Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4050 - 4099) ←NGC Objects: NGC 4100 - 4149 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (NGC 4150 - 4199)
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Page last updated Apr 29, 2019
Updated formatting to current standard, added Dreyer entries
Checked Steinicke databases, Corwin positions, added images, captions, tags
NEXT: Check other historical references
NEXT: Confirm identifications for uncertain IDs
NEXT: Confirm all other IDs, add best current physical information for all entries

NGC 4100 (= PGC 38370)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 7, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.2 spiral galaxy (type (R')SA(s)bc) in Ursa Major (RA 12 06 08.5, Dec +49 34 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4100 (= GC 2715 = JH 1084 = WH III 717, 1860 RA 11 59 00, NPD 39 38.8) is "pretty bright, very large, very much extended 161°, very gradually a very little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.0 by 1.6 arcmin (from the images below). Listed by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as type (R')SA(s)bc.
SDSS image of region around NGC 4100
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4100
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of NGC 4100
Below, a 1.5 by 3.1 arcmin wide HST image of the central portion of the galaxy
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikimedia; post-processing by Courtney Seligman)
HST image of NGC 4100

NGC 4101 (= PGC 38373)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 19, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0/a?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 06 10.6, Dec +25 33 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4101 (= GC 2716 = JH 1083 = WH III 326, 1860 RA 11 59 00, NPD 63 39.7) is "extremely faint, very small, round, very gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4101
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4101
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4101

NGC 4102 (= PGC 38392)
Discovered (Apr 12, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 17, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.2 spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(s)b? pec) in Ursa Major (RA 12 06 23.0, Dec +52 42 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4102 (= GC 2717 = JH 1085 = WH I 225, 1860 RA 11 59 15, NPD 36 30.6) is "bright, pretty small, round, brighter middle and bright nucleus, 12th magnitude star very near to southwest".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4102
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4102
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4102
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide HST image of the central portion of the galaxy
(Image Credit ESA/Hubble/NASA & S. Smartt (Queen's University Belfast, Acknowledgement Renaud Houdinet)
HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 4102

NGC 4103 (= OCL 871 = "PGC 3518298")
Discovered (Apr 30, 1826) by
James Dunlop
Also observed (Mar 14, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 7.4 open cluster (type I3m) in Crux (RA 12 06 39.0, Dec -61 15 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4103 (= GC 2718 = JH 3377, Dunlop #291, 1860 RA 11 59 28, NPD 150 27.9) is "a cluster, pretty large, pretty compressed, irregularly round, stars from 10th to 14th magnitude".
Note About PGC Designation: For purposes of completeness, LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost every NGC/IC object, whether it is a galaxy or not. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above does not return a result, so it is listed in quotes.
Physical Information: Apparent size 6 arcmin? (from the LEDA entry for NGC 4103) Distance about 6000 lightyears. (Very nice image at here.)
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 4103
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4103
Below, another 12 arcmin wide image of the cluster (Image Credit & © Fabian Rodriguez; used by permission)
Fabiran Region image of open cluster NGC 4103

NGC 4104 (= PGC 38407)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 26, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 06 38.9, Dec +28 10 27)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4104 (= GC 2719 = JH 1086 = WH II 370, 1860 RA 11 59 29, NPD 61 02.6) is "pretty bright, pretty small, a little extended, brighter middle".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4104, also showing possible companion PGC 38387
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4104, showing possible companion PGC 38387
Below, a 5 arcmin wide image of the galaxy and PGC 38387
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4104, also showing possible companion PGC 38387

PGC 38387
Not an NGC object but listed here since Corwin lists it as a possible companion to
NGC 4104
A magnitude 15(?) elliptical galaxy (type E1?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 06 30.9, Dec +28 08 16)
Physical Information: Vr 8920 km/sec, z 0.029757, single redshift-independent distance estimate about 460 to 465 million light years. Since the recessional velocity of NGC 4104 is 8450 km/sec, it is possible that the two galaxies are in the same region, whether they are physical companions or not.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 38387, a possible companion of NGC 4104
Above, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 38387; for wide-field images see NGC 4104

NGC 4105 (= PGC 38411)
Discovered (Mar 7, 1791) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 5, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.7 elliptical galaxy (type E3? pec) in Hydra (RA 12 06 40.8, Dec -29 45 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4105 (= GC 2720 = JH 3378 = WH II 865, 1860 RA 11 59 29, NPD 119 00.4) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, western of 2", the other being NGC 4106.
Physical Information: The two galaxies are obviously physically interacting, so although their physical properties will be discussed in their individual entries, all images will be shown here. (Need to measure images, so get correct types, sizes, etc)
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4105, also showing NGC 4106
Above, a 12arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4105, also showing NGC 4106
Below, a 5 arcmin wide image centered on the pair
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4105 and lenticular galaxy NGC 4106

NGC 4106 (= PGC 38417)
Discovered (Mar 7, 1791) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 5, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB(rs)0/a? pec) in Hydra (RA 12 06 45.6, Dec -29 46 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4106 (= GC 2721 = JH 3379 = WH II 866, 1860 RA 11 59 34, NPD 119 00.7) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, pretty gradually brighter middle, eastern of 2", the other being NGC 4105.
Physical Information: The two galaxies are obviously physically interacting, so although their physical properties will be discussed in their individual entries, see NGC 4105 for all images.

