Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4400 - 4449) ←NGC Objects: NGC 4450 - 4499 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (NGC 4500 - 4549)
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Page last updated July 11, 2019
WORKING: Updating to current formatting standards
Added Dreyer listings, checked updated Steinicke databases, Corwin positions
WORKING 4485: Historical identifications, reformatting images/captions, adding more images
NEXT ITERATION: Add/update physical data

NGC 4450 (= PGC 41024)
Discovered (Mar 14, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 6, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.1 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)ab pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 28 29.6, Dec +17 05 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4450 (= GC 3003 = JH 1282 = WH II 56 = WH II 90, 1860 RA 12 21 25, NPD 72 08.6) is "bright, large, round, gradually very much brighter middle like a star, mottled but not resolved, bright star to southwest". The position precesses to RA 12 28 28.9, Dec +17 04 54, well within the outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.4 by 4.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1110) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS photomosaic of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4450
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS photomosaic centered on NGC 4450
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS photomosaic of the galaxy
SDSS photomosaic of spiral galaxy NGC 4450
Below, a different 6 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
(Image Credit Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona, used per Creative Commons license)
Caelum Observatory image of spiral galaxy NGC 4450
Below, an approximately 0.7 arcmin wide image of the core of the galaxy
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Judy Schmidt; post-processing Courtney Seligman)
HST image of core of spiral galaxy NGC 4450

NGC 4451 (= PGC 41050)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type Sbc? pec) in Virgo (RA 12 28 40.5, Dec +09 15 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4451 (= GC 5652, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 21 32, NPD 79 57.8) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, brighter middle, 13th magnitude star to south". The position precesses to RA 12 28 38.8, Dec +09 15 43, only 0.4 arcmin west northwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size including faint outer regions, about 1.2 by 0.8 arcmin; of bright central region, about 0.65 by 0.35 arcmin (both from the images below). Very obviously a starburst galaxy, significantly disturbed by a recent and ongoing episode of very rapid star formation. Listed as a member (VCC 1118) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4451
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4451
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4451
Below, a 0.7 arcmin wide HST image of the core of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of the core of spiral galaxy NGC 4451

NGC 4452 (= PGC 41060)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (date) by Eduard Schönfeld
A magnitude 12.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 28 43.3, Dec +11 45 18)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4452 (= GC 3008 = WH I 23, Schönfeld, 1860 RA 12 21 38, NPD 77 28.2) is "pretty bright, small, very much extended". The position precesses to RA 12 28 43.9, Dec +11 45 19, on the eastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Listed as a member (VCC 1125) of the Virgo Cluster. The disk of NGC 4452 looks unusually thin because we see it exactly edge-on. Most disk-shaped galaxies have relatively thin disks, but we see them at an angle, making the disk appear thicker. One unusual aspect of NGC 4452 is that its disk has relatively little dust, so its stellar contents are not obscured by dust lanes, as in a typical spiral galaxy. In addition, it has a very small central bulge, or nucleus. The nucleus is usually much thicker than the disk, but in this case it barely pokes above or below the plane of the disk. The negligible bulge of its nucleus and the lack of any dust lanes suggests that NGC 4452 might not exhibit a spiral structure even if seen from above (since such structures are outlined by the light of hot young stars recently formed from clouds of gas and dust within the spiral arms), and is therefore a lenticular galaxy, meaning a galaxy with a structure in between that of a spiral galaxy and an elliptical galaxy, which is a spheroid instead of a disk-shaped galaxy. NGC 4425's recessional velocity of 165 km/sec is too small in comparison to peculiar (non-Hubble expansion) velocities to estimate its distance; but redshift-independent distance estimates place it about 50 to 55 million light years away, on the near side of the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, the nearest large cluster to us (near enough, in fact, that its gravity may eventually pull our Local Group of galaxies into the Cluster). Given that and its apparent size of about 2.2 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below), NGC 4452 is about 35 thousand light years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4452
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4452
Below, the same view with labels for PGC 40995 and 41035; and PGC 169360, 169366 and 169367
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4452, labeled to show various PGC objects
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4452
Below, a 2 arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy (Image Credit: ESA/Hubble/NASA)
HST image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4452

NGC 4453 (= PGC 41072)
Not observed (Jan 28, 1784) by
William Herschel
Discovered (Apr 25, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 15.4 spiral galaxy (type SABb? pec) in Virgo (RA 12 28 46.8, Dec +06 30 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4453 (= GC 3004 = JH 1283 = WH II 26, 1860 RA 12 21 39, NPD 82 42.8) is "faint, pretty small, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 28 46.8, Dec +06 30 43, dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the only nearby galaxy ("PGC 4328329" = SDSS J122847.68+063012.7) is too faint to have been seen by either of the Herschels, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although the galaxy above fits the NGC, GC and JH entries, as noted by Corwin (and agreed with by Steinicke) it does not fit WH II 26, which was described by the elder Herschel as "pretty bright, pretty large, brighter toward the following side", and for which the position is completely different. So although some catalogs list William Herschel as the discoverer of NGC 4453, the observation he made on the date shown above must have been of some different object. Per Dreyer and Corwin, the best fit appears to be with NGC 4430 (which see for a discussion of the problem with WH II 26), but even that identification has serious problems. So the line for the elder Herschel's observation is shown here strictly as a warning about the essentially certain fact that he did not see NGC 4453.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.5 by 0.2 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1130) of the Virgo Cluster, but actually a much more distant background galaxy, as its recessional velocity and redshift are Vr = 11633 km/sec, and z = 0.038803.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4453
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4453
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4453

