes after 32 (clock time), I saw a small nebula but in looking a good while at the finder to determine is (sic) place lost it again. I suspect partly that it only consisted of a few very small (faint) stars but shall look for it another night. 95 (ο) Leonis east .... north 0 (deg) 54 (arcmin) RA 11 h 3 (min):: .. PD 72 (deg) 20 (arcmin)." Corwin notes that there were only three objects observed in the sweep, and the actual time of observation was not recorded for any of them, so between that and the lack of an "east" position relative to 95 Leonis, how accurate Herschel's right ascension is cannot be known (though the one shown in his log is far from any possible candidate); but all three objects have the correct polar distances and are in the same order of observation as their position in the sky, so it is almost certain that Herschel did observe NGC 3853, hence the inclusion of his probable observation above. Still, Borrelly's observation was the first recorded and published, so he certainly deserved the credit he received.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 3655 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3853 is about 170 million light years away, in good agreement with three redshift-independent distances estimates of about 165 to 185 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.7 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 85 thousand light years across. NGC 3853 has an apparent companion (PGC 213877) only about 1.4 arcmin to its west southwest, and although that galaxy is almost certainly merely an optical double and not a physical companion, it is discussed in the following entry.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3853, also showing its apparent companion, PGC 213877
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3853, also showing PGC 213877
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its apparent companion
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3853, also showing its apparent companion, PGC 213877

PGC 213877
Not an NGC object but listed here since an apparent companion of
NGC 3853
A magnitude 16.5(?) elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Leo (RA 11 44 23.1, Dec +16 33 05)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 4235 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 213877 is about 195 to 200 million light years away, or about 25 to 30 million light years more distant than its apparent companion. As a result, it is almost certainly merely an optical double, and not a physical companion. Given its distance and its apparent size of about 0.4 by 0.28 arcmin (from the image below), it is about 20 to 25 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 213877, an apparent but not actual companion of NGC 3853
Above, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 213877; for wide=field images, see NGC 3853

NGC 3854 (=
NGC 3865? = PGC 36581)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3865)
Discovered (1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 3854)
A lost or nonexistent object in Crater (RA 11 44 24.8, Dec -09 22 43), or more likely,
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)b pec?) in Crater (RA 11 44 52.0, Dec -09 14 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3854 (Leavenworth list II (#449), 1860 RA 11 37 17, NPD 98 36.1) is "extremely faint, very small, a little extended 70░, brighter middle and nucleus". The position precesses to RA 11 44 24.8, Dec -09 22 43, but there is nothing there nor near there. Per Corwin, neither of the observations shown above are good: "Common's is his usual estimate, while Leavenworth's RA is, as usual, just bad. Leavenworth also, rather unusually, has a 10 arcmin Dec error as well for this galaxy. Unfortunately, there is no surviving sketch." This sounds like identifying the NGC object should be next to impossible, but fortunately, presuming that there is a one-digit error in the declination, the relative positions of Leavenworth's #449 and #450 (NGC 3866) are correct, and not only is Leavenworth's description of his #449 reasonable (though Gottlieb puts the position angle at only about 50░), but so is his description of his #450. Given that, it is reasonably certain that NGC 3854 is simply a badly measured and/or recorded observation of the galaxy listed above. However, since both the recorded right ascension and declination are wrong, Corwin uses a colon to indicate that the identification is not certain, and Gottlieb states that it is very uncertain. In any event, despite whatever uncertainty there is in the identification, NED lists this as a duplicate of NGC 3865, and lists it not as NGC 3865, but as the "earlier" designation NGC 3854 (as is usual for duplicate entries).
Note About The Apparent Companion: Historically, there has been some controversy about the bright object about a quarter of an arcmin to the southwest of the core of NGC 3854, namely whether it is a foreground star or a superimposed galaxy. The PanSTARRS and HST images below (and in the entry for the object, immediately following this entry) have settled the argument. Stars of similar or greater brightness always have "solarized" centers in PanSTARRS images (e.g., the 12th magnitude star west northwest of NGC 3866), and the object superposed on NGC 3854/65 does not have a solarized center. There is also a small nebulous region surrounding the object, which implies that it is a superimposed galaxy, and perhaps the cause of the unusual structure of NGC 3854/65 (though there is absolutely nothing available to tell whether it is close to NGC 3854/65, or well in front of it). The HST images make the nebular nature of the apparent companion even more obvious. As a result, I have posted what little can be determined from the PanSTARRS and HST images in the following entry.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 6070 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3854/65 is about 280 to 285 million light years away, considerably further than a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 210 to 215 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.85 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 150 to 155 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3865, which is probably also NGC 3854; also shown is NGC 3866
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3854/65, also showing NGC 3866
Below, a 2.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3865, which is probably also NGC 3854
Below, a 2.25 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy and its possible companion
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3865, which is probably also NGC 3854, also showing its possible companion
Below, a 1.4 by 1.5 composite (HST image overlaid on the image above)
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons, Courtney Seligman)HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 3865, which is probably also NGC 3854, also showing its possible companion, overlaid on the PanSTARRS image above
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide HST image of the cores of the two galaxies (Image Credit as above)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 3865, which is probably also NGC 3854, also showing its possible companion