NGC 4107 (= PGC 38238 =
NGC 4078)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4107)
Also observed (1891) by Sherburne Burnham (while listed as NGC 4107)
Looked for (date?) but not found by Royal Frost (while listed as NGC 4107)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4078)
Also observed (Mar 25, 1865) by Marth (and later listed as NGC 4078)
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 12 04 47.6, Dec +10 35 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4107 (= GC 5617, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 11 59 35, NPD 78 37.4) is "a planetary nebula, pretty bright, small, a little extended, 10th or 11th magnitude star to southeast". The first IC adds (per Burnham) "delete planetary nebula; the star is northwest". The second IC adds "Not found by Frost on plates of 4 hours exposure. Observed by Burnham in 1891".
Summary of Identification to be Added Later: Frost could not find this because d'Arrest's and Burnham's positions are incorrect, and this is actually a duplicate observation of NGC 4078.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 4078 for anything else.

NGC 4108 (= PGC 38423)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1832) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs?)c) in Draco (RA 12 06 44.6, Dec +67 09 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4108 (= GC 2722 = JH 1087, 1860 RA 11 59 41, NPD 22 03.5) is "bright, small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 1.2 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4108, also showing PGC 38343 (which is sometimes called NGC 4108A) and PGC 38461 (which is sometimes called NGC 4108B)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4108, also showing PGC 38343 and PGC 38461
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4108

PGC 38343 (= "NGC 4108A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 4108A
A magnitude 13.8 spiral galaxy (type SBbc?) in
Draco (RA 12 05 49.7, Dec +67 15 08)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Although the use of a letter attached to an NGC or IC designation is often used for galaies near an NGC object with that number, there is no system for ensuring that everyone uses the same letter for a given galaxy; so data for two or more galaxies may sometimes be conflated, resulting in misleading and often hopelessly confusing information about the objects in question. As a result, such letter designations should never be used, and this entry serves primarily as a warning against such usage.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.2 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 38343, which is sometimes called NGC 4108A, also showing NGC 4108
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 38343, also showing NGC 4108
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 38343, which is sometimes called NGC 4108A

PGC 38461 (= "NGC 4108B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 4108B
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SBd? pec) in
Draco (RA 12 07 11.6, Dec +67 14 07)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Although the use of a letter attached to an NGC or IC designation is often used for galaies near an NGC object with that number, there is no system for ensuring that everyone uses the same letter for a given galaxy; so data for two or more galaxies may sometimes be conflated, resulting in misleading and often hopelessly confusing information about the objects in question. As a result, such letter designations should never be used, and this entry serves primarily as a warning against such usage.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 1.3 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 38461, which is sometimes called NGC 4108B, also showing NGC 4108
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 38461, also showing NGC 4108
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 38461, which is sometimes called NGC 4108B

NGC 4109 (= PGC 38427)
Discovered (Apr 21, 1851) by
Bindon Stoney
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SBA(rs)ab?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 06 51.1, Dec +42 59 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4109 (= GC 5618, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 11 59 49, NPD 46 14.5) is "very faint, I 195 is 6 arcmin to north-northeast", (WH) I 195 being NGC 4111.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Vr 7040 km/sec, z 0.023476, so quite possibly a physical companion of PGC 38439. Apparent size 0.6 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4109, also showing NGC 4111 and PGC 38439
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4109, also showing NGC 4111
Also shown are PGC 38439, 2210517 and 2210701
Below, a 0.75 by 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and PGC 2210517
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4109 and possible companion PGC 2210517

PGC 38439
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 4109
A magnitude 17(?) spiral galaxy (type SBb? pec) in Canes Venatici (12 07 03.8, Dec +42 59 05)
Physical Properties: Vr 7075 km/sec, z 0.023592, so quite possibly a physical companion of NGC 4109.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC38439, a possible physical companion of NGC 4109
Above, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 38439; for a wider-field view, see NGC 4109

PGC 2210517 (= SDSS J120651.25+425923.4)
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 4109 (per Corwin)
A magnitude 18(?) lenticular galaxy (type SAB0?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 06 51.2, Dec +42 59 23)
Note About Designation: NED does not recognize the PGC designation, but does recognize SDSS J120651.25+425923.4
Physical Properties: Nothing is known about the galaxy, save for its apparent magnitude and apparent size (based on the image below, about 0.15 by 0.1 arcmin); so whether it is a companion of NGC 4109 is very uncertain. In fact, since there seems to be no interaction between them, they may well be only an optical double.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 2210517, a possible physical companion of NGC 4109, also showing the southern portion of NGC 4109
Above, a 0.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 2210517; for wider-field views, see NGC 4109

PGC 2210701 (= 2MASX J12065481+4259511)
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 4109
(However, as shown below, it is actually a far more distant background galaxy)