Corwin also lists a possible alternate candidate (a pair of stars)
 for (WH's?) NGC 4453 at RA 12 28 41.2, Dec +06 31 33
(To be dealt with in the next iteration of this page, since it is not an NGC object)

"PGC 4328329" (= SDSS J122847.68+063012.7)
Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 4453
A magnitude 17.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Virgo (RA 12 28 47.7, Dec +06 30 13)
Physical Information: Vr = 25300 km/sec, z = 0.084394. Not actually a companion of NGC 4453, since its recessional velocity is more than twice as large, meaning it is more than twice as far away.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy 'PGC 4328329', an optical but not physical companion of NGC 4453, also showing the latter galaxy
Above, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on "PGC 4328329", also showing NGC 4453
(For a wider-field view, see NGC 4453)
Below, a 0.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy 'PGC 4328329', an optical but not physical companion of NGC 4453

NGC 4454 (= PGC 41083)
Discovered (Apr 22, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 15, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SAB(r)0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 28 50.7, Dec -01 56 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4454 (= GC 3005 = JH 1284 = WH II 180, 1860 RA 12 21 40, NPD 91 10.2) is "faint, large, round, gradually brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 28 50.8, Dec -01 56 41, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 2.3 arcmin. Listed in the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as type (R)SAB(r)0/a.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4454
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4454
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4454

NGC 4455 (= PGC 41066)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 29, 1832) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)d?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 28 44.2, Dec +22 49 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4455 (= GC 3006 = JH 1285 = WH II 355, 1860 RA 12 21 42, NPD 66 24.4) is "faint, large, extended, gradually brighter middle, 2 bright stars to northeast". The position precesses to RA 12 28 43.5, Dec +22 49 07, within the western rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.6 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4455
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4455
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4455

NGC 4456 (= PGC 40922 = PGC 40925)
Discovered (Mar 30, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)bc?) in Hydra (RA 12 27 52.4, Dec -30 05 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4456 (= GC 3007 = JH 3394, 1860 RA 12 21 43, NPD 119 19.7) is "most extremely faint, very small, 13th magnitude star attached". The position precesses to RA 12 29 05.1, Dec -30 06 11, but there is nothing there. However, about 2 minutes of time due west there is a galaxy that exactly fits the description, so it appears that Herschel simply made a single-digit error in recording the position of the object, and the galaxy listed above is NGC 4456.
Discovery Note: Usually, in a situation like this, there is a comment about the error in the position in Corwin's NGC notes, but there is nothing mentioned there, so he apparently accepted the identification without thinking it worth mentioning.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.55 arcmin (from the images below).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4456
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4456
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4456
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4456

NGC 4457 (= PGC 41101)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 9, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.9 spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(s)a) in Virgo (RA 12 28 59.0, Dec +03 34 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4457 (= GC 3009 = JH 1286 = WH II 35, 1860 RA 12 21 50, NPD 85 39.2) is "considerably bright, pretty small, round, suddenly much brighter middle and nucleus". The position precesses to RA 12 28 58.9, Dec +03 34 19, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.1 by 4.0 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1145) of the Virgo Cluster. Listed by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of type (R)SAB(s)a.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4457
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4457
Below, a 5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4457

NGC 4458 (= PGC 41095), part of
Markarian's Chain
Discovered (Apr 12, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 4, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Virgo (RA 12 28 57.6, Dec +13 14 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4458 (= GC 3010 = JH 1287 = WH II 121, 1860 RA 12 21 52, NPD 75 59.0) is "pretty bright, small, round, brighter middle, western of 2", the other being NGC 4461. The position precesses to RA 12 28 57.3, Dec +13 14 31, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the only other object in the region is accounted for by NGC 4461, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Listed as a member (VCC 1146) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies that lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities. Apparent size 1.6 by 1.5 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4458, also showing NGC 4461
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4458, also showing NGC 4461
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4458

NGC 4459 (= PGC 41104)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 1, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.4 lenticular galaxy (type SA0+(r)) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 00.0, Dec +13 58 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4459 (= GC 3012 = JH 1288 = WH I 161, 1860 RA 12 21 55, NPD 75 14.8) is "pretty bright, pretty large, irregularly round, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved, 8th magnitude star 2 arcmin to southeast". The position precesses to RA 12 29 00.0, Dec +13 58 43, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.5 by 3.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1154) of the Virgo Cluster. Listed by the online supplement to the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as type SA0+(r). The central portion of the galaxy contains a small ringlike structure full of dust lanes; the region surrounding the ring is overexposed in the SDSS images below, but the HST image clearly shows fine details within the tiny disk-shaped region (the de Vaucouleurs Atlas image shows the ring, but not its fine detail).
SDSS photomosaic of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4459
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4459 (also showing a magnitude 9.5 star)
Below, a 5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS photomosaic of lenticular galaxy NGC 4459
Below, a 0.375 arcmin wide HST image of the central 'ring' (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of central ring of lenticular galaxy NGC 4459

NGC 4460 (= PGC 41069)
Discovered (Apr 10, 1788) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 20, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.3 spiral galaxy (type SB0+(s)?) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 28 45.6, Dec +44 51 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4460 (= GC 3011 = JH 1289 = WH I 212 = WH II 750, 1860 RA 12 21 57, NPD 44 21.5) is "bright, pretty large, extended 123°, pretty suddenly brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 28 46.4, Dec +44 52 01, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.2 by 1.3 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4460
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4460
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4460