2MASS J11445125-0914091 (?)
Not an NGC object, but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 3854/65
A magnitude 13(?) elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Crater (RA 11 44 51.3, Dec -09 14 09)
The Nature Of This Object: Whether the object about a quarter of an arcmin southwest of the center of NGC 3854/65 is a foreground star or a dwarf galaxy interacting with NGC 3854/65 has been a matter of considerable debate, but the PanSTARRS and HST images shown here have settled that debate in favor of a superimposed galaxy. For a discussion of that, see Note About The Apparent Companion in the entry for NGC 3854/65.
Note About Designation: The position of this object is identical to that of the infrared object listed in the title, so that seems the most appropriate title for this entry. However, whether the object is the source of the radiation detected by the 2MASS survey is another matter.
Physical Information: If this is an interacting companion of NGC 3854/65, it is about 280 to 285 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.15 by 0.13 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 12 thousand light years across (if it is well in front of the larger galaxy, it would be somewhat smaller).
PanSTARRS image of the central region of spiral galaxy NGC 3865, which is probably also NGC 3854, and of its possible companion, the elliptical galaxy I have designated as 2MASS J11445125-0914091
Above, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 3854/65 and 2MASS J11445125-0914091 (?)
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide HST image of the cores of the two galaxies
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons, Courtney Seligman)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 3865, which is probably also NGC 3854, also showing its possible companion

NGC 3855 (almost certainly = PGC 36530 =
IC 2953)
Discovered (May 8, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3855)
Also observed (Mar 12, 1891) by Rudolf Spitaler (while listed as NGC 3855)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1896) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 2953)
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(r)b?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 44 25.8, Dec +33 21 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3855 (= GC 5579, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 11 37 23, NPD 55 53▒) is "extremely faint, very small, PD doubtful". The first IC adds (per Spitaler) "RA is 11 36 56, while d'Arrest's PD is correct". The corrected position precesses to RA 11 44 16.8, Dec +33 20 24, just over 2 arcmin west southwest of the galaxy listed above, but only 0.7 arcmin nearly due south of IC 2592, which despite how faint IC 2952 is, suggests a possible problem with the identification; and in fact there are problems aplenty, starting with Spitaler's comments, which assigned PGC 36508 (= IC 2592) to NGC 3855, and PGC 36530 (= IC 2953) to NGC 3856. Modern efforts to clear up the mess, such as the (censored)-awful assignments by the RNGC and several other cursory surveys, assigned NGC 3855 to a galaxy (PGC 36569) well to the southeast of either of the galaxies examined by Spitaler, and almost certainly completely unrelated to anything d'Arrest could have observed. As a result, NGC 3855 is usually listed with its IC designation or as the aforementioned PGC 36569, without any regard for what d'Arrest might have actually seen. So, what can we conclude? Corwin suggests that d'Arrest almost certainly observed the two brightest galaxies in the region, which are IC 2953 and NGC 3847, and although d'Arrest's position is poor at best (particularly for NGC 3856, as discussed in its entry), I feel that Corwin's suggestion is the best argument that can be made for what d'Arrest might have seen, and as a result, I have adopted Corwin's suggestions, as shown in the titles for this entry and the following one. In other words, the identifications of NGC 3855 (and 3856) presented here are uncertain, but certainly more reasonable than any previous effort to identify them.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 9595 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 3855 is about 445 to 450 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 430 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 435 to 440 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 135 to 140 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3855, also known as IC 2953, also showing IC 2952 and PGC 36569, which is often misidentified as NGC 3855 or NGC 3856
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3855, also showing IC 2952 and PGC 36569
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3855, also known as IC 2953