A magnitude 16(?) lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 06 54.8, Dec +42 59 52)
Designation Note: Although NED lists one of the designations for this galaxy as PGC 2210701, a search of that database does not return a result. Instead, NED requires a search for 2MASX J12065481+4259511
Physical Properties: Based on a recessional velocity of 25825 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 2210701 is about 1200 to 1205 million light years away, in reasonable agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 1100 to 1105 million light years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 1180 to 1185 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 1135 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.25 by 0.15 arcmin (from the image below), the galaxy is about 90 thousand light years across. Note that given its immense distance, it is certainly not a companion of NGC 4109, but merely a very distant background galaxy.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 2210701, which is NOT a companion of NGC 4109
Above, a 0.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 2210701; see NGC 4109 for a wide-field image

NGC 4110 (= PGC 38441)
Discovered (Apr 1, 1848) by
William Rambaut
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 07 03.4, Dec +18 31 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4110 (= GC 2751, 3rd Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 11 59 52, NPD 70 40.9) is "faint, small".
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case William Rambaut.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4110
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4110
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4110

NGC 4111 (= PGC 38440)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 1, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.7 lenticular galaxy (type SA(r)0+sp pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 07 03.1, Dec +43 03 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4111 (= GC 2723 = JH 1088 = WH I 195, 1860 RA 11 59 56, NPD 46 09.3) is "very bright, pretty small, much extended 151°".
Physical Information: A polar ring galaxy. Apparent size of about 4.3 by 0.65 arcmin (based on the images below). Listed by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as type S0o sp, but the image used for that classification does not show the polar ring, whence the difference in the type shown in this entry.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4111, also showing NGC 4109
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4111, also showing NGC 4109
(The 'bright' star to the northeast is magnitude 8.1)
Below, a 3 by 4.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4111
Below, a 0.375 by 0.525 arcmin wide image of the core of the galaxy
(Image Credit ESA/Hubble & NASA; Acknowledgement Judy Schmidt)HST image of the core of lenticular galaxy NGC 4111

NGC 4112 (= PGC 38452)
Discovered (Mar 2, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)ab? pec) in Centaurus (RA 12 07 09.5, Dec -40 12 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4112 (= GC 2724 = JH 3380, 1860 RA 11 59 56, NPD 129 25.3) is "faint, small, very little extended, gradually a little brighter middle, 3 bright stars near".
Physical Information: Vr 2715 km/sec. Apparent size of about 2.0 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below, counting the fainter outer regions).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4112, also showing PGC 38480
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4112, also showing PGC 38480
Below, a 2.2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 4112

PGC 38480
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 4112
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type Sa? pec?) in Centaurus (12 07 22.1, Dec -40 13 04)
Physical Properties: Vr 2605 km/sec, so quite possibly a physical conpanion of NGC 4112. Apparent size (based on the image below) of about 0.9 by 0.4 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 38480, a possible companion of NGC 4112
Above, a 1.1 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 38480; for a wider-field image see NGC 4112

NGC 4113 (= PGC 38451 =
NGC 4122)
Discovered (Apr 29, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4122)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4113)
Also looked for (Mar 27, 1906) but not found by Max Wolf (while listed as NGC 4113)
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)ab? pec) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 07 08.5, Dec +32 59 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4113 (= GC 2725 = JH 1089, 1860 RA 12 00 01, NPD 55 13.8) is "extremely faint". The second IC notes (per Wolf, list VIII (March 27, 1906) "Nothing in this place".
Summary of Identification: Although later shown to be NGC 4122, as is usual in such cases the galaxy is almost always designated by the lower NGC number, even though its observation was completely incorrect.
Physical Information: Vr 7970 km/sec, z 0.026578, apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below, including the fainter outer regions)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4113, also showing possible companion 'PGC 4102542'
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4113, also showing "PGC 4102542"
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its probable companion
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4113, also showing possible companion 'PGC 4102542'

"PGC 4102542" ( = SDSSJ120709.00+330016.2)
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 4113
A magnitude 18(?) spiral galaxy (type S?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 07 09.0, Dec +33 00 16)
Designation Notes: Although LEDA assigns a PGC designation to this object, a search of the database for that designation returns no result, hence its inclusion in quotes. Both LEDA and NED yield results when using the SDSS designation.
Physical Information: Vr 8140 km/sec, z 0.027155, so certainly in the same region as NGC 4113, and therefore probably a physical companion. Apparent size about 0.2 by 0.1 arcmin (from the image below).
SDSS image of spiral galaxy 'PGC 4102542', a probable physical companion of NGC 4113
Above, a 0.3 arcmin wide SDSS image of "PGC 4102542"; for wider-field images see NGC 4113

NGC 4114 (= PGC 38460)
Discovered (Mar 27, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 7, 1836) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)ab?) in Corvus (RA 12 07 12.3, Dec -14 11 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4114 (= GC 2726 = JH 3381 = WH III 533, 1860 RA 12 00 01, NPD 103 24.4) is "cnsiderably faint, small, irregularly round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.0 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4114
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4114
Below, a 2.1 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4114
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4114

