Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4700 - 4749) ←NGC Objects: NGC 4750 - 4799 Link for sharing this page on Facebook→ (NGC 4800 - 4849)
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4750, 4751, 4752, 4753, 4754, 4755, 4756, 4757, 4758, 4759, 4760, 4761, 4762, 4763, 4764, 4765, 4766,
4767, 4768, 4769, 4770, 4771, 4772, 4773, 4774, 4775, 4776, 4777, 4778, 4779, 4780, 4781, 4782, 4783,
4784, 4785, 4786, 4787, 4788, 4789, 4790, 4791, 4792, 4793, 4794, 4795, 4796, 4797, 4798, 4799

Page last updated June 1, 2021
Updated formatting to current standard, checked updated Steinicke physical/historical databases
Added/checked Dreyer NGC/IC/1912 entries, other historical databases, checked Corwin positions
Precessed NGC positions, checked all IDs (and mis-IDs), de Vaucouleurs/Arp/HCG entries
Added physical data, checked/added and updated pictures/tags, Gottlieb's notes
Cross-checked all non-NGC/IC designations, updated PGC pages, spell-checked w/Word 97
Updated UGC, PGC and NGC page(s) for final formatting standards
WORKING 4776: Checking Corwin's list of questionable IDs
FINAL STEP: proofread everything for accuracy and clarity,
post pdf (w/o images) as sample to ResearchGate

NGC 4750
(= PGC 43426 = UGC 7994 = CGCG 335-025 = MCG +12-12-019)

Discovered (Nov 8, 1801) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Nov 4, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.2 spiral galaxy (type (R)SA(rs)ab) in Draco (RA 12 50 07.3, Dec +72 52 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4750 (= GC 3270 = JH 1463 = WH IV 78, 1860 RA 12 45 07, NPD 16 21.6) is "pretty bright, large, round, very gradually then very suddenly brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 50 08.9, Dec +72 52 38, well within the northeastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description is a perfect fit and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1680 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4750 is about 75 to 80 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 85 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.7 arcmin for its central region and about 1.75 by 1.55 arcmin for its faint outer region (from the images below), the central part of the galaxy is about 20 to 25 thousand light-years across, and the entire galaxy spans 40 thousand light-years.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4750
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4750
Below, a PanSTARRS image of the same region has many "artifacts" but a far better image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4750
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4750
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the central galaxy
PanSTARRS image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 4750
Below, a 1.1 arcmin wide image of the central galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 4750
Below, a 1 by 0.7 arcmin wide image of the central galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
(HLA images above and below by Courtney Seligman)

HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 4750

NGC 4751
(= PGC 43723 = ESO 323-029 = MCG -07-27-011)

Discovered (Mar 15, 1836) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.2 lenticular galaxy (type SA0/a?) in Centaurus (RA 12 52 50.8, Dec -42 39 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4751 (= GC 3271 = JH 3434, 1860 RA 12 45 07, NPD 131 54.5) is "bright, pretty small, round, very gradually then very suddenly much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 52 53.4, Dec -42 40 13, about 0.8 arcmin southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2370 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4751 is about 110 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 115 to 150 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.0 by 1.1 arcmin (from NED and the images below), the galaxy is about 95 to 100 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4751
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4751
Below, a 4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4751
Below, a 0.3 arcmin wide image of the nucleus of the galaxy (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST image of the nucleus of lenticular galaxy NGC 4751

NGC 4752
(perhaps =
PGC 43555 or PGC 43944)
Recorded (Apr 12, 1784) by William Herschel
Probably a nonexistent object in Coma Berenices (RA 12 52 10.5, Dec +13 29 35)
or perhaps (though not at all likely) PGC 43555 or PGC 43944
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4752 (= GC 3272 = WH III 82, 1860 RA 12 45 10, NPD 75 44.7) is "very faint, small, extended, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 12 52 10.5, Dec +13 29 35, whence the position above, but there is nothing there nor anywhere near there. Corwin has checked Caroline Herschel's "fair copy" of the original sweep, and can find no error in the observation or its reduction to the position in her brother's catalogue, and none of the other objects observed during that sweep have errors of more than 3 or 4 arcmin, so the object may have been a comet, and is almost certainly not any of the galaxies anywhere near the position. However, there are two galaxies that fit the description, albeit with considerable errors in their positions (relative to the NGC position). PGC 43555 is one candidate, though it lies 38 seconds of time to the west and 15 arcmin to the north of Herschel's position, and that identification appears to be the one most commonly adopted (though often with a warning that it is not necessarily correct). But PGC 43944 might be an equally good (or bad) fit, and would certainly have been easier for Herschel to see, the problem being that it lies 15 arcmin to the south and 2 1/2 minutes of time to the west of Herschel's position. And if Herschel's position was reasonably accurate, then NGC 4752 cannot exist, so although the two "candidates" are discussed in the two entries immediately below, odds are that neither is actually what Herschel observed.
Discovery Note: Gottlieb notes that Karl Reinmuth identified this as a 12th magnitude star near WH's position, and Dorothy Carlson repeated that identification in her 1940 NGC Correction paper, and in the RNGC. But a single star of that magnitude would look nothing like Herschel's description, so that identification is also almost certainly incorrect, and the identification as a nonexistent object remains the most likely.
DSS image centered on the NGC position of the probably nonexistent NGC 4752
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on the NGC position for NGC 4752
Below, a 1 degree wide DSS image showing that position and PGC 43555 and PGC 43944
DSS image of region near the probably nonexistent NGC 4752, also showing the position of two possible candidates, PGC 43555 and PGC 43944

PGC 43555 (perhaps but probably not
NGC 4752)
(= CGCG 071-058)

A magnitude 14.5 spiral galaxy (type SBab?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 51 29.1, Dec +13 46 55)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry for NGC 4752, PGC 43555 is usually identified as that NGC object; but since that identification is anything but certain (and in fact more likely to be wrong), and there is another "possible" candidate (PGC 43944), it is treated here as only one of the possible candidates, and not as actually deserving the NGC designation.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 11580 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 43555 is about 540 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 515 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 525 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.8 x 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 120 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 43555, which may be the otherwise lost NGC 4752
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 43555
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 43555, which may be the otherwise lost NGC 4752

PGC 43944 (perhaps but probably not
NGC 4752)
(= UGC 8032 = CGCG 071-071 = MCG +02-33-035)

A magnitude 13.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 44.2, Dec +13 14 14)
Historical Identification: As noted in the entry for NGC 4752, PGC 43555 is usually identified as that NGC object; but since that identification is anything but certain, and PGC 43944 is an equally possible candidate, it is treated here as one of the possible candidates, though whether either deserves the NGC designation is unlikely, and probably impossible to determine.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1425 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 43944 is about 65 to 70 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.65 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 to 55 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 43944, which may be the otherwise lost NGC 4752
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 43944
Below, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 43944, which may be the otherwise lost NGC 4752

NGC 4753
(= PGC 43671 = UGC 8009 = CGCG 015-029 = MCG +00-33-016)

Discovered (Feb 22, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 15, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.0 lenticular galaxy (type SAB0/a? pec) in Virgo (RA 12 52 22.1, Dec -01 11 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4753 (= GC 3273 = JH 1461 = WH I 16, 1860 RA 12 45 12, NPD 90 26.2) is "considerably bright, large, very little extended, very gradually a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 52 22.9, Dec -01 11 55, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1495 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4753 is about 70 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 30 to 80 million light-years. Given that and the apparent size of about 6.0 by 3.0 arcmin for the bright inner region and about 10.6 by 6.0 arcmin for the fainter outer extensions (from the images below), the "central" galaxy is about 120 thousand light-years across, while the outer extensions span about 215 thousand light-years. Usage by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 4753 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as an example of type I0 or S0- pec, due to the dust lanes near the center. The galaxy has a peculiar central structure, with what appears to be a faint bar-like structure at an angle to the overall alignment; that and the extensive considerably disturbed outer regions (which are not mentioned in the de Vaucouleurs Atlas) are thought to be due to a merger with another galaxy.
SDSS image of region near peculiar lenticular galaxy NGC 4753
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4753
Below, the same image enhanced to show the fainter outer part of the galaxy
SDSS image of peculiar lenticular galaxy NGC 4753, enhanced to show its fainter outer regions
Below, a 5 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of the central portion of peculiar lenticular galaxy NGC 4753