NGC 4461 (= PGC 41111, and probably =
NGC 4443)
Part of Markarian's Chain

Discovered (April 12, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4461)
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4461)
Discovered (Apr 13, 1850) by George Stoney (and later listed as NGC 4443)
A magnitude 11.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB(r)0/a?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 03.0, Dec +13 11 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4461 (= GC 3013 = JH 1290 = WH II 122 = WH II 174, 1860 RA 12 21 58, NPD 76 02.5) is "pretty faint, small, round, brighter middle, following (eastern) of 2", the other being NGC 4458. The position precesses to RA 12 29 03.3, Dec +13 11 01, right on the galaxy, the description fits and the only other object in the region is accounted for by NGC 4458, so the identification is certain. (See NGC 4443 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Physical Information: Listed as a member (VCC 1158) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies that lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities. Apparent size 3.4 by 1.4 arcmin.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4461, also showing NGC 4458
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4461, also showing NGC 4458
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4461

NGC 4462 (= PGC 41150)
Discovered (Mar 26, 1789) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 24, 1835) by John Herschel
Also observed (Feb 2, 1889) by Edward Barnard
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)ab? pec) in Corvus (RA 12 29 21.1, Dec -23 10 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4462 (= GC 3014 = JH 3396 = WH III 764, 1860 RA 12 22 02, NPD 112 23.5) is "pretty bright, pretty small, extended 130°, suddenly brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 29 21.1, Dec -23 09 59, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Steinicke's note about Barnard's observation needs to be explained (not in IC 1 or 2?; and too late to be in the NGC)
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.1 by 1.1 arcmin?
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4462
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4462
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4462
Below, a 3 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4462

NGC 4463 (= OCL 885)
Discovered (May 2, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 7.2 open cluster (type I3p) in Musca (RA 12 29 58.0, Dec -64 47 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4463 (= GC 3015 = JH 3395, 1860 RA 12 22 03, NPD 154 01.0) is "a cluster, poor, very little compressed". The position precesses to RA 12 29 57.5, Dec -64 47 29, near the center of the cluster listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 6.0 arcmin.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 4463
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4463

NGC 4464 (= PGC 41148)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 17, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 elliptical galaxy (type E2-3) in Virgo (RA 12 29 21.3, Dec +08 09 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4464 (= GC 3018 = JH 1292 = WH III 483, 1860 RA 12 22 14, NPD 81 04.1) is "faint, very small, round, pretty gradually brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 29 21.1, Dec +08 09 25, practically dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1178) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4464, also showing the northwestern edge of NGC 4472 (also known as M49)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4464, also showing part of M49
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4464

NGC 4465 (= PGC 41157)
Discovered (Mar 31, 1886) by
Guillaume Bigourdan
Also looked for (1898 - 1899?) but not found by Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 23.6, Dec +08 01 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4465 (Bigourdan (list II #54), 1860 RA 12 22 19, NPD 81 12) is "very faint, very diffuse". The second IC adds "Not found on plate by Schwassmann". The position precesses to RA 12 29 26.2, Dec +08 01 31, only half an arcmin east of the galaxy, and the description fits, so the identification is certain, and Schwassmann's inability to find the object was probably due to its faintness and small size (and perhaps to its proximity to the much larger and brighter M49).
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.25 by 0.2 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1182) of the Virgo Cluster, but actually a much more distant background galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4465, also showing NGC 4467 and 4472 (also known as M49), and PGC 41185 (which is often misidentified as NGC 4471)
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4465, showing M49, NGC 4467, and PGC 41185
(Note: PGC 41185 is shown because it is often misidentified as NGC 4471)
Below, a 0.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4465

NGC 4466 (= PGC 41170)
Discovered (Feb 26, 1851) by
Bindon Stoney
Also observed (Apr 24, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type Sb?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 30.6, Dec +07 41 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4466 (= GC 5653 = GC 3022, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 22 23, NPD 81 31.9) is "very faint, pretty small, irregularly round". The position precesses to RA 12 29 30.3, Dec +07 41 38, barely outside the southern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothins else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Stoney's observation is shown in an entry for the region near GC 5653, 3020, 3021 and 3040 in the 4th Lord Rosse's 1881 paper. Aside from noting the characteristics of previously known nebulae in the region, Stoney writes "and a 3rd 12' south of 2nd (JH 1293) is extended". Brackets following this state that the object was the same as GC 5356 = "Nova d'A". Since Lord Rosse states in his paper that the greater part of the work was prepared by Dreyer, Dreyer's omission of Stoney's observation in the NGC, despite the brackets clearly identifying it as identical to d'Arrest's object, must have been an accidental oversight.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.45 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1193) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4466
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4466
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4466

NGC 4467 (= PGC 41169)
Discovered (Apr 28, 1851) by
Otto Struve
Also observed (Feb 27, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also looked for (1898 - 1899?) but not found by Arnold Schwassmann
A magnitude 13.8 elliptical galaxy (type E1-2) in Virgo (RA 12 29 30.2, Dec +07 59 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4467 (= GC 5654, Otto Struve, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 22 24, NPD 81 13.6) is "very faint, very small, a little extended". The second IC adds "Not found on plate by Schwassmann". The position precesses to RA 12 29 31.2, Dec +07 59 55, less than half an arcmin northeast of the galaxy, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain, and Schwassmann's inability to find the object was probably due to its faintness and small size (and perhaps to its proximity to the much larger and brighter M49).
Discovery Note: An earlier version of this entry listed William Herschel as the discoverer, but that turned out to be an error in one of the databases I use as a reference.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.35 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1192) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4467, also NGC 4472 (also known as M49), NGC 4465, PGC 41185 (which is often misidentified as NGC 4471), and (above and below the label) two pairs of stars, one of which is probably the actual NGC 4471
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4467
Also shown are M49, NGC 4465 and 4471, and PGC 41185
(Note: PGC 41185 is shown because it is often misidentified as NGC 4471)
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4467