PGC 36569 (= PGC 3096066, and not =
NGC 3855 or NGC 3856)
Not an NGC object but listed here since often misidentified as NGC 3855 or NGC 3856
A magnitude 15.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in (RA 11 44 44.9, Dec +33 19 16)
Historical Misidentification: As noted in the entry for NGC 3855, its identity was uncertain right from the start, and several cursory modern surveys assigned it to PGC 36569 with no rational reason for doing so. The actual identity of NGC 3855 is uncertain, but it is certainly not PGC 36569, so the purpose of this entry is to serve as a warning about that egregious error.
 Similarly, although the identity of NGC 3856 might be in question, there is absolutely no way that it can be PGC 36569, which is both too faint and too far from any reasonable position for NGC 3856 for it to be a reasonable identification of the NGC object.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 9640 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 36569 is about 445 to 450 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 430 to 435 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 440 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 75 thousand light years across. Because of its exceptionally bright nucleus, PGC 36569 is listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy2).
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 36569, which is often misidentified as either NGC 3855 or NGC 3856; also shown are IC 2592 and the probable NGC 3855 (also known as IC 2593)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 36569, also showing NGC 3855 and IC 2592
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 36569, which is often misidentified as either NGC 3855 or NGC 3856

NGC 3856 (almost certainly = PGC 36504 =
NGC 3847)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3847)
Discovered (May 8, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3856)
Also observed (Mar 12, 1891) by Rudolf Spitaler (while listed as NGC 3856)
A magnitude 13.3 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 44 14.0, Dec +33 30 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dryer, NGC 3856 (= GC 5580, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 11 37 23, NPD 55 52▒) is "North of the last one, others near". The first IC adds (per Spitaler) "RA 11 37 06, NPD 55 53.3, very faint, round, brighter middle". (Corwin uses a colon to suggest that the identification may not be as certain as hoped.)
Physical Information: Given the probable duplicate entry, see NGC 3847 for anything else.

NGC 3857 (= PGC 36548)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1884) by
╔douard Stephan
Also observed (Apr 13, 1885) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.1 lenticular galaxy (type S(rs)0/a?) in Leo (RA 11 44 50.1, Dec +19 31 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3857 (Stephan list XIII (b-63), Swift list I (#13), 1860 RA 11 37 34, NPD 69 41.5) is "very faint, very small, much brighter middle". (Swift's list states "very faint, very small, round, bright star 12 seconds of time to east; northwestern of 2", the other being NGC 3859.) The position precesses to RA 11 44 49.8, Dec +19 31 54, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits (including the relative position of Swift's two nebulae, and of the star to their east and about halfway between them) and there is nothing nearby that isn't accounted for by another NGC/IC designation, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Stephan's positions for NGC 3857 and 3859 are essentially perfect, while Swift's positions are not terribly good; but Swift's description of the field makes the identification of his observations just as certain as Stephan's.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 6615 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3857 is about 305 to 310 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 90 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 3857, also showing NGC 3859, NGC 3862 and IC 2955
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3857
Also shown are NGC 3859 and 3862, and IC 2955
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 3857

NGC 3858 (= PGC 36621 =
NGC 3866)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3866)
Discovered (1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 3858)
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Crater (RA 11 45 11.7, Dec -09 18 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3858 (Leavenworth list II (#450), 1860 RA 11 37 35, NPD 98 31.1) is "extremely faint, extremely small, round, gradually brighter middle, 9.5 magnitude star 3 seconds of time to west".
Physical Information:

NGC 3859 (= PGC 36582)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1884) by
╔douard Stephan
Also observed (Apr 13, 1885) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)dm? pec) in Leo (RA 11 44 52.2, Dec +19 27 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3859 (Stephan list XIII (b-64), Swift list I (#14), 1860 RA 11 37 36, NPD 69 46.2) is "extremely faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved?" (Swift's list states "most extremely faint, round, pretty small, bright star to northeast; southeastern of 2", the other being NGC 3857.) The position precesses to RA 11 44 51.8, Dec +19 27 11, nearly dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits (including the relative position of Swift's two nebulae, and of the star to their east and about halfway between them) and there is nothing nearby that isn't accounted for by another NGC designation, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Stephan's positions for NGC 3857 and 3859 are essentially perfect, while Swift's positions are not terribly good; but Swift's description of the field makes the identification of his observations just as certain as Stephan's.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 5795 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3859 is about 270 million light years away, in fair agreement with two redshift-independent distance estimates of about 295 to 335 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.35 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below, counting its very faint northeastern extension), it is about 105 to 110 thousand light years across. The galaxy's spectrum exhibits strong emission lines characteristic of gases being irradiated by hot bright stars, and the bluish color of its central region presumably corresponds to the light from such stars, which have short lifetimes and must have recently formed, so it must be a starburst galaxy, "currently" (or at least at the time by which we see it left it) undergoing very rapid star formation, possibly as a result of an interaction with the very faint dwarf irregular galaxy above its northeastern extension.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3859, also showing NGC 3857 and NGC 3864
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3859, also showing NGC 3857 and 3864
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its possible irregular dwarf companion
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3859 and its possible irregular dwarf companion