NGC 4754
(= PGC 43656 = UGC 8010 = CGCG 071-062 = MCG +02-33-030)

Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.6 lenticular galaxy (type SB(r)0 pec?) in Virgo (RA 12 52 17.5, Dec +11 18 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4754 (= GC 3274 = JH 1462 = WH I 25 = WH II 74, 1860 RA 12 45 15, NPD 77 55.5) is "bright, pretty large, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle, preceding (western) of 2", the other being NGC 4762. The position precesses to RA 12 52 17.1, Dec +11 18 47, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1670 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4754 is about 75 to 80 million light-years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 35 to 70 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 4.75 by 2.25 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 105 to 110 thousand light-years across. NGC 4574 has an unusual center, with a slightly bar-like core in alignment with the overall alignment of the galaxy, and an elliptically shaped 'ring' with a hint of a weaker bar that is at an angle relative to that, hence my addition of "pec?" to its type. It is listed as a member (VCC 2092) of the Virgo Cluster, and given its distance, probably is a member of the cluster.
Usage By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 4754 is not in the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies, but it is used in Ron Buta's supplement as an example of type SB0-.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4754
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4754
Below, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4754

NGC 4755
(= OCL 892 = ESO 131-SC016 = "PGC 3518665"),
the Jewel Box = the κ Crucis Cluster

Discovered (1751) by
Nicolas Lacaille
Also observed (May 26, 1826) by James Dunlop
Also observed (Mar 14, 1834) by John Herschel
Also observed (May, 1862) by Francis Abbott
A magnitude 4.2 open cluster (type I3r) in Crux (RA 12 53 34.0, Dec -60 22 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4755 (= GC 3275 = JH 3435, Lacaille II 12, Dunlop #301, 1860 RA 12 45 22, NPD 149 35.3) is "a cluster, very large, stars very bright (κ Crucis)." The position precesses to RA 12 53 41.7, Dec -60 20 59, well within the cluster listed above and κ Crucis is one of the stars in the cluster, so the identification is certain. Its nickname is based on Herschel's stating that the very different colors of its constituent stars "give it the effect of a superb piece of fancy jewellery."
Discovery Note: Per Gottlieb, Abbott, working in Hobart, Tasmania, constructed a map of 75 stars (Herschel had catalogued 110), and mistakenly noted apparent changes in some of the stars' positions. Although Abbott did much good work, such mistakes eventually led to European observers disparaging almost all of his work, thereby discouraging him from publishing further papers.
PGC Designation: For purposes of completeness, LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost all NGC/IC objects regardless of their nature; however, in this, as in many other cases, a search of the database for that designation returns no result; hence its being shown in quotes.
Physical Information: The cluster contains just over a hundred stars bright enough to have been measured by Herschel (and far more too faint for him to see), and is one of the youngest in the Milky Way, with an age of only 15 or so million years, as many of them are relatively hot blue giants (upper Main Sequence stars) with very short lives. However, its brightest star is the M-type supergiant κ Crucis, which is already at the end of its life despite its youth. The cluster lies about 6400 light-years away, and its 10 arcmin wide apparent size spans about 20 light-years.
ESO image of region near NGC 4755, the Jewel Box
Above, a 20 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 4755 (Image Credit above and below ESO)
Below, a 12 arcmin portion of the image above, centered on the open cluster
ESO closeup of open cluster NGC 4755, the Jewel Box

NGC 4756
(= PGC 43725 = PGC 911469 = MCG -02-33-039)

Discovered (Feb 8, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 8, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0?) in Corvus (RA 12 52 52.6, Dec -15 24 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4756 (= GC 3276 = JH 1464 = WH III 281, 1860 RA 12 45 35, NPD 104 38.8) is "very faint, pretty small, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 12 52 56.0, Dec -15 24 30, less than 0.9 arcmin east-northeast of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4410 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4756 is about 205 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 180 to 200 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.7 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 30 to 35 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4756
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4756
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4756

NGC 4757
(= PGC 43715 = PGC 979842 = MCG -02-33-040)

Discovered (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.7 lenticular galaxy (type SAB0?) in Virgo (RA 12 52 50.1, Dec -10 18 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4757 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 45 35, NPD 99 34.5) is "very faint." The position precesses to RA 12 52 52.3, Dec -10 20 12, about 1.7 arcmin south-southeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and since the only other object in the region that might fit (NGC 4766) is not only further away but was presumably also observed by Tempel (as it is thought to be his NGC 4766), that galaxy cannot be NGC 4757 and the identification of NGC 4757 as PGC 43715 is considered certain.
Discovery Note: Tempel did not give any position for this in his original paper, stating only that he found two nebulae about 10 arcmin north of GC 5674; but per a note on p.11 of the NGC, the positions were provided to Dreyer by private communication.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1185 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4757 is about 55 million light-years away (Vr from SIMBAD, plus correction to CMB from NED). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.2 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 15 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4757, also showing NGC 4766
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4757, also showing NGC 4766
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4757

NGC 4758
(= PGC 43707 = UGC 8014 = CGCG 100-015 = MCG +03-33-015)

Discovered (Mar 21, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (May 8, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SBdm?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 52 44.0, Dec +15 50 55)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4758 (= GC 3277 = JH 1465 = WH III 70, 1860 RA 12 45 46, NPD 73 23.3) is "very faint, pretty large, extended?" The position precesses to RA 12 52 44.7, Dec +15 51 00, barely outside the eastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1550 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4758 is about 70 to 75 million light-years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 35 to 65 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.2 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 65 to 70 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4758
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4758
Below, a 4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4758

NGC 4759
(=
NGC 4776 + NGC 4778)
(part of Hickson Compact Group 62)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4759)
Discovered (May 5, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4776 and 4778)
Also observed (Mar 30, 1867) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4759)
Also observed (Apr 8, 1882) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 4759, 4776 & 4778)
A pair of galaxies in Virgo (Corwin "pair" RA 12 53 05.1, Dec -09 12 07)
NGC 4776 is a magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0) at RA 12 53 04.5, Dec -09 11 59
NGC 4778 is a magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a) at RA 12 53 05.7, Dec -09 12 15
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4759 (= WH II 559, d'Arrest, Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 45 49, NPD 98 26.5) is "pretty large, double, with a 10th-magnitude star 2 arcmin south-preceding (to the southwest)". The position precesses to RA 12 53 05.5, Dec -09 12 11, right on the pair listed above, the description fits (though the star is more nearly south than southwest) and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: d'Arrest's notes show that he clearly observed the object, but couldn't be certain that he saw it as a pair, so that his observation agreed more with that of William Herschel than that of his son (which is presumably why Dreyer only lists his observation in the entry for NGC 4759). Tempel's paper states that he observed JH's 3288/90 (NGC 4776/78) on Apr 8, 1882, and notes that neither WH nor d'Arrest noticed that the "object" was a pair (which Dreyer later listed as NGC 4759). Per Gottlieb, both RNGC and MCG misidentify the two components, and in fact all four members of HCG 62 are misidentified in almost every conceivable combination by one catalog or another. The identifications and images on this page show the correct identifications.
Physical Information: William Herschel's observation (the basis of Dreyer's description) was of the pair of galaxies, while his son John's description was of the separate members of the pair, hence the multiple listings. For a detailed discussion of the galaxies, see their separate entries.
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxies NGC 4776 and NGC 4778, which comprise NGC 4759
Above, a 3.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 4776 and 4778, which comprise NGC 4759

NGC 4760
(= PGC 43763 = MCG -02-33-041)