NGC 4115
Recorded (Apr 3, 1826) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 16.0 star in Coma Berenices (RA 12 07 09.5, Dec +14 24 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4115 (= GC 2727 = JH 1090, 1860 RA 12 00 02, NPD 74 49.2) is "extremely faint, suspected". The position preceses to RA 12 07 11.5, Dec +14 24 02, but there is nothing there. However, as noted by Corwin, the sweep was correctly reduced, and the description would perfectly fit a faint star under less than ideal conditions, so the star just over half an arcmin to the northwest of the NGC position is probably what Herschel observed, and as a result it is generally accepted that as listed above, it is the correct identification of NGC 4115.
SDSS image of region near the star listed as NGC 4115
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the star listed as NGC 4115

NGC 4116 (= PGC 38492)
Discovered (Mar 6, 1851) by
Bindon Stoney
Also observed (1881?) by Christian Peters
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)d? pec) in Virgo (RA 12 07 36.8, Dec +02 41 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4116 (= GC 2728, 3rd Lord Rosse, Peters, 1860 RA 12 00 28, NPD 86 32.2) is "very faint, extended (hook shape), southwestern of 2", the other presumably being NGC 4123.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, he notes that many of Rosse's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case Bindon Stoney.
Physical Information: Apparent size about 3.9 by 2.45 arcmin (from the images below). Probably a polar ring galaxy. Note: The galaxy to the southwest of NGC 4116 (PGC 3121899) is not associated with the galaxy, but is much more distant background object.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4116
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4116
Below, a 3.25 by 4.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and PGC 3121899
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4116

NGC 4117 (= PGC 38503)
Discovered (Feb 6, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 12, 1830) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type SA(r)0/a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 07 46.1, Dec +43 07 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4117 (= GC 2729 = JH 1091 = WH III 708, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 00 40, NPD 46 05.7) is "very faint, very small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4117, also showing NGC 4118
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4117, also showing NGC 4118
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4117

NGC 4118 (= PGC 38507)
Discovered (Apr 20, 1857) by
R. J. Mitchell
A magnitude 14.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 07 52.8, Dec +43 06 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4118 (= GC 5619, 4th Lord Rosse, 1860 RA 12 00 41, NPD 46 06.8) is "extremely faint, very small, 1 arcmin south of III 708", (WH) III 708 being NGC 4117.
Discovery Notes: Although Dreyer credits the discovery to Lawrence Parsons, 4th Earl of Rosse, the date of discovery suggests that is actually a typographical error for William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse, for whom Dreyer notes that many of the 3rd Earl's nebular discoveries were actually made by one of his assistants, in this case R. J. Mitchell.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.3 arcmin (from the image below).
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4118
Above, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 4118; for a wider-field view see NGC 4117

NGC 4119 (=
NGC 4124 = IC 3011 = PGC 38527)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4119)
Looked for (date?) but not found by Royal Frost (while listed as NGC 4119)
Rediscovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4124)
Also observed (Apr 11, 1825) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4124)
Rediscovered (Feb 23, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3011)
A magnitude 11.4 lenticular galaxy (type S(r)0/a?) in Virgo (RA 12 08 09.6, Dec +10 22 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4119 (= GC 2730 = WH II 14, 1860 RA 12 00 42, NPD 79 41.0) is "a little extended". The second IC adds "Not found by Frost on plates of 4 hours exposure". Discovery Note: Herschel's early observations were not as accurate as his later ones, and a poor position for his initial observation of this galaxy led to its being assigned two NGC numbers and (much later on) an IC number, as well.
Physical Information: Based on its recessional velocity of 1680 km/sec, NGC 4119 is about 80 million light years away, in only fair agreement with a redshift-independent distance estimate of 55 million light years. Using the larger distance, its apparent size of 4.5 by 1.0 arcmin corresponds to about 100 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4119
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4119
Below, a 4.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
 SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4119

NGC 4120 (= PGC 38553)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1793) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SBcd?) in Draco (RA 12 08 31.0, Dec +69 32 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4120 (= GC 2731 = WH III 904, 1860 RA 12 00 56, NPD 19 38.0) is "extremely faint, very small, extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4120
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4120
Below, a 1.5 by 2.0 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4120

NGC 4121 (= PGC 38508)
Discovered (Sep 9, 1866) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.5 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Draco (RA 12 07 56.6, Dec +65 06 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4121 (= GC 5620, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 00 56, NPD 24 06.4) is "faint, very small, a little extended, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4121, also showing NGC 4125
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4121, also showing NGC 4125
Below, a 0.8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4121

NGC 4122 (= PGC 38451 =
NGC 4113)
Discovered (Apr 29, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4122)
Discovered (Apr 3, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4113)
Also looked for (Mar 27, 1906) but not found by Max Wolf (while listed as NGC 4113)
A magnitude 14.7 spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 07 08.5, Dec +32 59 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4122 (= GC 2732 = JH 1093, 1860 RA 12 00 59, NPD 56 13.1) is "extremely faint, very small, round, much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 4113 for anything else.