NGC 3860 (= PGC 36577)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Leo (RA 11 44 49.2, Dec +19 47 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3860 (= GC 2535 = WH III 386, 1860 RA 11 37 37, NPD 69 28.0) is "very faint, very small, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information:

PGC 36565 (= PGC 36573 = "NGC 3860B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 3860B
A magnitude 14.2 compact galaxy (type C?) in
Leo (RA 11 44 47.8, Dec +19 46 24)
Physical Information:

NGC 3861 (= PGC 36604)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Leo (RA 11 45 03.9, Dec +19 58 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3861 (= GC 2536 = JH 970, 1860 RA 11 37 48, NPD 69 15.0) is "faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information:

PGC 36610 (= "NGC 3861B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 3861B
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in
Leo (RA 11 45 07.0, Dec +19 58 01)
Physical Information:

NGC 3862 (= PGC 36606 = 3C 264, but not =
IC 2955)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 13, 1885) by Lewis Swift
Also observed (Mar 28, 1886) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13(?) elliptical galaxy (type E0 pec) in Leo (RA 11 45 05.0, Dec +19 36 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3862 (= GC 2537 = WH III 385, (Swift list I #16?), 1860 RA 11 37 52, NPD 69 36.5) is "very faint, very small, round, 17th magnitude star to north". The position precesses to RA 11 45 07.8, Dec +19 36 53, about 0.8 arcmin northeast of the galaxy listed above and just under 1 arcmin east southeast of a fainter galaxy to its northwest. It is possible that the presence of two objects at nearly equal distances from the NGC position is the reason for the misidentification noted in the Warning About Misidentification With IC 2955, below; but Bigourdan's observations (described in that warning) makes it quite clear that the far brighter southeastern member of the pair (namely, the galaxy listed above) is NGC 3862, and the fainter object is Bigourdan's nova 406 (= IC 2955), so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Dreyer did not mention Swift's observation in the NGC, but it is listed in Steinicke's database, so it is placed in parentheses in the NGC entry. Swift's description for his #16 reads "very faint, pretty small, round". His position is not far from NGC 3862, but his description is a better fit for NGC 3864, so he may have accidentally switched the positions or descriptions for the two nebulae.
Warning About Misidentification With IC 2955: Based on a note by Corwin, it appears that some reference has mistakenly equated NGC 3862 with IC 2955, but the two cannot be the same object, because Bigourdan observed both of them on the same night. In fact, Bigourdan observed both of them on each of the three nights that he observed either of them, stating that his "nova" (which became IC 2955) was much fainter than NGC 3862, and a little to the northwest of it (both statements are correct), making it absolutely certain that they are not the same object. Whether it is at all likely that the reader will ever run into the misidentification, it seems appropriate to mention the possibility here, as a warning against the error. (That is also why Bigourdan's first observation of the pair is noted in the discovery information above.)
Physical Information: GSRVr 6460 km/sec; 58.6 - 143 Mpc; Apparent size 1.5 by 1.5 arcmin? Although in most respects NGC 3862 appears to be a perfectly normal elliptical galaxy, it contains a rotating disk of gas centered on a supermassive black hole that has created a jet-like structure moving at about 98% of the speed of light (the knots in the jet are thought to be due to interactions of the material in the jet with interstellar gas in the galaxy). It is thought that these features are the result of the merger of a gas-rich galaxy with NGC 3862 a few billion years ago, and aside from the visible-light image shown below, has created a "two-tails" radio source spanning a region more than half a million light years across, hence my addition of "pec" to its galaxy type, and its additional classification as an active radio galaxy.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 3862, also showing NGC 3857 and IC 2955
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3862, also showing NGC 3857 and IC 2955
Below, a ? arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 3862
Below, a ? arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)

Below, a ? arcmin wide image of the central gas disk and "jet" (Image Credit NASA/ESA and E. Meyer (STSci))