Discovered (Mar 30, 1876) by
August Winnecke
A magnitude 11.4 elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Virgo (RA 12 53 07.2, Dec -10 29 40)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4760 (= GC 5674, Winnecke, 1860 RA 12 45 50, NPD 99 44.0) is "pretty bright, round." The position precesses to RA 12 53 07.4, Dec -10 29 41, right on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 5100 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4760 is about 235 to 240 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 165 to 300 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.95 by 2.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 200 to 205 thousand light-years across, making it close to twice the size and since it is "round" instead of a flattened disk, far more massive than our Milky Way galaxy.
PanSTARRS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4760
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4760
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & &169; Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4760

NGC 4761
(= PGC 43768 = MCG -01-33-029 = HCG 62C)
(part of
Hickson Compact Group 62)
Discovered (March, 1882) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 53 09.8, Dec -09 11 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4761 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 45 52, NPD 98 26.5) is "extremely faint, extremely small, 1 arcmin following (east of) double nebula (WH) II 559), the double nebula being NGC 4759. The position precesses to RA 13 53 08.5, Dec -09 12 11, less than half an arcmin southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the position relative to NGC 4759 makes the identification certain.
Here's Another Fine Mess We've Gotten Into: Unfortunately, due to the fact that NGC 4764 is west of NGC 4761, RC3 mistakenly reversed their designations, and the eastern galaxy, which is actually NGC 4761, is often misidentified as NGC 4764, and vice-versa. However, although the position of NGC 4764 isn't as accurate as might be hoped, the one for NGC 4761 is beyond doubt, so the apparently backward labels in the images shown on this page are the correct ones.
 To make matters worse, LEDA misidentifies NGC 4761 as PGC 43757, which is actually NGC 4778, the eastern member of the pair of galaxies to its west, and lists PGC 43768, which is NGC 4761, as NGC 4764 and NGC 4778! So there is hardly any mistake which could be made with this group that hasn't been made. As a result, any search of the LEDA database for objects in this group should use the PGC designations shown here, NOT the NGC designations!
Discovery Notes: As with several other objects casually mentioned in his lists, Tempel did not publish a position for this object, but per a note on p.11 of the NGC, the positions were provided to Dreyer by private communication. As for other objects in HCG 62, both the RNGC and MCG misidentify this galaxy as NGC 4764 (though the MCG designation is correct, despite the identification being wrong).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4770 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4761 is about 220 to 225 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.45 by 0.15 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 30 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4761, which is often misidentified as NGC 4764 and/or NGC 4778, also showing the actual NGC 4764, NGC 4776 and NGC 4778
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4761
Also shown are NGC 4776 and 4778, which comprise NGC 4759, and NGC 4764
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 4761
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4761, which is often misidentified as NGC 4764 and/or NGC 4778

NGC 4762
(= PGC 43733 = UGC 8016 = CGCG 071-065 = MCG +02-33-033)

Discovered (Mar 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 10, 1825) by John Herschel
Also observed (Feb 15, 1863) by Samuel Hunter
A magnitude 10.3 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB0/a? pec) in Virgo (RA 12 52 56.0, Dec +11 13 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4762 (= GC 3278 = JH 1466 = WH II 75, 1860 RA 12 45 54, NPD 78 00.5) is "pretty bright, very much extended 31°, 3 bright stars to south, following (eastern) of 2", the other being NGC 4754. The position precesses to RA 12 52 56.1, Dec +11 13 49, dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the only other galaxy in the region is the one specifically noted as being to the west, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Gottlieb notes that Samuel Hunter, the 3rd Lord Rosse's assistant from 1860 to 1864, wrote "I strongly suspect the ends to be twisted", which is correct, but mistakenly gives the date as 1852.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1305 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4762 is about 60 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 30 to 90 million light-years (the HST press release uses a distance of 58 million light-years). Given that and its apparent size of about 8.75 by 1.35 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 155 thousand light-years across. The galaxy has an unusual type of active nucleus, and its distorted outer regions suggest that it has merged with another, smaller galaxy at some time in the past. It is listed as a member (VCC 2095) of the Virgo Cluster, and given its distance, that is certainly correct. The width of the galaxy's disk includes the faint regions above and below (to the left and right in the images below) the far brighter, exceptionally flattened disk, which save for the central bulge almost qualifies as an ultrathin disk.
Classification Note: NGC 4762 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as an example of galaxy type S0o sp. In the classification above I have replaced the "sp", which indicates some features intermediate between a lenticular and a spiral galaxy, with "/a", which is a more common way of saying the same thing. There is no sign of the supposed bar in the images here or the online de Vaucouleurs Atlas, but in the original prints (and presumably in the reprinted edition of the Atlas) there are some small bumps in the disk which have been interpreted as a bar that is at an angle to the major axis of the galaxy. That and the distorted outer regions, which as noted above are presumably due to a merger with a smaller galaxy, are represented in the description line's galaxy type by the "B" and "pec", and the (R) at the start represents the suggestion that the distorted outer regions, if visible from above instead of the side, would probably form a ring around the galaxy. Our edge-on view makes at least some of these interpretations of the galaxy's features less than certain, whence the question mark.
Aside from the caveats just noted, an extremely "deep" image of the galaxy in Morales' paper shows that the outer extensions of the galaxy are even more strongly twisted is a counter-clockwise direction than shown in the images below, presumably due to some sort of tidal interaction, so "pec" is certainly correct.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4762
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4762
Below, an 8 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4762
Below, a 2.5 arcmin wide image of the central part of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble & NASA)
HST image of part of lenticular galaxy NGC 4762

NGC 4763
(= PGC 43792 = MCG -03-33-013)

Discovered (Dec 31, 1785) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)a?) in Corvus (RA 12 53 27.2, Dec -17 00 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4763 (= GC 3279 = WH III 489, 1860 RA 12 45 56, NPD 106 13.7) is "very faint, small, a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 53 18.3, Dec -16 59 23, about 2.3 arcmin west-northwest of the galaxy listed above, but the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4375 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4763 is about 200 to 205 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 170 to 205 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.5 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 90 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4763
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4763
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4763

NGC 4764
(= PGC 43760 = HCG 62D)
(part of
Hickson Compact Group 62)
Discovered (March, 1882) by Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 15.1 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Virgo (RA 12 53 06.6, Dec -09 15 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4764 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 46 00, NPD 98 28.5) is "extremely faint, extremely small, south-following (southeast of) double nebula (WH) II 559," the double nebula being NGC 4759. The position precesses to RA 12 53 16.6, Dec -09 14 11, about 3.5 arcmin southeast of NGC 4759, but there is nothing there. But since there is a galaxy that fits the description about 3.3 arcmin south-southeast of NGC 4759, the identification of NGC 4764 as the galaxy listed above is considered certain.
Discovery Note: Per a note on p.11 of the NGC, the positions of objects only casually mentioned by Tempel in his lists were provided to Dreyer by private communication; but while the position of what became NGC 4761 may have been adequate, the one for what became NGC 4764 was obviously not as good. Gottlieb notes that if PGC 43760 is NGC 4764, it is the faintest object discovered by Tempel.
Another Fine Mess: Unfortunately, because NGC 4764 is west of NGC 4761, the RNGC and MCG mistakenly reversed their designations, and the eastern galaxy, which is actually NGC 4761, is often misidentified as NGC 4764, and vice-versa. However, although the position of NGC 4764 isn't as accurate as might be hoped, the one for NGC 4761 is beyond doubt, so the apparently backward labels in the images shown on this page are the correct ones. To add to the mess, LEDA incorrectly assigns NGC 4764 to the galaxy that is actually NGC 4778(!), and I imagine that there are other errors involving this galaxy in places that I'm not aware of, hence the need for this warning. (Gottlieb, Corwin and Malcolm Thompson have all pointed out incorrect designations.)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4510 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4764 is about 210 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.4 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 25 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4764, also showing NGC 4761, NGC 4776 and NGC 4778, with which it comprises Hickson Compact Group 62
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4764
Also shown are NGC 4776 and 4778, which comprise NGC 4759, and NGC 4761
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4764, which is part of Hickson Compact Group 62