NGC 4468 (= PGC 41171)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 5, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.8 lenticular galaxy (type SA0-?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 30.9, Dec +14 02 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4468 (= GC 3017 = WH II 630, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 22 26, NPD 75 10.6) is "faint, considerably large". The position precesses to RA 12 29 30.8, Dec +14 02 56, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, save for the galaxy accounted for by NGC 4474, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1196) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4468, also showing NGC 4474
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4468, also showing NGC 4474
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4468

NGC 4469 (= PGC 41164)
Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 16, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (Apr 28, 1884) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 11.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB0(s)a pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 28.0, Dec +08 45 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4469 (= GC 3019 = WH II 157, d'Arrest, Stephan list XIII (#?), 18860 RA 12 22 26, NPD 80 28.0) is "pretty faint, pretty large, much extended, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 29 32.9, Dec +08 45 32, just off the northeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 3.9 by 1.15 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1190) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4469
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4469
Below, a 4.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4469
Below, a 1.3 by 2 arcmin HST image of part of the galaxy (North on right to allow for more detail)
(Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive, Courtney Seligman)HST image of part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4469

NGC 4470 (= PGC 41189 =
NGC 4610)
Discovered (Jan 23, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4610)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4470)
Also observed (Dec 27, 1827) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4470)
A magnitude 12.1 spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 37.9, Dec +07 49 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4470 (= GC 3020 = JH 1293 = WH II 18 = WH II 498, 1860 RA 12 22 31, NPD 81 24.1) is "faint, pretty large, irregularly round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 29 38.2, Dec +07 49 26, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain (see NGC 4610 for a discussion of the double listing).
Discovery Notes: Steinicke lists this as WH II 19, not II 18; need to check Auwers'/WH's positions for II 18 & 19 to see whether that is a typo or a correction.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.3 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1205) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4470, also showing the pair of stars (above and below the label), one of which is probably NGC 4471, and the star listed as IC 3417
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4470, also showing NGC 4471 and IC 3417
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4470

NGC 4471
Recorded (Jul 29, 1861) by
Julius Schmidt
Also looked for (date?) but not found by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 14.6 star in Virgo (RA 12 29 42.0, Dec +07 53 45)
or a magnitude 14.8 star at RA 12 29 40.6, Dec +07 54 40
or (but extremely unlikely) a galaxy (PGC 41185) at RA 12 29 37.1, Dec +07 55 58 (see following entry)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4471 (= GC 5655, J. Schmidt, 1860 RA 12 22 34, NPD 81 19.4) is "very faint, very small (not found by d'Arrest". The position precesses to RA 12 29 41.2, Dec +07 54 08, not quite midway between the 15th-magnitude stars listed above, but there appears to be no way to tell which is what Schmidt meant to record. There is also a 15th-magnitude galaxy (PGC 41185, which see) to the northwest of the stars that is sometimes identified as NGC 4471, but per Corwin that is almost certainly too faint for Schmidt to have seen (in visual observations stars look much brighter than "equal-brightness" nebulae, since all their light is concentrated in a single point). So odds are that NGC 4471 was one of the stars, even if there is no way to tell which one.
SDSS image of region near the stars (above and below the label), one of which is probably the actual NGC 4471, also showing spiral galaxy NGC 4470, elliptical galaxies NGC 4467 and M49, and elliptical galaxy PGC 41185 (which is often misidentified as NGC 4471)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on Dreyer's position for NGC 4471
Also shown are NGC 4467, 4470, 4472 (= M49) and PGC 41185

PGC 41185 (not =
NGC 4471)
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes misidentified as NGC 4471
A magnitude 15.2 elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 37.1, Dec +07 55 58)
Historical Misidentification: As noted in the entry for NGC 4471, PGC 41185 is often misidentified as that NGC object, even though it is almost certainly too faint for Schmidt to have observed, since nebular objects look much fainter than stars to visual observers as a result of their light being spread over a larger area.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity of 885 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 41185 is about 40 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.22 by 0.22 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 2500 light years across, making it a dwarf elliptical, most likely on the near side of the Virgo Cluster (it is listed as a member (VCC 1203) of that Cluster).
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 41185, which is often misidentified as NGC 4471
Above, a 0.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41185 (for a wide-field view see NGC 4471)

NGC 4472 (= PGC 41220 =
M49 = Arp 134)
Discovered (Feb 19, 1771) by Charles Messier and listed as M49
Also observed (April 22, 1779) by Barnabas Oriani
Also observed (Jan 23, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (May 9, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.4 elliptical galaxy (type E+2) in Virgo (RA 12 29 46.8, Dec +08 00 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4472 (= GC 3021 = JH 1294 (= WH I 7), Oriani, M49, 1860 RA 12 22 40, NPD 81 13.5) is "very bright, large, round, much brighter middle, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 29 47.1, Dec +08 00 02, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: Although discovered by Messier, M49 was also observed by Oriani while following the path of the Comet of 1779. In 1844, Admiral William Smyth's Bedford Catalogue conflated the two observations and listed the nebula as having been discovered by Oriani in 1771. This error was copied in John Herschel's GC, and since the New General Catalog was an expansion of the GC, was also repeated in the NGC (though in a sense also giving Messier credit for the discovery, since his appellation of M49 was also used). William Herschel's probable observation of 1783 was ignored by Dreyer in compiling the NGC because Herschel's position was uncertain, and he mistook the object he observed for M61; however, in a much later and very thorough analysis of all of Herschel's unpublished observations, Dreyer concluded that (WH) I 7 must be identical to M49, hence the addition of that observation (in parentheses) to Dreyer's listing for NGC 4472.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 11.5 by 8.5 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1226) of the Virgo Cluster. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E+2. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of an elliptical galaxy with nearby fragments.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, also known as M49, and as Arp 134; also shown are NGC 4465, NGC 4467, PGC 41185 (often mistakenly listed as NGC 4471), and the northernmost of two stars, one of which is probably NGC 4471
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centerd on NGC 4472 (= M49)
Also shown are NGC 4465, 4467, 4471 and PGC 41185
Below, a 24 arcmin wide region centered on M49, showing the aforementioned objects and NGC 4470
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, also known as M49, and as Arp 134; also shown are NGC 4465, NGC 4467, NGC 4470, PGC 41185 (often mistakenly listed as NGC 4471), and the two stars (above and below the label), one of which is probably NGC 4471
Below, a slightly enhanced version of the 12 arcmin wide SDSS image at the top without labels
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4472, also known as M49, and as Arp 134