NGC 4123 (= PGC 38531)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 7, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b?) in Virgo (RA 12 08 11.1, Dec +02 52 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4123 (= GC 2733 = JH 1092 = WH V 4, 1860 RA 12 00 59, NPD 86 20.7) is "considerably faint, very large, extended 90°±, brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 4.8 by 4.65 arcmin (from the images below, counting the faint outer arms)
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4123
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4123
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4123

NGC 4124 (=
NGC 4119 = IC 3011 = PGC 38527)
Discovered (Jan 18, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4119)
Looked for (date?) but not found by Royal Frost (while listed as NGC 4119)
Rediscovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4124)
Also observed (Apr 11, 1825) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4124)
Rediscovered (Feb 23, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3011)
A magnitude 11.4 lenticular galaxy (type S(r)0/a?) in Virgo (RA 12 08 09.6, Dec +10 22 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4124 (= GC 2734 = JH 1094 = WH I 33 = WH II 60, 1860 RA 12 01 01, NPD 78 50.5) is "pretty bright, pretty large, much extended 118°, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 4119 for anything else.

NGC 4125 (= PGC 38524)
Discovered (Jan 4, 1850) by
John Hind
Also observed (before 1862) by Arthur von Auwers
A magnitude 9.7 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0? pec) in Draco (RA 12 08 05.9, Dec +65 10 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4125 (= GC 2735, Hind, 1860 RA 12 01 04, NPD 24 02.7) is "pretty bright, pretty large, considerably extended, much brighter middle (Auwers 28)".
Discovery Notes: Auwers' notes show that he observed the object himself, but do not appear to indicate the date of his observation.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 5.5 by 4.4 arcmin (from the images below, including the widely extended outer regions). The galaxy is peculiar in two ways: (1) It has huge areas surrounding it with scattered stars, and (2) there are many small patches of dark dusty material scattered across the otherwise apparently normal part of the galaxy (as shown in the HST image).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4125, also showing NGC 4121
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4125, also showing NGC 4121
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy, showing distorted outer regions
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4125, showing extensive regions of stars scattered about the main structure
Below, a 0.35 arcmin wide image showing dusty regions within the central structure
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Courtney Seligman)
HST image of part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4125, showing dusty regions scattered throughout the otherwise apparently normal central structure

NGC 4126 (= PGC 38565)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 23, 1832) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 08 37.4, Dec +16 08 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4126 (= GC 2736 = JH 1095 = WH III 68, 1860 RA 12 01 28, NPD 73 05.2) is "very faint, small, round, pretty suddenly a little brighter middle, between 2 very small (faint) stars".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4126
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4126
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4126

NGC 4127 (= PGC 38550)
Discovered (Dec 12, 1797) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 21, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Camelopardalis (RA 12 08 26.3, Dec +76 48 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4127 (= GC 2737 = JH 1096 = WH I 279, 1860 RA 12 01 35, NPD 12 25.0) is "faint, pretty large, very little extended, gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.7 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4127
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4127
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4127
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4127

NGC 4128 (= PGC 38555)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1793) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0? pec) in Draco (RA 12 08 32.3, Dec +68 46 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4128 (= GC 2738 = WH I 263, 1860 RA 12 01 36, NPD 20 27.0) is "considerably bright, a little extended, brighter middle".
Physical Information:
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4128
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4128
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4128
Below, a 0.3 arcmin wide image of the core of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Courtney Seligman)HST image of central core of lenticular galaxy NGC 4128

PGC 38558 (= PGC 213927 = "NGC 4128A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 4128A
A magnitude 15.0 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in
Draco (RA 12 08 14.3, Dec +68 47 08)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Although the use of a letter attached to an NGC or IC designation is often used for galaies near an NGC object with that number, there is no system for ensuring that everyone uses the same letter for a given galaxy; so data for two or more galaxies may sometimes be conflated, resulting in misleading and often hopelessly confusing information about the objects in question. As a result, such letter designations should never be used, and this entry serves primarily as a warning against such usage.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy PGC 38558, which is sometimes called NGC 4128A, also showing NGC 4128
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 38558, also showing NGC 4128
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 38558, which is sometimes called NGC 4128A

NGC 4129 (= PGC 38580 =
NGC 4130)
Discovered (Mar 3, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4129)
Also observed (Mar 14, 1828) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4129)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4130)
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Virgo (RA 12 08 53.1, Dec -09 02 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4129 (= GC 2739 = JH 1097 = JH 3382 = WH II 548, 1860 RA 12 01 42, NPD 98 15.3) is "faint, pretty large, pretty much extended 95°±, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.25 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4129
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4129
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4129
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4129

NGC 4130 (= PGC 38580 =
NGC 4129)
Discovered (Mar 3, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4129)
Also observed (Mar 14, 1828) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4129)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4130)
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Virgo (RA 12 08 53.1, Dec -09 02 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4130 (= GC 5621, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 01 45, NPD 93 14.6) is "pretty extended, a little brighter middle, 13th magnitude star 5 arcmin to west".
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 4129 for anything else.