NGC 4765
(= PGC 43775 = UGC 8018 = CGCG 043-054 = MCG +01-33-020)

Discovered (Apr 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 7, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.0 irregular galaxy (type IBm pec) in Virgo (RA 12 53 14.6, Dec +04 27 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4765 (= GC 3280 = JH 1467 = WH III 544, 1860 RA 12 46 08, NPD 84 46.5) is "faint, considerably small, round, gradually brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 53 14.9, Dec +04 27 49, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1045 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4765 is about 45 to 50 million light-years away, in almost inevitable agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 25 to 70 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.3 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 15 to 20 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: Given its size and appearance, NGC 4765 is probably similar to the Large Magellanic Cloud, though the latter is thought to be a more regular barred spiral that is simply seen at an angle that makes it look irregular. The "pec" added to the type for NGC 4765 was suggested by Dr. Corwin due to the reddish corona and the irregular distribution of blue knots, which are undoubtedly very active star-forming regions.
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy NGC 4765
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4765
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of irregular galaxy NGC 4765

NGC 4766
(= PGC 43766 = MCG -02-33-042)

Discovered (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Virgo (RA 12 53 08.2, Dec -10 22 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4766 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 46 10, NPD 99 36.0) is "very faint." The position precesses to RA 12 53 27.4, Dec -10 21 40, but there is nothing there. However, all of Tempel's positions in this region lie to the east of the objects he presumably observed, the galaxy listed above fits the description, is only about 3.9 arcmin west-southwest of the NGC position, and there is nothing else in the region that Tempel is as likely to have seen, so the identification, though not absolutely certain, is considered reasonably certain.
Discovery Note: As with several other objects casually mentioned in his lists, Tempel did not publish a position for this object, but per a note on p.11 of the NGC, the positions were provided to Dreyer by private communication.
Physical Information: (Since it appears that NGC 4766 and PGC 183408 may be physical companions, the recessional velocity used in the next sentence is an average of the 4320 km/sec value for NGC 4766 and the 4490 km/sec value for PGC 183408.) Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4405 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4766 is about 205 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 to 55 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4766, also showing NGC 4757, part of the northern rim of NGC 4760, and probable companion galaxy PGC 183408
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4766
Also shown are NGC 4757 and PGC 183408 (and just out of frame, NGC 4760)
Below, a 1.25 by 1.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4766

PGC 183408
Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable companion of
NGC 4766
A magnitude 15(?) lenticular galaxy (type E/S0) in Virgo (RA 12 53 04.2, Dec -10 21 57)
Purpose Of This Entry: This entry was based on a suggestion that this galaxy could be a companion of NGC 4766; and since the galaxies have similar recessional velocities, they could indeed be a physical pair.
'Discovery' Note: Gottlieb's discussion of NGC 4766 notes that it forms a close pair with an "anonymous galaxy" 1 arcmin to its northwest. This is that galaxy.
Physical Information: (Since it appears that NGC 4766 and PGC 183408 may be physical companions, the recessional velocity used in the next sentence is an average of the 4320 km/sec value for NGC 4766 and the 4490 km/sec value for PGC 183408.) Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4405 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 183408 is about 205 million light-years away, in fair agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 255 to 260 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.25 arcmin (from the image below), the galaxy is about 35 to 40 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4766
Above, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of PGC 183408; for a wide-field view see NGC 4766

NGC 4767
(= PGC 43845 = ESO 323-036 = MCG -06-28-023)

Discovered (Jun 26, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 elliptical galaxy (type E4) in Centaurus (RA 12 53 53.0, Dec -39 42 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4767 (= GC 3281 = JH 3436, 1860 RA 12 46 11, NPD 128 58.1) is "bright, pretty small, a little extended, much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 53 54.5, Dec -39 43 46, only an arcmin south-southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and not far outside its southeast outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is considered certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3280 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4767 is about 150 to 155 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 95 to 200 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.8 by 1.6 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 125 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4767
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4767
Below, a 3.75 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4767

PGC 43744
(= ESO 323-031 = MCG -07-27-011A = "NGC 4767A")

Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 4767A
A magnitude 15.7 spiral galaxy (type Sc? pec) in
Centaurus (RA 12 53 01.4, Dec -39 50 07)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: There is no standard way of assigning letters to NGC/IC designations. As a result, a given designation may be used for two or more objects, leading to confusion about what data correspond to a given object. For that reason, such non-standard designations should never be used.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3195 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 43744 is about 145 to 150 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 120 to 150 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.2 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 30 to 35 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 43744, which is sometimes called NGC 4767A
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 43744
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 43744, which is sometimes called NGC 4767A

PGC 43954
(= ESO 323-041 = MCG -07-27-015 = "NGC 4767B")

Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 4767B
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)cd?) in
Centaurus (RA 12 54 45.0, Dec -39 51 08)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: There is no standard way of assigning letters to NGC/IC designations. As a result, a given designation may be used for two or more objects, leading to confusion about what data correspond to a given object. For that reason, such non-standard designations should never be used.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3795 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 43954 is about 175 to 180 million light-years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 115 to 160 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 60 to 65 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 43954, which is sometimes called NGC 4767B
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 43954
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 43954, which is sometimes called NGC 4767B

NGC 4768
(= "PGC 5067440")

Recorded (March, 1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel (discovered "years earlier")
A magnitude 13.4 star in Virgo (RA 12 53 17.2, Dec -09 31 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4768 (Tempel list V (#19), 1860 RA 12 46, NPD 98 46) is one of two (the other being NGC 4769) that are "very faint, very small, preceding (west of) III 525 on parallel," WH III 525 being NGC 4770. The (rough) position precesses to RA 12 51 16.8, Dec -09 31 41, but there is nothing there. The key to identifying this and NGC 4769 is the detailed note written about them by Tempel, which is discussed in the entry for NGC 4769 (which see) because the last image there shows the relative position of the two objects in the era when Tempel made the discovery (4769 is a high-proper motion binary, so the relative position of the two objects has considerably changed since 1882). As shown in the other entry, Tempel's note makes the identification of both objects absolutely certain.
Note About the PGC Designation: For purposes of completeness, LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost all NGC/IC objects, regardless of their nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no result, so it is in quotes.
Additional Note: Some references list NGC 4769 as both "stars" visible on low-resolution plates. That is not correct. As already noted, the northwestern star is NGC 4768, while the southeastern one (which is a very close double) is NGC 4769.
PanSTARRS image of region near NGC 4770, also showing NGC 4768 and NGC 4769
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4770, also showing NGC 4768 and 4769
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image showing NGC 4768 and 4769
PanSTARRS image of the star listed as NGC 4768 and the binary star listed as NGC 4769

NGC 4769
(= "PGC 5067498")