NGC 4473 (= PGC 41228), part of
Markarian's Chain
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 7, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 10.2 elliptical galaxy (type E5) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 48.9, Dec +13 25 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4473 (= GC 3030 = WH II 114, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 22 44, NPD 75 47.8) is "pretty bright". The position precesses to RA 12 29 49.0, Dec +13 25 44, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.5 by 2.5 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1231) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies that lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4473 and the star listed as IC 3420
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4473, also showing IC 3420
Below, a 5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and the star listed as IC 3420
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4473 and the star listed as IC 3420

NGC 4474 (= PGC 41241)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 3, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 53.5, Dec +14 04 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 447 (= GC 3026 = JH 1295 = WH II 117 = WH II 629, 1860 RA 12 22 49, NPD 75 09.4) is "pretty faint, round, mottled but not resolved". The position precesses to RA 12 29 53.7, Dec +14 04 08, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing nearby but the galaxy accounted for by NGC 4468, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1242) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4474, also showing NGC 4468
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4474, also showing
NGC 4468
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4474

NGC 4475 (= PGC 41225)
Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 13, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type SAbc) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 29 47.6, Dec +27 14 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4475 (= GC 3027 = JH 1297 = WH III 362, 1860 RA 12 22 49, NPD 61 58.5) is "extremely faint, pretty large, round". The position precesses to RA 12 29 48.1, Dec +27 15 02, well within the northern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.8 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4475
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4475
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4475

NGC 4476 (= PGC 41255)
Discovered (Apr 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 10, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 lenticular galaxy (type S(rs)0/a?) in Virgo (RA 12 29 59.1, Dec +12 20 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4476 (= GC 3028 = JH 1296 = WH II 123, 1860 RA 12 22 54, NPD 76 52.7) is "faint, small, round, brighter middle, 1st of 3", the others being NGC 4478 and NGC 4486. The position precesses to RA 12 29 59.4, Dec +12 20 50, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits including the position relative to NGC 4478, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.45 by 1.15 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1250) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4476, also showing NGC 4478
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4476, also showing NGC 4478
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4476
Below, a 0.4 arcmin wide HST image showing the core of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of dust in the core of lenticular galaxy NGC 4476

NGC 4477 (= PGC 41260), part of
Markarian's Chain
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 8, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by Herman Schultz
A magnitude 10.4 lenticular galaxy (type (RL)SB0/a) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 30 02.2, Dec +13 38 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4477 (= GC 3025 = WH II 115, d'Arrest, Schultz, 1860 RA 12 22 57, NPD 75 35.4) is "pretty bright, considerably large". The position precesses to RA 12 30 01.9, Dec +13 38 09, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.7 by 3.3 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1253) of the Virgo Cluster. Part of Markarian's Chain, a group of Virgo Cluster galaxies that lie along a smooth curve and have similar radial velocities. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type (RL)SB0/a.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4477, also showing NGC 4479 and the stars listed as IC 3423 and IC 3426
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4477, also showing NGC 4479, IC 3423 and 3426
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4477

NGC 4478 (= PGC 41297)
Discovered (Apr 12, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 10, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Virgo (RA 12 30 17.4, Dec +12 19 43)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4478 (= GC 3031 = JH 1298 = WH II 124, 1860 RA 12 23 12, NPD 76 53.8) is "pretty bright, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, 2nd of 3", the others being NGC 4476 and NGC 4486. The position precesses to RA 12 30 17.4, Dec +12 19 45, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits (including the position relative to the other galaxies), and the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1279) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4478, also showing NGC 4476 and at far left, the western edge of M87
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4478, also showing NGC 4476
(The western edge of M87 is also visible at far left)
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4478

NGC 4479 (= PGC 41302)
Discovered (Apr 8, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 5, 1862) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 30 18.4, Dec +13 34 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4479 (= GC 3029 = WH II 116, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 23 14, NPD 75 39.0) is "pretty bright, pretty large". The position precesses to RA 12 30 18.9, Dec +13 34 33, on the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.35 by 1.25 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1283) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4479, also showing NGC 4477 and the star listed as IC 3426
Below, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4479, also showing NGC 4477 and IC 3426
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4479

NGC 4480 (= PGC 41317)
Discovered (Feb 2, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 7, 1828) by John Herschel
Also observed (Apr 21, 1851) by Bindon Stoney
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c) in Virgo (RA 12 30 26.8, Dec +04 14 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4480 (= GC 3032 = GC 3060 = JH 1299 = WH II 531, 1860 RA 12 23 18, NPD 84 58.7) is "pretty faint, pretty small, extended, brighter on southern side". The position precesses to RA 12 30 26.5, Dec +04 14 51, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.2 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1290) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4480
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4480
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4480