NGC 4131 (= PGC 38573)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 31, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 08 47.3, Dec +29 18 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4131 (= GC 2740 = JH 1098 = WH III 356, 1860 RA 12 01 47, NPD 59 55.5) is "considerably faint, small, round, 1st of 3", the others being NGC 4132 and 4134.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.35 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below)
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4131, also showing NGC 4132
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4131, also showing NGC 4132
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4131

NGC 4132 (= PGC 38593)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 31, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 14.0 spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 09 01.4, Dec +29 15 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4132 (= GC 2741 = JH 1099 = WH III 357, 1860 RA 12 01 53, NPD 59 59.0) is "considerably faint, small, irregularly round, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 4131 and 4134.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.35 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4132, also showing NGC 4131 and NGC 4134
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4132, also showing NGC 4131 and 4134
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4132

NGC 4133 (= PGC 38578)
Discovered (Dec 12, 1797) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 6, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SABb? pec) in Draco (RA 12 08 50.0, Dec +74 54 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4133 (= GC 2742 = JH 1100 = WH I 278, 1860 RA 12 01 59, NPD 14 19.3) is "pretty bright, considerably large, round, gradually much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.05 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4133
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4133
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4133
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4133

NGC 4134 (= PGC 38605)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 31, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 09 10.0, Dec +29 10 37)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4134 (= GC 2743 = JH 1101 = WH II 371, 1860 RA 12 02 01, NPD 60 03.1) is "pretty faint, pretty large, a little extended, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 4131 and 4132.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.8 by 0.75 (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4134, also showing NGC 4132
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4134, also showing NGC 4132
Below, a 2.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4134

NGC 4135 (= PGC 38601)
Discovered (May 4, 1881) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 09 08.8, Dec +44 00 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4135 (Stephan list XI (XIa #16), 1860 RA 12 02 04, NPD 45 13.0) is "very faint, pretty small, round, 2 faint stars involved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below). A Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4135, also showing NGC 4137
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4135, also showing NGC 4137
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4135

NGC 4136 (= PGC 38618)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 2, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 spiral galaxy (type SA(r)c) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 09 17.7, Dec +29 55 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4136 (= GC 2744 = JH 1108 = WH II 321, 1860 RA 12 02 07, NPD 59 18.1) is "faint, very large, very gradually much brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 3.9 by 3.7 arcmin (from the images below). Listed by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as type SA(r)c.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4136
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4136
Below, a 4.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4136

NGC 4137 (= PGC 38619)
Discovered (May 4, 1881) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)c?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 09 17.5, Dec +44 05 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4137 (Stephan list XI (XIa #17), 1860 RA 12 02 13, NPD 45 07.8) is "very faint, pretty small, round, a little fainter than the southwestern one", the other one being NGC 4135.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11190 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 4137 is about 520 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 500 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 510 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 160 thousand light years across. It is almost certainly physically interacting with PGC 200283, which lies at the end of its most extended arm, and PGC 38629 is also a possible physical companion. Listed by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as type SA(r)a.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4137 and its probable companion, PGC 200283, also showing NGC 4135 and PGC 38629
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4137, also showing NGC 4135
Also shown are possible companion PGC 38629 and probable companion PGC 200283
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 4137 and PGC 200283
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4137 and its probable companion, PGC 200283

PGC 200283
Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable companion of
NGC 4137
A magnitude 17(?) spiral galaxy (type SABd?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 09 14.4, Dec +44 05 26)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11170 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 200283 is about 520 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 500 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 510 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.2 by 0.1 arcmin (from the image below), the galaxy is about 30 thousand light years across. PGC 200283 is listed as a starburst galaxy. Given its apparent position at the end of an extended arm of NGC 4137, and their essentially identical distances, PGC 200283 is probably a physically interacting companion of the NGC object.
SDSS image of spiral(?) galaxy PGC 200283, and part of its probable companion, NGC 4137
Above, a 0.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 200283; see NGC 4137 for wider-field images

PGC 38629
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 4137
A magnitude 15.5(?) spiral galaxy (type SBbc? pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 09 26.2, Dec +44 04 24)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 11315 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 38629 is about 525 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 505 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 510 to 515 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.4 by 0.35 arcmin (from the image below), the galaxy is about 55 to 60 thousand light years across. PGC 38629 is listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2). Given its recessional velocity and the uncertainty lent to such values by unknown peculiar (non-Hubble-expansion) velocities, PGC 38629 is probably relatively close to NGC 4137, and although they may merely be in the same region of space, there is a reasonable chance that they are gravitationally bound companions.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 38629
Above, a 0.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 38629; for a wide-field image see NGC 4137

NGC 4138 (= PGC 38643)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1788) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.3 spiral galaxy (type SA(r)a) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 09 29.8, Dec +43 41 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4138 (= GC 2745 = WH I 196, 1860 RA 12 02 23, NPD 45 32.5) is "bright, pretty large, a little extended, very gradually brighter middle, star to northwest".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 3.0 by 1.8 arcmin (from the images below). Listed by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as type SA(r)a.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4138
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4138
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4138