Recorded (March, 1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.2 binary star in Virgo (RA 12 53 17.8, Dec -09 32 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4769 (Tempel list V (#19), 1860 RA 12 46, NPD 98 46) is one of two (the other being NGC 4768) that are "very faint, very small, preceding (west of) III 525 on parallel," WH III 525 being NGC 4770. The position listed by Dreyer (based on Tempel's description) is identical to that of NGC 4768, and the problem with the identification is the same, and is discussed here because the last image for this entry is an important part of the story.
 The (rough) NGC position precesses to RA 12 51 16.8, Dec -09 31 41, but there is nothing there. The key to identifying this and NGC 4769 is "west of III 525 on parallel", meaning that we need to look for two very faint objects somewhere to the west of NGC 4770, and in fact very close to that object, since (as noted by Corwin and specified by Tempel himself in the note quoted below) Tempel noticed the pair while examining the area around III 525. That only leaves one possibility: the two stars about 3 arcmin nearly due west of NGC 4770. And since the NGC is organized in order of right ascension the northwestern one (listed in the previous entry) must be NGC 4768, and the southeastern (listed in this entry) must be NGC 4769.
Tempel's Note: Although Tempel's position was poor, his description was thorough: "A small double nebula; the position is that of the lighter [brighter] one, leading to the north [that is, to the north and west], which certainly has stars in the middle; the smaller, weaker companion follows 1 second of time to the east and south and is barely 3/4 arcmin away. I discovered this double nebula years ago, [but] thought it was known, [and it was] only after I entered all known nebulae into the map [that] I saw it must be new. A star 11-12 mag is north, 2 arcmin away. When comparing this nebula with Yarnall 5379, it was also easy to see the nebula 3282 = III 525 [= NGC 4770]... to the south, [and the] two finer [fainter] nebulae near the Parallel [with NGC 4770]." As shown in the last image for NGC 4769 (that is, this entry), at the time of Tempel's observation the relative position of the stars would have been an excellent match for his description, and since he could see NGC 4768/69 and NGC 4770 while observing the star to their north, they must have been far closer together than the NGC position indicates, making their identifications certain.
Note About the PGC Designation: For purposes of completeness, LEDA assigns a PGC designation to almost all NGC/IC objects, regardless of their nature. However, a search of the database for the designation shown above returns no result, so it is in quotes.
Additional Note: Some references list NGC 4769 as both "stars" visible on low-resolution plates. That is not correct. As already noted, the northwestern star is NGC 4768, while the southeastern one (which is a very close double) is NGC 4769.
Physical Information (and Note About Proper Motion): The southwestern member of the pair is about one magnitude fainter than its northeastern companion. They are undoubtedly a binary star, as they are moving together at a very fast rate (about 0.3 arcsec per year), and have moved to the southwest about half an arcminute in the 140+ years since their discovery (this sentence was written at the beginning of 2021, and 2022 is the 140th year since the publication of Tempel's paper). Such a noticeable change in the position of a star in a historically short period of time is unusual, so I have taken some pains to make it obvious. First, I have shown two images of the 12 arcminute wide region near NGC 4770. The first one, taken in 1984, shows NGC 4769 a little further to the east than the second one, obtained around 2010, which shows NGC 4769 more nearly due south of NGC 4768 and a little closer to the faint star just above the "9" in the label for NGC 4769. Second, I have added two "closeup" images at the end of this entry, one being an animation of the change of position between the 1984 and 2010 images, and the other showing the change in position between Tempel's 1882 paper and 2010. (Thanks are due to Dr. Corwin for providing me with the dates for the images; for though I noticed the change in position, I was only able to make a rough estimate of the amount of time involved, and could not have verified that my estimate was correct without his help.)
DSS image of region near NGC 4770, also showing NGC 4768 and NGC 4769
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 4770, also showing NGC 4768 and 4769
Below, a PanSTARRS image of the same region shown in the DSS image above.
(Compare the images above and below to see the motion of NGC 4769 during a roughly 25 year period)
PanSTARRS image of region near NGC 4770, also showing NGC 4768 and NGC 4769
Below, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image showing NGC 4768 and 4769
PanSTARRS image of the star listed as NGC 4768 and the binary star listed as NGC 4769
Below, 1 arcmin wide comparison of DSS2 and PanSTARRS-1 images of NGC 4769
The two images were taken about 25 years apart
Animated .gif showing the movement of binary star NGC 4769 between 1984 and 2010
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image showing the nearly 22 arcsec proper motion of NGC 4769 between its discovery in 1882 and when the image was obtained, nearly 130 years later
(original position determined by using modern measurements of the annual proper motion, per SIMBAD)
PanSTARRS image of the star listed as NGC 4768 and the binary star listed as NGC 4769, showing the proper motion of NGC 4769 between its discovery in 1882 and when the image was obtained, around 2010

NGC 4770
(= PGC 43804 = MCG -01-33-040)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 12 53 32.1, Dec -09 32 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4770 (= GC 3282 = WH III 525, 1860 RA 12 46 13, NPD 98 45.7) is "very faint, very small." The position precesses to RA 12 53 29.8, Dec -09 31 22, about 1.2 arcmin north-northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Note About Relationship To HCG 62: This is one of several galaxies listed as possible members of a widely extended group covering roughly a degree near Hickson Compact Group 62. Based on their recessional velocities, the galaxies may be distant members of an assemblage that includes the compact group, but they are certainly not part of HCG 62, so I have ignored the complex designation used to indicate the possible relationship.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3985 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4770 is about 185 million light-years away, in poor agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 130 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.45 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 75 to 80 thousand light-years across.
Note About Apparent Size: PanSTARRS closeup images tend not to show faint outer regions in galaxies; so although the lenticular nature of the galaxy is more definitively shown in the 1.75 arcmin wide "closeup", its overall extent is more clearly shown in the 12 arcmin wide view of the surrounding area, and it is that image that was used to determine the size of NGC 4770. The result is close to values recorded elsewhere, whereas a measurement of the size based on the closeup image would make the galaxy seem smaller than it really is.
PanSTARRS image of region near NGC 4770, also showing NGC 4768 and NGC 4769
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on lenticular galaxy NGC 4770
Also shown are the stars listed as NGC 4768 and 4769
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 4770
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4770

NGC 4771
(= PGC 43784 = UGC 8020 = CGCG 015-031 = MCG +00-33-017)

Discovered (Feb 24, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 14, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.3 spiral galaxy (type Scd?) in Virgo (RA 12 53 21.2, Dec +01 16 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4771 (= GC 3283 = JH 1468 = WH II 535, 1860 RA 12 46 13, NPD 87 58.4) is "faint, pretty large, much extended, 9th magnitude star preceding 90°,", the last comment meaning exactly due west of the nebula. The position precesses to RA 12 53 22.1, Dec +01 15 56, well within the central region of the galaxy listed above (albeit a fraction of an arcmin southeast of dead center), the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1465 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4771 is about 65 to 70 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 60 to 80 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 4.1 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 80 to 85 thousand light-years across. It is listed as an emission-line galaxy, meaning that it has brighter emission lines (presumably from clouds of gas heated by active star-forming regions) than usual.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4771
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4771
Below, a 4.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4771

NGC 4772
(= PGC 43798 = UGC 8021 = CGCG 015-032 = MCG +00-33-018)

Discovered (Jan 24, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 9, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.0 spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(r)a? pec) in Virgo (RA 12 53 29.2, Dec +02 10 06)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4772 (= GC 3285 = JH 1469 = WH II 24, 1860 RA 12 46 21, NPD 87 04.3) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 53 29.5, Dec +02 10 02, well within the central bulge of the galaxy listed above (albeit a fraction of an arcmin southeast of the center), the description fits what a visual observer would see and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1370 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4772 is about 60 to 65 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 55 to 135 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 5.5 by 5.2 arcmin for the outer ring and about 4.8 by 2.4 arcmin for the bright part of the galaxy (from the images below), the galaxy is about 90 thousand light-years across, while its outer ring spans about 100 to 105 thousand light-years. The galaxy has an unusually "active" and therefore bright nucleus, leading to its classification as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy3b).
Usage By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 4772 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as an example of a type (R1')SAB(r)a pec galaxy, without any discussion of the reason for that classification. What the classification means is that it has a very faint, not fully ringlike outer structure (R'), basically looks like an unbarred spiral (SA), but has an unusually thin, elongated inner ring (B(r)), a large smooth nucleus (a) and overall, a very unusual structure (pec).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4772
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4772
Below, the image above enhanced to show the faint outer ring
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4772
Below, a 5.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4772

NGC 4773
(= PGC 43810 = MCG -01-33-041)