NGC 4481 (= PGC 41222)
Discovered (Oct 7, 1866) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 14.2 spiral galaxy (type Sab? pec) in Draco (RA 12 29 48.7, Dec +64 01 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4481 (= GC 5656, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 23 24, NPD 25 11.5) is "pretty faint, very small, round, 13th magnitude star attached". The position precesses to RA 12 26 49.0, Dec +64 02 03, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4481
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4481
Below, a 0.9 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4481

NGC 4482 (= PGC 41272 =
IC 3427)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4482)
Also observed (date?) by Guillaume Bigourdan (while listed as NGC 4482)
Also looked for (date?) but not found by Royal Frost (while listed as NGC 4482)
Discovered (Sep 6, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3427)
A magnitude 12.7 elliptical galaxy (type E4) in Virgo (RA 12 30 10.3, Dec +10 46 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4482 (= GC 3033 = WH III 40, 1860 RA 12 23 33, NPD 78 29.0) is "extremely faint, pretty large". The second IC adds "Not found by Frost, but it has been observed by Bigourdan, at RA 12 23 04". (The 30 second error in Herschel's RA was also noted by Dreyer in his study of Herschel's papers.) The corrected position precesses to RA 12 30 10.0, Dec +10 44 32, about two arcmin due south of the galaxy, but there is nothing else nearby and the description seems perfect, so the identification is considered certain. (See IC 3427 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1261) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4482
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4482
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4482

NGC 4483 (= PGC 41339)
Discovered (Mar 19, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a) in Virgo (RA 12 30 40.6, Dec +09 00 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4483 (= GC 5657, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 23 36, NPD 80 12.6) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, brighter middle". The position precesses to RA 12 30 42.6, Dec +09 00 57, just off the eastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.5 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below). Listed as a member (VCC 1303) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4483, also showing part of IC 3430
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4483, also showing part of IC 3430
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4483

NGC 4484 (= PGC 41087)
Discovered (Mar 9, 1828) by
John Herschel
Also observed (date?) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type SBA(rs)bc pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 28 52.7, Dec -11 39 08)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4484 (= GC 3034 = JH 1300, 1860 RA 12 23 37, NPD 100 51.9) is "pretty faint, small, round, gradually brighter middle". The second IC adds "RA 2 minutes too great (per Howe). (h. only one observation)", "h." being shorthand for John Herschel. The corrected position precesses to RA 12 28 51.4, Dec -11 38 24, less than an arcmin north of the galaxy, and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is considered certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size of about 1.45 by 1.35 arcmin (from the images below). Probably a starburst galaxy.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4484
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4484
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4484
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the central region
PanSTARRS image of central region of spiral galaxy NGC 4484

NGC 4485 (= PGC 41326, and with
NGC 4490 = Arp 269)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1788) by William Herschel
Also observed (May 1, 1828) by John Herschel
Also observed (Apr 24, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by George Rümker
A magnitude 11.9 irregular galaxy (type IB(s)m pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 30 31.4, Dec +41 42 01)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4485 (= GC 3041 = JH 1306 = WH I 197, d'Arrest, Rümker, 1860 RA 12 23 42, NPD 47 31.5) is "bright, pretty small, irregularly round, northwestern of 2", the other being NGC 4490.
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.4 by 1.8 arcmin. Interacting with NGC 4490, with which it comprises Arp 269.
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4485
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4485
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide HST view (Image Credits: Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikpedia Commons)
(For other images see NGC 4490)
HST detail of irregular galaxy NGC 4485, which is part of Arp 269

NGC 4486 (= PGC 41361 =
M87 = Arp 152)
Discovered (May 5, 1779) by Johann Koehler
Rediscovered (Mar 18, 1781) by Charles Messier and recorded as M87
Also observed (Mar 10, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 8.6 elliptical galaxy (type E1? peculiar) in Virgo (12 30 49.4, Dec +12 23 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4486 (= GC 3035 = JH 1301, M87, 1860 RA 12 23 44, NPD 76 50.1) is "very bright, very large, round, much brighter middle, 3rd of 3", the others being NGC 4476 and 4478. The position precesses to RA 12 30 49.2, Dec +12 23 28, essentially dead center on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Apparent size 8.3 by 6.6? arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1316) of the Virgo Cluster. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E+0-1. Used by the Arp Atlas as an example of a galaxy with a jet.
Slightly cropped image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87
Above, an approximately 9.5 arcmin wide closeup of M87
(Image Credit & © above & below: J.-C. Cuillandre (CFHT), Coelum, Hawaiian Starlight; used by permission)
Below, an 11.3 by 12.5 arcmin wide view of the galaxy, also showing (at upper right) PGC 41327
CFHT image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87; also shown (at upper right) is PGC 41327, also known as NGC 4486B
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide HST image of the core of NGC 4486, showing a jet of high-speed material
HST closeup of core and jet of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87
Below, a 0.5 arcmin closeup of the jet (Image Credit above and below Hubble Legacy Archive)
Extreme HST closeup of core and jet of elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87
Below, an 18 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the galaxy
Also shown are NGC 4478, IC 3443, PGC 41327 and PGC 41377
SDSS photomosaic of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4486, also known as M87; also shown are NGC 4478, IC 3443, PGC 41377 (also known as NGC 4486A) and PGC 41327 (also known as NGC 4486B)