NGC 4139 (= PGC 38213 =
IC 2989)
Discovered (Aug 10, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4139)
Also observed (Jan 6, 1878) by David Todd (and later listed as NGC 4139)
Discovered (Mar 29, 1895) by Guillaume Bigourdan (and later listed as IC 2989)
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type SB(rs)00?) in Virgo (RA 12 04 34.0, Dec +01 48 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4139 (= GC 5622, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 02 24, NPD 87 25.5) is "faint, small, difficult, western of double nebula", the other one being NGC 4140. The position precesses to RA 12 09 34.1, Dec +01 47 45, but there is nothing there. However, Corwin notes that there is a double nebula (IC 2989 and NGC 4077) five minutes of time to the west of d'Arrest's position, and the descriptions of those objects match the descriptions of NGC 4139 and NGC 4140, so there is no doubt that d'Arrest simply made a single digit error in the positions, and the identification of the galaxy above as NGC 4139 is certain.
Discovery Notes: Todd's observation was made during his unsuccessful search for a trans-Neptunian planet (reference S348? With NGC 4140, = #14a/b and #16a/b). It was not used by Dreyer, but is in Steinicke's database (and also noted by Corwin), whence its inclusion above.
Designation Note: Although the position of NGC 4139 was incorrect, while that of IC 2989 was correct, tradition gives the lower or earlier designation (in this case, NGC 4139) precedence, so despite Bigourdan's observation being the better one, the galaxy is always referred to as NGC 4139.
Physical Information: Vr = 5600 km/sec, redshift-independent distances 82.2 to 96.4 Mpc. Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below). Although apparently paired with NGC 4077, the latter is 70 million light years further away, so they are merely an optical double.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4139, also showing NGC 4073 and NGC 4077
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4139, also showing NGC 4073 and 4077
Below, a 1.2 by 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4139

NGC 4140 (= PGC 38218 =
NGC 4077)
Discovered (Dec 20, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4077)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1863) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4140)
Also observed (Jan 6, 1878) by David Todd (and later listed as NGC 4140)
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type SB0?) in Virgo (RA 12 04 38.1, Dec +01 47 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4140 (= GC 5623, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 02 29, NPD 87 25.9) is "faint, small, difficult, eastern of double nebula", the other one being NGC 4139. The position precesses to RA 12 09 39.1, Dec +01 47 21, but there is nothing there, nor anywhere near there. However, Corwin notes that there is a double nebula (IC 2989 and NGC 4077) five minutes of time to the west of d'Arrest's position, and the descriptions of those objects match the descriptions of NGC 4139 and NGC 4140, so there is no doubt that d'Arrest simply made a single digit error in the positions, and the identification of the galaxy above as NGC 4140 is certain.
Discovery Notes: Todd's observation was made during his unsuccessful search for a trans-Neptunian planet (reference S348? With NGC 4140, = #14a/b and #16a/b). It was not used by Dreyer, but is noted by Corwin in his discussion of the error in d'Arrest's position, whence its inclusion above.
Physical Information: Given the duplicate entry, see NGC 4077 for anything else.

NGC 4141 (= PGC 38669)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 1, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 09 47.3, Dec +58 50 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4141 (= GC 2746 = JH 1102 = WH III 795, 1860 RA 12 02 30, NPD 30 22.0) is "very faint, pretty small, a little extended, gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.2 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4141
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on spiral galaxy NGC 4141
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4141

NGC 4142 (= PGC 38645)
Discovered (Apr 26, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 4, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)cd?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 09 30.2, Dec +53 06 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4142 (= GC 2747 = JH 1103 = WH III 814, 1860 RA 12 02 31, NPD 36 06.1) is "very faint, small, irregular figure, very gradually a little brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 2.0 by 1.05 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4142
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on spiral galaxy NGC 4142
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4142

NGC 4143 (= PGC 38654)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 1, 1828) by John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 10.9 lenticular galaxy (type SAB0-) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 09 36.1, Dec +42 32 03)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4143 (= GC 2748 = JH 1104 = WH IV 54, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 02 32, NPD 46 41.2) is "considerably bright, round, very gradually then very suddenly brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.3 by 1.4 arcmin. Listed by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as type SAB0-.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4143
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4143
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4143
Below, a 0.3 arcmin wide image shows dust lanes near the core
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Courtney Seligman)
HST image of dust lanes near the core of lenticular galaxy NGC 4143

NGC 4144 (= PGC 38688 = PGC 2281539)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 20, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)cd?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 09 58.5, Dec +46 27 26)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4144 (= GC 2749 = JH 1107 = WH II 747, 1860 RA 12 02 54, NPD 42 46.3) is "pretty faint, considerably large, very much extended 109°, very gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 09 58.7, Dec +46 26 57, only half an arcmin south of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The recessional velocity of 265 km/sec is too small to give any reliable distance indication, and redshift-independent distance estimates vary from 12 to 32 million light years, so the median of about 22 million light years is the best (albeit uncertain) estimate of the distance of NGC 4144 (most published estimates of the distance are essentially the same as the median given here). Given that and its apparent size of about 6.3 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 40 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4144
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4144
Below, a 7.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4144
Below, a 1.6 by 3.2 arcmin wide HST image of part of the galaxy
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, processing by Courtney Seligman; North on left to allow greater detail)
HST image of part of spiral galaxy NGC 4144