Discovered (Mar 3, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 elliptical galaxy (type E3? pec) in Virgo RA 12 53 36.0, Dec -08 38 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4773 (= GC 3284 = WH III 516, 1860 RA 12 46 22, NPD 97 54.6) is "very faint, small." The position precesses to RA 12 53 38.2, Dec -08 40 16, about 2 arcmin south-southeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Designation Note: Some references include PGC 43811, the magnitude 15 galaxy due south of NGC 4773 as part of the NGC entry; but it is so much fainter that Herschel couldn't have seen it, and his description gives no indication that it in any way affected his observation, so it should not be considered to be part of NGC 4773. However, because it is sometimes misidentified as being part of the NGC object, I have placed an entry for it immediately following this one, as a warning about the error.
Note About Relationship To HCG 62: This is one of several galaxies listed as possible members of a widely extended group covering roughly a degree near Hickson Compact Group 62. Based on their recessional velocities, the galaxies may be distant members of an assemblage that includes the compact group, but they are certainly not part of HCG 62, so I have ignored the complex designation used to indicate the possible relationship.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3820 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4773 is about 175 to 180 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 40 thousand light-years across. The recessional velocity of its apparent companion would place it at least 20 million light-years further from us than NGC 4773, so although peculiar (non-Hubble-expansion) motions could account for part of the difference in the recessional velocities of the two galaxies, they are probably not a physical pair, and merely an optical double.
Note: The reddish star marked by a circle is LP 676-30, a high-proper motion star that had a noticeable change in its position (toward the southwest) in the roughly 25 years between DSS2 and PanSTARRS-1 images of the region, and is also shown in the wide-field images of NGC 4777 and 4780.
PanSTARRS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4773, also showing its apparent companion, PGC 43810
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4773, also showing PGC 43811
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the apparent pair
PanSTARRS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 4773 and its apparent companion, PGC 43810

PGC 43811
(= MCG -01-33-042, and not part of
NGC 4773)
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes misidentified as part of NGC 4773
A magnitude 14.9 elliptical galaxy (type E4? pec) in Virgo (RA 12 53 35.9, Dec -08 38 44)
Historical Misidentification: See the Designation Note for NGC 4773 for a discussion of why PGC 43811 almost certainly cannot be part of that NGC entry.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4285 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 43811 is about 200 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.35 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images in the entry for NGC 4773), the galaxy is about 20 thousand light-years across. Its recessional velocity would place it more than 20 million light-years further from us than NGC 4773, so although peculiar (non-Hubble-expansion) motions could account for part of the difference in the recessional velocities of the two galaxies, odds are that they are not a physical pair, and merely an optical double. Despite that, since the two galaxies appear to be so close together, see NGC 4773 for images of PGC 43811.

NGC 4774, the Kidney Bean Galaxy
(= PGC 43759 = CGCG 188-026 = MCG +06-28-037)

Discovered (Mar 17, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 11, 1831) by John Herschel
A magnitude 14.3 ring galaxy (type Ring) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 53 06.6, Dec +36 49 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4774 (= GC 3286 = JH 1471 = WH III 618, 1860 RA 12 46 27, NPD 52 25.1) is "extremely faint, considerably small, round, brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 53 06.7, Dec +36 49 14, inside the northern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Since NGC 4774 and the galaxy just to its north (PGC 2087677) have nearly identical recessional velocities and very distorted shapes, they are undoubtedly the result of a collision between two galaxies that resulted in the center of NGC 4774 being removed and becoming part of its companion, and NGC 4774 itself being turned into a "ring" galaxy. Given that, the appropriate recessional velocity for determining their distance is the average of their individually measured values (8580 km/sec for NGC 4774 and 8610 km/sec for PGC 2087677). Based on an average recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 8595 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that the pair is about 400 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxies were about 385 to 390 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 390 to 395 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.32 arcmin (from the images below), NGC 4774 is about 70 to 75 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near ring galaxy NGC 4774, the Kidney Bean Galaxy
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4774
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy and its companion, PGC 2087677
SDSS image of ring galaxy NGC 4774, the Kidney Bean Galaxy

PGC 2087677
Not an NGC object but listed here as a physical companion of
NGC 4774
A magnitude 16.5(?) galaxy (type Sbc? pec) in Canes Venatici (RA 12 53 06.0, Dec +36 49 35)
Physical Information: As discussed in the entry for NGC 4774, PGC 2087677 must be the result of a collision between the two galaxies in which the core of NGC 4774 was removed and became part of PGC 2087677, and NGC 4774 became a "ring" galaxy. Given that, the two must be at about the same distance, or as discussed in the previous entry, about 390 to 395 million light-years away from us at the time that the light by which we see them was emitted, about 390 to 395 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.24 by 0.14 arcmin (from the images shown in the entry for NGC 4774, which see), PGC 2087677 is about 25 to 30 thousand light-years across.

NGC 4775
(= PGC 43826 = UGCA 306 = MCG -01-33-043)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 16, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 spiral galaxy (type SA(s)d) in Virgo (RA 12 53 45.7, Dec -06 37 20)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4775 (= GC 3287 = JH 1470 = WH II 186, 1860 RA 12 46 30, NPD 95 51.6) is "faint, considerably large, round, very gradually a little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 12 53 44.7, Dec -06 37 16, well within the central region of the galaxy listed above (albeit a fraction of an arcmin northwest of the center), the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1905 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4775 is about 85 to 90 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 35 to 85 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.3 by 2.05 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 60 thousand light-years across.
Usage By the de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 4775 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as an example of type SA(s)d. Note: The reddish star marked by a circle is LP 676-31, a high-proper motion star that had a noticeable change in its position (toward the southwest) in the roughly 25 years between DSS2 and PanSTARRS-1 images of the region.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4775
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4775
Below, a 2.8 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 4775

NGC 4776 (= part of
NGC 4759 = HCG 62B)
(= PGC 43754 = MCG -01-33-036)
(part of Hickson Compact Group 62)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as part of NGC 4759)
Discovered (May 5, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4776)
Also observed (Mar 30, 1867) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4759)
Also observed (April 8, 1882) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 4759, 4776 and 4778)
A magnitude 13.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0° pec) in Virgo (RA 12 53 04.5, Dec -09 11 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4776 (= GC 3288 = JH 3437, 1860 RA 12 46 47, NPD 98 26.6) is "faint, small, round, a very little brighter middle, preceding of (western of) double nebula," the double nebula being NGC 4759, and its other member NGC 4778. The position precesses to RA 12 54 03.6, Dec -09 12 15, but there is nothing there that resembles a double nebula of any sort.
The Solution Of The Problem: The solution to this problem rests on John Herschel's identification of his #3437 as being identical to his father's II 559 in the GC, which given the description, is undoubtedly correct. However, since William Herschel, d'Arrest and Tempel all gave a similar (correct or essentially correct) position for the double nebula and John Herschel's position is a minute of time to the east of the correct position, Dreyer separated the single GC entry into William Herschel's observation as NGC 4759, and John Herschel's observations as NGC 4776 and 4778, even though they are actually the same object. (The one minute of time error in JH's position must have been a typographical error, because if he had thought there was a minute of time difference between his and his father's observations there would be a note about the problem in the introductory notes for the GC, and there is no such note.) Subtracting the undoubtedly accidental error of a minute of time from JH's position, the corrected NGC position is 1860 RA 12 45 47, NPD 98 26.6, which precesses to RA 12 53 03.5, Dec -09 12 17, which falls on the western rim of the galaxy listed above, and since the description perfectly fits the western member of the double nebula, the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: d'Arrest's notes show that he observed the pair, but couldn't be certain that he saw it as a pair, so that his observation agreed more with that of William Herschel than that of his son (which is presumably why Dreyer only lists his observation in the entry for NGC 4759). Tempel's paper states that he observed JH's 3288/90 (NGC 4776/78) on Apr 8, 1882, and notes that neither WH nor d'Arrest noticed that the "object" was a pair.
Note About Non-Standard Designations: NGC 4776 is sometimes called NGC 4759A, but such non-standard designations should be avoided, as there are no standards for using the letters, and the same letter is often used for different objects, creating unnecessary confusion.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3895 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4776 is about 180 to 185 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 40 to 45 thousand light-years across. Due to their overlapping position, NGC 4776 is "paired" with NGC 4778, as NGC 4759; but given their recessional velocity difference of 700 km/sec, they should be 30 to 35 million light-years apart and are probably not a physical pair, but merely an optical double. In fact, since the recessional velocity of NGC 4776 is considerably smaller than that of any of the other members of HCG 62, it is at best an outlying member of the group, and might not be a member at all.
Note: LEDA and NED list NGC 4776 as being about 2 arcmin across, but that must be due to a transposition of the sizes for NGC 4776 and 4778, undoubtedly related to the numerous errors noted for cross-identifications of NGC 4759, 4761, 4764, 4776 and 4778.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxies NGC 4776 and NGC 4778 (collectively also known as NGC 4759), also showing NGC 4761 and NGC 4764
Above, a 12 arcmin PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4759 (NGC 4776 + 4778)
Also shown are NGC 4761 and 4764
Below, 3.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 4759 (NGC 4776 + 4778)
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxies NGC 4776 and 4778 (collectively also known as NGC 4759)