PGC 41377 (= "NGC 4486A")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 4486A
A magnitude 12.5 elliptical galaxy (type E2) in
Virgo (RA 12 30 57.8, Dec +12 16 16)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1327) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 41377, also known as NGC 4486A
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41377
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing M87 and IC 3443
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy PGC 41377, also known as NGC 4486A; also shown are IC 3443 and part of NGC 4486, also known as M87

PGC 41327 (= "NGC 4486B")
Not an NGC object but listed here since sometimes called NGC 4486B
A magnitude 13.4 elliptical galaxy (type E0) in
Virgo (RA 12 30 32.0, Dec +12 29 25)
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.6 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1297) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 41327, also known as NGC 4486B
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of PGC 41327
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing part of M87
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy PGC 41327, also known as NGC 4486B; also shown is part of NGC 4486, also known as M87

NGC 4487 (= PGC 41399)
Discovered (Mar 23, 1789) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.0 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd) in Virgo (RA 12 31 04.4, Dec -08 03 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4487 (= GC 3036 = WH II 776, 1860 RA 12 23 44, NPD 97 18.5) is "faint, very large, extremely mottled but not resolved".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.0 by 2.8 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4487
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4487
Below, a slightly wider view of the galaxy
(Image Credits: Lawrence Johnson and Kathy Ortega/Adam Block/NOAO/AURA/NSF)
NOAO image of spiral galaxy NGC 4487
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4487

NGC 4488 (= PGC 41363)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Jan 18, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a(s) pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 30 51.4, Dec +08 21 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4488 (= GC 3037 = JH 1302 = WH III 484, 1860 RA 12 23 45, NPD 80 51.6) is "very faint, very small, a little extended".
Physical Information: Apparent size 5.0 by 1.7 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1318) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4488
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4488
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4488

NGC 4489 (= PGC 41365)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 6, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 30 52.2, Dec +16 45 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4489 (= GC 3038 = JH 1303 = WH II 91, 1860 RA 12 23 48, NPD 72 27.9) is "pretty faint, considerably small, round, gradually brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.7 by 1.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1321) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4489
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4489
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4489

NGC 4490 (= PGC 41333, and with
NGC 4485 = Arp 269)
Discovered (Jan 14, 1788) by William Herschel
Also observed (May 1, 1828) by John Herschel
Also observed (Apr 24, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
Also observed (date?) by George Rümker
A magnitude 9.8 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)d pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 30 36.2, Dec +41 38 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4490 (= GC 3042 = JH 1308 = WH I 198, d'Arrest, Rümker, 1860 RA 12 23 49, NPD 47 34.8) is "very bright, very large, much extended 130°, mottled but not resolved, southeastern of 2", the other being NGC 4485.
Physical Information: Apparent size 6.4 by 3.2 arcmin. Interacting with NGC 4485, with which it comprises Arp 269.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4490 and irregular galaxy NGC 4485, which comprise Arp 269
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4490 and 4485
Below, a HST detail superimposed on the image above (Image Credits: Hubble Legacy Archive, Wikisky)
HST partial image of spiral galaxy NGC 4490 and NGC 4485, which comprise Arp 269, superimposed on an SDSS image to show the region covered by the HST image
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4490 and NGC 4485, which comprise Arp 269

NGC 4491 (= PGC 41376)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 29, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 30 57.1, Dec +11 29 00)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4491 (= GC 3039 = JH 1304 = WH III 41, 1860 RA 12 23 52, NPD 77 44.8) is "faint, large, round".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.6 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1326) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4491
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4491
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4491

NGC 4492 (= PGC 41383 =
IC 3438)
Discovered (Dec 28, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4492)
Also observed (Apr 25, 1830) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4492)
Discovered (Jan 23, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3438)
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 30 59.7, Dec +08 04 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4492 (= GC 3040 = JH 1305 = WH II 499, 1860 RA 12 23 53, NPD 81 08.9) is "pretty faint, pretty large, very gradually a little brighter middle, 2 stars near". The position precesses to RA 12 30 59.9, Dec +08 04 39, right on the galaxy, so the identification is certain (see IC 3438 for a discussion of the double listing.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.7 by 2.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1330) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4492
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4492
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4492

NGC 4493 (= PGC 41409)
Discovered (Mar 22, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.1 elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Virgo (RA 12 31 08.4, Dec +00 36 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4493 (= GC 5658 = Marth #241, 1860 RA 12 23 57, NPD 88 37) is "very faint, very small, irregularly round". The position precesses to RA 12 31 06.9, Dec +00 36 34, on the southwestern side of the galaxy, so the identification is certain. The only question is whether the fainter galaxy to the southeast (PGC 1170468) should be considered part of the NGC object. Since the description is "irregularly round" the fainter galaxy might have affected Marth's observation, but the position is almost exactly on the brighter galaxy, and would presumably be between the two galaxies if the fainter one had a significant affect, so probably only the brighter galaxy should be considered part of NGC 4493.
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.0 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4493 and PGC 1170468
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4493 and PGC 1170468
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4493 and PGC 1170468

PGC 1170468
Probably not an NGC object but listed here due to its proximity to
NGC 4493
A magnitude 15.7 compact galaxy (type C) in Virgo (RA 12 31 11.0, Dec +00 36 22)
Historical Identification: As noted in the Historical Identification for NGC 4493, this galaxy is sometimes listed as part of the NGC object; but for the reasons stated there, that is almost certainly not correct, so it is listed here as a separate object (and as a warning about the possible misidentification).
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.4 by 0.3 arcmin. As noted in the entry for NGC 4493 (which see for images), it is conceivable (though unlikely) that PGC 1170468 was part of what Marth observed, hence its placement here.