NGC 4145 (= PGC 38693)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 28, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.3 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)d) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 10 01.5, Dec +39 53 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4145 (= GC 2750 = JH 1105 = WH I 169, 1860 RA 12 02 54, NPD 49 20.0) is "bright, very large, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 6.0 by 3.2 arcmin (fromthe images below). Listed by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as type SAB(rs)d.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4145
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4145
Below, a 7 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4145
Below, a 7 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF; used by permission)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4145

PGC 38778 (= "NGC 4145A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 4145A
A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type Sdm?) in
Canes Venatici (RA 12 10 54.3, Dec +39 45 26)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Although the use of a letter attached to an NGC or IC designation is often used for galaies near an NGC object with that number, there is no system for ensuring that everyone uses the same letter for a given galaxy; so data for two or more galaxies may sometimes be conflated, resulting in misleading and often hopelessly confusing information about the objects in question. As a result, such letter designations should never be used, and this entry serves primarily as a warning against such usage.
Additional Designation Note: Although LEDA recognizes PGC 38778, it does not list it or any other galaxy as NGC 4145A. NED does list the galaxy as NGC 4145A, but does not list it as PGC 38778; instead, VV 814 or UGC07175 are the "standard" designations recognized by NED and LEDA.
Physical Information: Vr = 1170 km/sec, redshift-independent distance estimates 9.08 to 22.9 Mpc. Apparent size of about 1.55 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below). An optical double with PGC 213942, but not in any way connected to the much more distant apparent companion.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 38778, which is sometimes called NGC 4145A, also showing PGC 213942
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 38778, also showing PGC 213942
Below, a 2.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxies
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 38778, which is sometimes called NGC 4145A, also showing PGC 213942

PGC 213942
Not an NGC object but listed here as an optical double with "
NGC 4145A"
A magnitude 15.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b? pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 10 53.3, Dec +39 44 55)
Physical Information: Although PGC 213942 looks like it could be a physical companion of PGC 38778 in wide-field images, closer views show that it is probably merely an optical double, and its recessional velocity proves that it is a very distant background galaxy. Based on its recessional velocity of 29380 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 213942 is about 1365 to 1370 million light years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 1220 to 1225 million light years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 1280 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.3 by 0.25 arcmin (from the image below), the galaxy is about 105 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 213942, an optical double with PGC 38778, which is sometimes called NGC 4145A
Above, a 0.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 213942; for wider-field images see PGC 38778

NGC 4146 (= PGC 38721)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(rs)b?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 10 18.2, Dec +26 25 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4146 (= GC 2753 = WH III 327, 1860 RA 12 02 57, NPD 62 48.0) is "very faint, pretty small".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.45 by 1.45 arcmin (from the images below), including the outer ring.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4146
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4146
Below a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4146

NGC 4147 (= GCL 18 =
NGC 4153)
Discovered (Feb 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4153)
Discovered (Mar 14, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4147)
Also observed (Mar 23, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4147)
A magnitude 10.4 globular cluster (type VI) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 10 06.3, Dec +18 32 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4147 (= GC 2752 = JH 1106 = WH I 19, 1860 RA 12 02 58, NPD 70 40.7) is "a globular cluster, very bright, pretty large, round, gradually brighter middle, well resolved, clearly consisting of stars". The position precesses to RA 12 10 06.5, Dec +18 32 33, dead center on the cluster listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: NGC 4147 is thought to be one of the oldest globular clusters in our galaxy, due to its stars having an exceptionally low percentage of elements other than hydrogen and helium. Its age is estimated at about 14 billion years, whereas most of the globular clusters in our galaxy are between 12 and 13 billion years in age. It is one of the intrinsically faintest globular clusters in our galaxy, with a mass estimated at less than 40 thousand solar masses (though with an uncertainty of a factor of two). Its distance is thought to be about 60 thousand light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 4.35 arcmin (from LEDA, and in apparent agreement with the images below), it is about 75 light years across.
SDSS image of region near globular cluster NGC 4147
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4147
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the globular cluster
SDSS image of globular cluster NGC 4147
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image of the central portionof the globular cluster
(Image Credit ESA/Hubble & NASA, T. Sohn et al.)
HST image of central portion of globular cluster NGC 4147

NGC 4148 (= PGC 38704)
Discovered (Feb 7, 1866) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type (R)S0/a?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 10 08.0, Dec +35 52 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4148 (= GC 5624, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 03 01, NPD 53 20.9) is "faint, small, 12th magnitude star to southeast".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.4 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4148
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4148
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4148

NGC 4149 (= PGC 38741 =
NGC 4154)
Discovered (Apr 17, 1789) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4149)
Also observed (Feb 9, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4149)
Discovered (Mar 18, 1790) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4154)
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SABb?) in Ursa Major (RA 12 10 32.9, Dec +58 18 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4149 (= GC 2754 = JH 1109 = WH II 802, 1860 RA 12 03 23, NPD 30 56.2) is "faint, small, extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.45 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4149
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4149
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4149
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4149
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4050 - 4099) ←NGC Objects: NGC 4100 - 4149→ (NGC 4150 - 4199)