NGC 3863 (= PGC 36607)
Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Virgo (RA 11 45 05.5, Dec +08 28 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3863 (= GC 5581, Marth #224, 1860 RA 11 37 53, NPD 80 46) is "very faint, 2 arcmin long, much extended 70░, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3864 (= PGC 36620)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1884) by
╔douard Stephan
Also observed (Apr 13, 1885) by Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.2 double galaxy? (type D?) in Leo (RA 11 45 15.7, Dec +19 23 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3864 (Stephan list XIII (b-65), Swift list I (#15?), 1860 RA 11 38 00, NPD 69 49.9) is "extremely faint, very small, round".
Discovery Note: Swift's list I states that his #15 is "very faint, small, a little elongated; 8th magnitude star in the field". His position isn't far from NGC 3864, but the description is a far better fit for NGC 3862, so it is possible that he accidentally switched either the positions or the descriptions for the two nebulae.
Physical Information:

NGC 3865 (= PGC 36581 =
NGC 3854)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3865)
Discovered (1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 3854)
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Crater (RA 11 44 52.0, Dec -09 14 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3865 (Common (#23), 1860 RA 11 38 04, NPD 98 26) is "faint, pretty large, diffuse".
Physical Information: Even though the identification of NGC 3865 is certain, and that of NGC 3854 is not as certain, whenever it is thought that two NGC entries are duplicate observations it is the usual practice to use the "earlier" number, and as a result NED lists this galaxy as NGC 3854, which see for anything else.

NGC 3866 (= PGC 36621 =
NGC 3858)
Discovered (1880) by Andrew Common (and later listed as NGC 3866)
Discovered (1886) by Francis Leavenworth (and later listed as NGC 3858)
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Crater (RA 11 45 11.7, Dec -09 18 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3866 (Common (#23), 1860 RA 11 38, NPD 98 30▒) is "southeast of last one, not so large".
Physical Information:

NGC 3867 (= PGC 36649)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1884) by
╔douard Stephan
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type S?) in Leo (RA 11 45 29.6, Dec +19 24 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3867 (Stephan list XIII (b-66), 1860 RA 11 38 14, NPD 69 49.4) is "faint, small, irregularly round, much brighter middle, southern of 2", the other being NGC 3868.
Note To Self: Check out Stephan's observation; previous iteration said it was done in 1881 (probably a typo, but want to make sure)
Physical Information:

NGC 3868 (= PGC 36638)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1884) by
╔douard Stephan
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type S?) in Leo (RA 11 45 29.9, Dec +19 26 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3868 (Stephan list XIII (b-67), 1860 RA 11 38 15, NPD 69 46.7) is "very faint, very small, round, much brighter middle, northern of 2", the other being NGC 3867.
Physical Information:

NGC 3869 (= PGC 36669)
Discovered (Mar 10, 1826) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Leo (RA 11 45 45.6, Dec +10 49 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3869 (= GC 2538 = JH 971, 1860 RA 11 38 30, NPD 78 23.9) is "faint, small, irregularly round, pretty suddenly brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3870 (= PGC 36686)
Discovered (Mar 17, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 17, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 45 56.6, Dec +50 11 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3870 (= GC 2539 = JH 972 = WH III 833, 1860 RA 11 38 34, NPD 39 01.3) is "considerably faint, considerably small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle". (Corwin uses a question mark to suggest that the identification may not be as certain as hoped.)
Physical Information:

NGC 3871 (= PGC 36702 =
IC 2959)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3871)
Also observed (Mar 12, 1891) by Rudolf Spitaler (while listed as NGC 3871)
Discovered (Jun 11, 1896) by Stephane Javelle (and later listed as IC 2959) A magnitude 14.8 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 46 10.1, Dec +33 06 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3871 (= GC 2540 = JH 967, 1860 RA 11 38 35▒, NPD 56 07.0▒) is "extremely faint, round, gradually brighter middle, 1st of 4 (?)", the others being NGC 3878, 3880 and 3881. The first IC lists a corrected position (per Spitaler) of RA 11 38 52, NPD 56 08.0 and adds "In 'Description' dele(te) the question mark. To the note on p. 218 should be added that Spitaler has seen them all four. The Catalogue places of the three following ones are correct."
Physical Information:

NGC 3872 (= PGC 36678)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 23, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.7 elliptical galaxy (type E5?) in Leo (RA 11 45 49.0, Dec +13 46 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3872 (= GC 2541 = JH 973 = WH II 104, 1860 RA 11 38 35, NPD 75 27.4) is "bright, small, round, suddenly much brighter middle like star".
Physical Information:

NGC 3873 (= PGC 36670)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
Discovered (May 8, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.9 elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Leo (RA 11 45 46.1, Dec +19 46 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3873 (= GC 5582, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 11 38 35, NPD 69 27.3) is "very faint, pretty small, a little extended, III 387 to southeast", (WH) III 387 being NGC 3875.
Note To Self: Steinicke lists WH as the discoverer; need to check his rationale. (Steinicke lists this as III 387, instead of 3875
Physical Information:

NGC 3874
Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
A pair of stars in Virgo (RA 11 45 37.7, Dec +08 34 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3874 (= GC 2542 = WH III 104, 1860 RA 11 38 36, NPD 80 40.5) is "very faint, very small, suspected".
Physical Information: Eastern star RA 11 45 38.2, Dec +08 34 26; western star RA 11 45 37.2, Dec +08 34 26

NGC 3875 (= PGC 36675)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
Discovered (May 8, 1864) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Leo (RA 11 45 49.4, Dec +19 46 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3875 (= GC 2543 = WH III 387, 1860 RA 11 38 37, NPD 69 28.0) is "very faint, very small, mottled but not resolved".
Note To Self: Steinicke lists d'Arrest as the discoverer; need to check out his rationale (he is switching the discovery credits for 3873 and 3875).
Physical Information:

NGC 3876 (= PGC 36644)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 24, 1892) by Rudolf Spitaler (while listed as NGC 3876)
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Virgo (RA 11 45 26.7, Dec +09 09 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3876 (= GC 2544 = WH III 103, 1860 RA 11 38 38, NPD 80 02.) is "very faint, mottled but not resolved". The first IC states (per Spitaler) "Seconds of RA should be 14".
Physical Information:

NGC 3877 (= PGC 36699)
Discovered (Feb 5, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 28, 1865) by George RŘmker
A magnitude 11.0 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 46 07.8, Dec +47 29 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3877 (= GC 2545 = WH I 201, G. RŘmker, 1860 RA 11 38 42, NPD 41 44.0) is "bright, large, much extended 37░".
Physical Information:

NGC 3878 (= PGC 36708)
Discovered (Apr 29, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 46 17.8, Dec +33 12 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3878 (= GC 2546 = JH 974, 1860 RA 11 38 56, NPD 56 01.3) is "very faint, round, 2nd of 4", the others being NGC 3871, 3880 and 3881.
Physical Information:

NGC 3879 (= PGC 36743)
Discovered (Apr 7, 1793) by
William Herschel
Looked for but not found (Oct 5, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.0 spiral galaxy (type Sd?) in Draco (RA 11 46 49.4, Dec +69 23 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3879 (= GC 2547 = WH II 881, 1860 RA 11 39 01, NPD 19 50.0) is "faint, pretty large, much extended 105░▒ (d'Arrest not found)".
Physical Information:

NGC 3880 (= PGC 36712)
Discovered (Apr 29, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.9 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 46 22.2, Dec +33 09 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3880 (= GC 2548 = JH 968 = JH 975, 1860 RA 11 39 01, NPD 56 03.3) is "very faint, round, gradually brighter middle, 3rd of 4", the others being NGC 3871, NGC 3878 and 3881.
Physical Information:

NGC 3881 (= PGC 36722)
Discovered (Apr 29, 1827) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.9 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 46 34.4, Dec +33 06 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3881 (= GC 2549 = JH 969 = JH 976, 1860 RA 11 39 15, NPD 56 07.1) is "very faint, round, gradually brighter middle, 4th of 4", the others being NGC 3871, 3878 and 3880.
Physical Information:

NGC 3882 (= PGC 36697)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Centaurus (RA 11 46 06.4, Dec -56 23 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3882 (= GC 2550 = JH 3358, 1860 RA 11 39 17, NPD 145 36.3) is "very faint, a little extended, 2 stars involved".
Physical Information:

NGC 3883 (= PGC 36740)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Leo (RA 11 46 47.2, Dec +20 40 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3883 (= GC 2551 = WH III 372, 1860 RA 11 39 22, NPD 68 36.0) is "very faint, considerably large".
Physical Information:

NGC 3884 (= PGC 36706)
Discovered (Apr 27, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 24, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Leo (RA 11 46 12.2, Dec +20 23 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3884 (= GC 2552 = JH 977 = WH III 388, 1860 RA 11 39 31, NPD 68 49.7) is "considerably faint, small, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, 7th magnitude star 6 arcmin to southwest".
Physical Information:

NGC 3885 (= PGC 36737)
Discovered (Mar 10, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 24, 1835) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.9 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Hydra (RA 11 46 46.5, Dec -27 55 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3885 (= GC 2553 = JH 3359 = WH III 828, 1860 RA 11 39 45, NPD 117 08.6) is "considerably faint, very small, very little extended, brighter middle, very faint star to southeast".
Physical Information:

NGC 3886 (= PGC 36756)
Discovered (May 9, 1864) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.1 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Leo (RA 11 47 05.6, Dec +19 50 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3886 (= GC 5583, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 11 39 49, NPD 69 23.4) is "faint".
Physical Information:

NGC 3887 (= PGC 36754)
Discovered (Dec 31, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 1, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc) in Crater (RA 11 47 04.6, Dec -16 51 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3887 (= GC 2554 = JH 979 = JH 3360 = WH I 120, 1860 RA 11 39 57, NPD 106 04.9) is "pretty bright, large, irregularly round, very gradually pretty much brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 11 47 03.3, Dec -16 51 33, barely southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background of 1570 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3887 is about 70 to 75 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 50 to 70 million light years (the Hubble press release uses a distance of 60 million light years). Given that and its apparent size of about 4.95 by 3.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 105 thousand light years across. NGC 3887 is used as an example of a galaxy of type SB(rs)bc by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3887
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 3887
Below, a 4.5 by 5.5 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 3887
Below, a 2 by 2.5 arcmin wide HST image of part of the galaxy
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia Commons, post-processing by Courtney Seligman)
HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 3887
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide HST image of the core of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble & NASA, P. Erwin et al.)
HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 3887

NGC 3888 (= PGC 36789)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 9, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12,1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c) in Ursa Major (RA 11 47 34.0, Dec +55 58 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3888 (= GC 2555 = JH 978 = WH II 785, 1860 RA 11 40 06, NPD 33 15.4) is "pretty bright, small, a little extended, pretty gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:Based on a recessional velocity of 2410 km/sec, NGC 3888 is about 110 million light years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance measurements of 120 to 135 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 1.8 by 1.4 arcmin, it is about 60 thousand light years across. The galaxy is listed as a member of the NGC 3898 group of galaxies, but is apparently considerably farther away than either NGC 3850 or NGC 3898, so even if physically connected, it must lie at the far end of the group.
SDSS image of NGC 3888
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 3888
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region around NGC 3888

NGC 3889 (= PGC 36819)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1878) by
Lawrence Parsons, 4th Lord Rosse
A magnitude 14.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 47 48.1, Dec +56 01 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3889 (4th Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 11 40 08, NPD 33 21) is "very faint, very small, 5 arcmin south of II 785", (WH) 785 being NGC 3888.
Physical Information:

NGC 3890 (= PGC 36925 =
NGC 3939)
Discovered (Dec 12, 1797) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3890)
Also observed (Oct 4, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 3890)
Discovered (Apr 2, 1801) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3939)
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Draco (RA 11 49 19.8, Dec +74 18 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3890 (= GC 2558 = WH III 940, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 11 40 25, NPD 14 54.9) is "very faint, small, round, brighter middle". (Dreyer's 1912 Corrections to the New General Catalogue states that WH III 940 = WH III 971, and that the minute of RA is 41, not 40.)
Physical Information:

NGC 3891 (= PGC 36832)
Discovered (Feb 3, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 30, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 48 03.4, Dec +30 21 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3891 (= GC 2556 = JH 980 = WH II 723, 1860 RA 11 40 46, NPD 58 51.7) is "pretty bright, small, brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3892 (= PGC 36827)
Discovered (Mar 4, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 9, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Crater (RA 11 48 01.0, Dec -10 57 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3892 (= GC 2557 = JH 981 = JH 3361 = WH II 553, 1860 RA 11 40 54, NPD 100 11.0) is "pretty bright, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information:

NGC 3893 (= PGC 36875)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 7, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.5 spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 48 38.2, Dec +48 42 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3893 (= GC 2559 = JH 982 = WH II 738, 1860 RA 11 41 16, NPD 40 30.4) is "bright, pretty large, round, much brighter middle".
Note To Self: Prior iteration had Feb 9 as the discovery date; probably a typo, but need to check it out.
Physical Information:

NGC 3894 (= PGC 36889)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 14, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 elliptical galaxy (type E4?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 48 50.4, Dec +59 24 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3894 (= GC 2560 = JH 983 = WH I 248, 1860 RA 11 41 20, NPD 29 48.5) is "bright, pretty large, irregularly round, pretty gradually much brighter middle, western of 2", the other being NGC 3895.
Physical Information:

NGC 3895 (= PGC 36907)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1790) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 25, 1832) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)a?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 49 04.0, Dec +59 25 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3895 (= GC 2561 = JH 984 = WH II 832, 1860 RA 11 41 32, NPD 29 47.6) is "pretty faint, pretty large, very little extended, gradually brighter middle, eastern of two", the other being NGC 3894. The position precesses to RA 11 49 02.9, Dec +59 25 44, on the southwestern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the only other object in the region is accounted for by NGC 3894, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3305 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3895 is about 150 to 155 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 to 55 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3895, also showing NGC 3894
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3895, also showing NGC 3894
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3895
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble, NASA, R. Barrows)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 3895

NGC 3896 (= PGC 36897)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 48 56.4, Dec +48 40 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3896 (= GC 2562 = WH II 739, 1860 RA 11 41 33, NPD 40 32.0) is "faint, very small".
Note To Self: Prior iteration had Feb 9 as the discovery date; probably a typo, but need to check it out.
Physical Information:

NGC 3897 (= PGC 36902)
Discovered (Apr 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 23, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in Ursa Major (RA 11 48 59.5, Dec +35 00 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3897 (= GC 2563 = JH 986 = WH II 408, 1860 RA 11 41 42, NPD 54 11.6) is "faint, small, round, brighter middle".
Physical Information:

NGC 3898 (= PGC 36921)
Discovered (Apr 14, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 19, 1829) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.7 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)ab) in Ursa Major (RA 11 49 15.2, Dec +56 05 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3898 (= GC 2564 = JH 985 = WH I 228, 1860 RA 11 41 46, NPD 33 08.4) is "bright, pretty large, a little extended, suddenly very much brighter middle".
Physical Information:The brightest member of the NGC 3898 group of galaxies (two of the other four being NGC 3850 and 3888). Based on a recessional velocity of 1175 km/sec, NGC 3898 is about 55 million light years away, in fair agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 70 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of 4.4 by 2.6 arcmins, it is about 70 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of NGC 3898
Above, a 5 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 3898
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region around NGC 3898

NGC 3899 (almost certainly = PGC 36979 =
NGC 3912)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3912)
Also observed (Apr 13, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3912)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 3899)
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc? pec) in Leo (RA 11 50 04.4, Dec +26 28 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 3899 (= GC 2565 = JH 987, 1860 RA 11 41 52, NPD 62 46.5) is "pretty bright, round, suddenly much brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 11 49 08.3, Dec +26 26 49, but there is nothing there nor near there; however, there is a galaxy that he observed in 1831 and his father in 1785 almost exactly one minute of time to the east (namely NGC 3912), which has a very similar description. As a result, Reinmuth suggested that NGC 3899 and 3912 were duplicate entries very early on, and the essentially single-digit error in right ascension is sufficiently common that it is generally agreed that the two NGC entries do indeed refer to the same object.
Discovery Note (1): JH's position for GC 2565 falls almost exactly on a very close double star that could have looked like a nebulous object, but the entry for NGC 3912 calls the galaxy listed above "pretty faint", and the double star certainly can't qualify as "pretty bright" in comparison with the galaxy, even though the galaxy is an extended object; so the possibility of the double star being NGC 3899 has been essentially discounted.
Discovery Note (2): JH observed what became NGC 3912 on three separate sweeps, but did not observe it on the sweep in which he "found" NGC 3899; this alone is enough to suggest that his observation on that date was of the same object as on the other dates, but with a misrecorded position.
Designation Note: Since NGC 3912 has the advantage of an accurate position (and if NGC 3899 is the same object it certainly doesn't), and William Herschel's observation of the future NGC 3912 preceded the presumably incorrect observation that became NGC 3899, in all fairness this galaxy should be called NGC 3912, not NGC 3899, and in a very few places it is. But the usual practice in discussing duplicate observations is to use the "earlier number" in the NGC, no matter how poor its observation was, so the galaxy listed above is almost always called NGC 3899 instead of NGC 3912. As a result, the entry for the latter designation only discusses the history of its discovery and the duplicate entry. Everything else about the galaxy is shown below.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2085 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 3899/3912 is about 95 to 100 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 55 to 100 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.45 by 0.6 arcmin for the main galaxy and about 2.15 by 1.1 arcmin for its fainter extensions (from the images below), the central galaxy is about 40 thousand light years across, while its fainter extensions span about 60 thousand light years.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 3899, also known as NGC 3912
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 3899 / 3912
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 3899, also known as NGC 3912
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the central galaxy
PanSTARRS image of the central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 3899, also known as NGC 3912
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 3800 - 3849) ←NGC Objects: NGC 3850 - 3899→ (NGC 3900 - 3949)