NGC 4494 (= PGC 41441)
Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Feb 19, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 9.8 elliptical galaxy (type E1-2) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 31 24.0, Dec +25 46 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4494 (= GC 3043 = JH 1307 = WH I 83, 1860 RA 12 24 25, NPD 63 27.1) is "very bright, pretty large, round, very suddenly much brighter middle and nucleus".
Physical Information: Apparent size 4.8 by 3.5 arcmin. Used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type E1-2.
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4494
Above, a 6 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4494
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy, also showing IC 3455
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4494, also showing IC 3455

NGC 4495 (= PGC 41438)
Discovered (Mar 13, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 30, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Sab pec?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 31 22.9, Dec +29 08 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4495 (= GC 3044 = JH 1310 = WH III 301, 1860 RA 12 24 26, NPD 60 05.1) is "pretty faint, considerably small, round, pretty suddenly a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.4 by 0.8 arcmin.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4495
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4495
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4495

NGC 4496 (= PGC 41471, and probably =
NGC 4505)
Discovered (Feb 23, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4496)
Also observed (Apr 7, 1828) by John Herschel(and later listed as NGC 4496)
Discovered (Mar 11, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4505)
A magnitude 11.4 irregular galaxy (type IB(rs)m pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 31 39.3, Dec +03 56 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4496 (= GC 3045 = JH 1309 = WH II 36, 1860 RA 12 24 30, NPD 85 17.8) is "faint, considerably large, binuclear or a double nebula". The position precesses to RA 12 31 38.5, Dec +03 55 46, within the brighter member of what appears to be a double galaxy, so the identification is certain. Given the NGC description as a double galaxy, NGC 4496 should perhaps be considered equal to the pair of galaxies, but as it happens they are merely an optical double (having recessional velocities that differ by nearly 3000 km/sec), so the brighter northern galaxy is generally considered to be "the" NGC object, while being given both that appellation and NGC 4496A, and the fainter southern galaxy (PGC 41473) is generally listed as "NGC 4496B". Per Corwin, the 3rd edition of the Reference Catalog of nearby galaxies (known as the RC3) lists three objects as NGC 4496, but as far as I can tell only the one listed here actually exists, so hopefully the reader won't run across any incorrect references to the others.
Physical Information: Apparent size 3.9 by 3.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1375) of the Virgo Cluster. (Note: NGC 4496 is listed as a spiral galaxy and its apparent companion as an irregular galaxy, but in the images below it looks like this is the reverse of their appearance; so the galaxy types listed here are based on that appearance, rather than existing references. Also, although their recessional velocities imply that they are at very different distances, redshift-independent distance estimates place them at the same distance, in which case they are an interacting pair, and both members of the Virgo Cluster. In other words, this pair needs to be restudied, to clear up the considerable confusion about its true nature.)
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4496 and PGC 41473 (also known as NGC 4496B)
Above, a 4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4496 and PGC 41473
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the pair
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4496 and PGC 41473 (also known as NGC 4496B)

PGC 41473 (= "NGC 4496B")
Often called NGC 4496B due to proximity to
NGC 4496
A magnitude 13.9 spiral galaxy (type Sbc(rs)?) in Virgo (RA 12 31 40.9, Dec +03 55 35)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry for NGC 4496, PGC 41473 should perhaps be considered part of that NGC entry, but standard usage is to assign that only to its much brighter companion.
Physical Information: Apparent size 0.8 by 0.6 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1376) of the Virgo Cluster but actually much further away. Although an apparent companion of NGC 4496 (which see for images), their recessional velocities differ by nearly 3000 km/sec, so they are merely an optical double (but see the note at the end of the entry for NGC 4496).

NGC 4497 (= PGC 41457 =
IC 3452)
Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4497)
Also observed (Dec 8, 1866) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4497)
Discovered (Nov 8, 1900) by Arnold Schwassmann (and later listed as IC 3452)
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type SAB0+(s)?) in Virgo (RA 12 31 32.5, Dec +11 37 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4497 (= GC 3046 = WH III 42, 1860 RA 12 24 31, NPD 77 37.0) is "very faint (d'Arrest says pretty faint)". (Herschel and Schwassmann's positions are both excellent, so the identification is certain, and the double listing is due to simple oversight.)
Physical Information: Apparent size 1.9 by 0.8 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1379) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4497
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4497
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4497

NGC 4498 (= PGC 41472)
Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 26, 1832) by John Herschel
Also observed (Apr 20, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 12.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)d) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 31 39.5, Dec +16 51 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4498 (= GC 3051 (= JH 1314) = WH III 69, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 24 36, NPD 72 22.3) is "very faint, pretty large, extended, prehaps binuclear".
Discovery Notes: Steinicke's latest JH database lists this as JH 1314 = WH II 92 = GC 3051, with the same discovery date as for WH III 69. d'Arrest's observations list it as "(WH) III 69??"
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.9 by 1.1 arcmin. Listed as a member (VCC 1379) of the Virgo Cluster.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4498
Above, a 3 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4498
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4498

NGC 4499 (= PGC 41537)
Discovered (Jun 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Centaurus (RA 12 32 04.9, Dec -39 58 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4499 (= GC 3047 = JH 3397, 1860 RA 12 24 40, NPD 129 12.3) is "very faint, large, round, very gradually a little brighter middle".
Physical Information: Apparent size 2.0 by 1.3 arcmin.
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4499
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide closeup of NGC 4499
Below, a 12 arcmin wide region centered on the galaxy
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4499
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4400 - 4449) ←NGC Objects: NGC 4450 - 4499→ (NGC 4500 - 4549)