NGC 4777
(= PGC 43852 = MCG -01-33-044)

Discovered (Mar 3, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type (R)SAB(s)a?) in Virgo (RA 12 53 58.5, Dec -08 46 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4777 (= GC 3289 = WH III 517, 1860 RA 12 46 48, NPD 98 01.6) is "very faint, small." The position precesses to RA 12 54 04.3, Dec -08 47 15, about 1.6 arcmin roughly southeast of the galaxy listed above, the description is reasonable and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Note About Relationship To HCG 62: This is one of several galaxies listed as possible members of a widely extended group covering roughly a degree near Hickson Compact Group 62. Based on their recessional velocities, the galaxies may be distant members of an assemblage that includes the compact group, but they are certainly not part of HCG 62, so I have ignored the complex designation used to indicate the possible relationship.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3860 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4777 is about 180 million light-years away, in more or less reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 115 to 165 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.8 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 95 thousand light-years across.
Note: The reddish star marked by a circle is LP 676-30, a high-proper motion star that had a noticeable change in its position (toward the southwest) in the roughly 25 years between DSS2 and PanSTARRS-1 images of the region, and is also shown in the wide-field images of NGC 4773 and 4780.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4777
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4777
Below, a 2.0 by 2.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4777

NGC 4778 (= part of
NGC 4759 = HCG 62A)
(= PGC 43757= MCG -01-33-037)
(part of Hickson Compact Group 62)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by William Herschel (and later listed as part of NGC 4759)
Discovered (May 5, 1836) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4778)
Also observed (Apr 8, 1882) by Wilhelm Tempel (and later listed as NGC 4759, 4776 and 4778)
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0+?) in Virgo (RA 12 53 05.7, Dec -09 12 15)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4778 (= GC 3290 = JH 3438, 1860 RA 12 46 48, NPD 98 26.3) is "very faint, small, round, a very little brighter middle, following of (eastern of) double nebula," the double nebula being NGC 4759, and the other member being NGC 4776. The position precesses to RA 12 54 04.6, Dec -09 11 57, but as in the case of NGC 4776, which is the other member of the pair, there is absolutely nothing that fits the description at that position. However, as discussed in the entry for NGC 4776, what must have happened is that JH made an undoubtedly accidental error of 1 minute of time in the right ascension. Subtracting that error, the corrected position (1860 RA 12 45 48, NPD 98 26.3) precesses to RA 12 53 04.5, Dec -09 11 59, which falls on the northwestern rim of the galaxy above, and since the description is a perfect fit to what JH claimed was the same as his father's II 559 (and was, despite the 1 minute error in the RA), the identification is certain.
Discovery Notes: d'Arrest's notes show that he observed the pair, but couldn't be certain that he saw it as a pair, so that his observation agreed more with that of William Herschel than that of his son (which is presumably why Dreyer only lists his observation in the entry for NGC 4759). Tempel's paper states that he observed JH's 3288/90 (NGC 4776/78) on Apr 8, 1882, and notes that neither WH nor d'Arrest noticed that the "object" was a pair.
Note About Non-Standard Designations: NGC 4778 is sometimes called NGC 4759B, but such non-standard designations should be avoided, as there are no standards for using the letters, and the same letter is often used for different objects, creating unnecessary confusion.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4595 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4778 is about 210 to 215 million light-years away, in fairly reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 180 to 205 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.85 by 2.15 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 175 to 180 thousand light-years across. Due to their overlapping position, NGC 4778 is "paired" with NGC 4776, as NGC 4759; but given their recessional velocity difference of 700 km/sec, they should be around 35 million light-years apart, and are almost certainly not a physical pair.
Note: LEDA lists NGC 4778 as identical to NGC 4764, and to add to the confusion, assigns it the PGC listing for NGC 4761; search LEDA for PGC 43757 to access the correct information.
Additional Note: LEDA lists NGC 4778 as being about 1.7 arcmin across, while NED states that it is 0.7 by 0.5 arcmin in size. The latter error is easy to understand, as it must be a transposition of the sizes for NGC 4776 and 4778, undoubtedly related to the numerous errors noted for cross-identifications of NGC 4759, 4761, 4764, 4776 and 4778.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4761, which is often misidentified as NGC 4764 and/or NGC 4778, also showing the actual NGC 4764, NGC 4776 and NGC 4778
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4761
Also shown are NGC 4776 and 4778, which comprise NGC 4759, and NGC 4764
Below, a 4.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 4761, 4764, 4776 and 4778, which comprise HCG 62
PanSTARRS image of NGC 4761, NGC 4764, NGC 4776 and NGC 4778, which comprise Hickson Compact Group 62
Below, a 3.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of NGC 4776 and 4778, which comprise NGC 4759
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxies NGC 4776 and NGC 4778, which comprise NGC 4759

NGC 4779
(= PGC 43837 = UGC 8022 = CGCG 071-068 = MCG +02-33-034)

Discovered (Apr 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 10, 1826) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc?) in Virgo (RA 12 53 50.8, Dec +09 42 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4779 (= GC 3291 = JH 1472 = WH III 106, 1860 RA 12 46 48, NPD 79 31.6) is "very faint, pretty large, round, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 12 53 51.0, Dec +09 42 49, on the northern end of the central bar of the galaxy listed above, the description is a good fit and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3150 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4779 is about 145 to 150 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 125 to 140 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.2 by 1.6 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 95 thousand light-years across. NGC 4779 is classified as a starburst galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4779
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4779
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4779

NGC 4780
(= PGC 43870 = MCG -01-33-045)

Discovered (1880) by
Wilhelm Tempel
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)bc?) in Virgo (RA 12 54 05.2, Dec -08 37 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4780 (Tempel list V (#20), 1860 RA 12 46 50, NPD 97 53.5) is "very faint, following (east of) III 516 and 517," WH III 516 being NGC 4773, and WH III 517 being NGC 4777. The position precesses to RA 12 54 06.2, Dec -08 39 09, about 1.9 arcmin nearly due south of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the galaxy is nearly due east of NGC 4773 and a little east though nearly due north of NGC 4777, and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Note About Relationship To HCG 62: This is one of several galaxies listed as possible members of a widely extended group covering roughly a degree near Hickson Compact Group 62. Based on their recessional velocities, the galaxies may be distant members of an assemblage that includes the compact group, but they are certainly not part of HCG 62, so I have ignored the complex designation used to indicate the possible relationship.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3815 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4780 is about 175 to 180 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 130 to 165 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.2 by 1.6 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 110 to 115 thousand light-years across.
Note: The reddish star marked by a circle is LP 676-30, a high-proper motion star that had a noticeable change in its position (toward the southwest) in the roughly 25 years between DSS2 and PanSTARRS-1 images of the region, and is also shown in the wide-field images of NGC 4773 and 4777.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4780
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4780, also showing PGC 1000913
Below, a 2.6 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4780

PGC 1000913
(= "NGC 4780A")

Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 4780A
A magnitude 14.8 lenticular galaxy (type S0/a?) in
Virgo (RA 12 54 03.0, Dec -08 39 14)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Since there are no rules for assigning letters to NGC/IC objects, such non-standard designations often result in more than one object having the same designation, which has sometimes led to data for one object being mistakenly assigned to a completely different one. For that reason, such non-standard designations should never be used.
Note About Relationship To HCG 62: This is one of several galaxies listed as possible members of a widely extended group covering roughly a degree near Hickson Compact Group 62. Based on their recessional velocities, the galaxies may be distant members of an assemblage that includes the compact group, but they are certainly not part of HCG 62, so I have ignored the complex designation used to indicate the possible relationship.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4785 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 1000913 is about 220 to 225 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.2 arcmin (from the image below), the galaxy is about 35 to 40 thousand light-years across. Some references list it as being part of a pair, presumably with NGC 4780, but their very different recessional velocities make that an impossibility.
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 1000913, also known as NGC 4780A
Above, a 1 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of PGC 1000913; for a wide-field image see NGC 4780

NGC 4781
(= PGC 43902 = MCG -02-33-049)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.1 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)d) in Virgo (RA 12 54 23.8, Dec -10 32 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4781 (= GC 3292 = WH I 134, 1860 RA 12 47 05, NPD 99 46.6) is "considerably bright, very large, much extended." The position precesses to RA 12 54 22.6, Dec -10 32 14, well within the southwestern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1595 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4781 is about 70 to 75 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 35 to 75 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.65 by 1.7 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 75 to 80 thousand light-years across.
Usage By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 4781 is used by the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as an example of type SB(s)d, whence the type shown above. However, NED lists it as type SB(rs)d.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4781
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4781, also showing NGC 4784
Below, a 4.2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 4781

NGC 4782
(= PGC 43924 = MCG -02-33-050)

Discovered (Mar 27, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.7 elliptical galaxy (type E1? pec) in Corvus (RA 12 54 35.7, Dec -12 34 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4782 (= GC 3293 = WH I 135, 1860 RA 12 47 15, NPD 101 49.1) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, much brighter middle, preceding of (western of) double nebula," the other being NGC 4783. The position precesses to RA 12 54 34.2, Dec -12 34 43, about 1.4 arcmin more or less south-southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing nearby save the other member of the double nebula, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Herschel did not give the relative positions of the two nebulae, using a single description for the pair, and only stating that they were separated by about an arcminute. How Dreyer determined the positions given in the NGC is not clear, but his positions place the western member of the pair to the north of the eastern member, which is backwards from their actual position. However, despite that error, since the NGC is arranged in order of right ascension, the western member, despite being the southern galaxy, must be assigned to NGC 4782.
A Modern Problem: Although, as noted immediately above, the western galaxy must be NGC 4782, the fact that the north-south positions of the two galaxies are reversed has led many modern catalogs to reverse the NGC numbers, and as a result, some of the data corresponding to the two galaxies have been placed on the wrong object. For instance, although the northern galaxy is clearly smaller than the southern one, NED lists identical apparent sizes for the two.
Physical Information: Although NGC 4782 and 4783 appear to be a double system, the large difference in their recessional velocities means that they may not actually be a physical system, but merely an optical double. I have therefore used their individual radial velocities to estimate their distances, instead of an average, as would be more appropriate if they were a gravitationally bound system. Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4960 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4782 is about 230 million light-years away, in almost inevitable agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 135 to 300 million light-years, and about 30 million light-years more distant than its apparent companion. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.6 by 1.45 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 105 to 110 thousand light-years across. It should be noted that even without the overlapping images of the pair, determining their apparent sizes would be difficult, and with the overlap, the apparent sizes can only be considered as estimates; still, there is no question that NGC 4782 is larger than its apparent companion, as well as being less distant.
PanSTARRS image of region near elliptical galaxies NGC 4782 and NGC 4783, which though they appear to be a physical pair, are more likely to be an optical double
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4782 and 4783
(The images shown here are identical to those shown for the other galaxy)
Below, a 3 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the pair
PanSTARRS image of elliptical galaxies NGC 4782 and NGC 4783, which though they appear to be a physical pair, are more likely to be an optical double

NGC 4783
(= PGC 43926 = MCG -02-33-051)

Discovered (Mar 27, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 elliptical galaxy (type E1? pec) in Corvus (RA 12 54 36.6, Dec -12 33 29)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4783 (= GC 3294 = WH I 136, 1860 RA 12 47 16, NPD 101 50.1) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, much brighter middle, following of (eastern of) double nebula," the other being NGC 4782. The position precesses to RA 12 54 35.2, Dec -12 35 43, about 2.2 arcmin nearly due south of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing nearby save the other member of the double nebula, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: As noted in the entry for NGC 4782, however Dreyer determined the relative positions of the apparent pair reversed their north-south positions, which is partly why the error in the NGC position is larger for this entry; but since the NGC is arranged in order of right ascension, the eastern member, despite being the northern galaxy, must be assigned to NGC 4783.
A Modern Problem: Although, as noted immediately above, the eastern galaxy must be NGC 4783, the fact that the north-south positions of the two galaxies are reversed has led many modern catalogs to reverse the NGC numbers, and as a result, some of the data corresponding to the two galaxies have been placed on the wrong object. For instance, although the northern galaxy is clearly smaller than the southern one, NED lists identical apparent sizes for the two.
Physical Information: Although NGC 4782 and 4783 appear to be a double system, the large difference in their recessional velocities means that they may not actually be a physical system, but merely an optical double. I have therefore used their individual radial velocities to estimate their distances, instead of an average, as would be more appropriate if they were a gravitationally bound system. Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4315 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4783 is about 200 million light-years away, in almost inevitable agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 130 to 300 million light-years, and about 30 million light-years closer to us than its apparent companion. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.3 by 1.15 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 75 thousand light-years across. It should be noted that even without the overlapping images of the pair, determining their apparent sizes would be difficult, and with the overlap, the apparent sizes can only be considered as estimates; still, there is no question that NGC 4783 is smaller than its apparent companion, as well as being more distant.
PanSTARRS image of region near elliptical galaxies NGC 4782 and NGC 4783, which though they appear to be a physical pair, are more likely to be an optical double
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4782 and 4783
(The images shown here are identical to those shown for the other galaxy)
Below, a 3 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the pair
PanSTARRS image of elliptical galaxies NGC 4782 and NGC 4783, which though they appear to be a physical pair, are more likely to be an optical double

NGC 4784
(= PGC 43929 = MCG -02-33-053)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 12 54 37.0, Dec -10 36 47)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4784 (= GC 3295 = WH III 526, 1860 RA 12 47 17, NPD 99 51.6) is "extremely faint, extremely small." The position precesses to RA 12 54 34.7, Dec -10 37 13, about 0.7 arcmin southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits the visual appearance of the galaxy and the only other object in the region is accounted for by NGC 4781, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4170 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4784 is about 195 million light-years away, in fair agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 155 to 160 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.65 by 0.35 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 90 to 95 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4784, also showing NGC 4781
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4784, also showing NGC 4781
Below, a 1.8 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4784

NGC 4785
(almost certainly = PGC 43791 = ESO 219-004)

Discovered (Mar 1, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(r)ab?) in Centaurus (RA 12 53 27.3, Dec -48 44 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4785 (= GC 3296 = JH 3439, 1860 RA 12 47 17, NPD 137 58.9) is "very faint, small, round, gradually a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 55 14.0, Dec -48 44 31, but there is nothing there. As noted by Gottlieb, there is a galaxy about 1.75 minutes of time to the west at nearly the same declination, and there is nothing else anywhere in the region, so that galaxy is listed above as probably being what Herschel observed.
Additional Note: Although ESO lists the identification as uncertain, no one else appears to have paid any attention to what would have been a very uncharacteristic error by Herschel, and the identification shown here is generally treated as if certain. However, though it seems very likely to be correct, it cannot be considered certainly correct, hence my use of "almost certainly" in the heading for this entry.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3930 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4785 is about 180 to 185 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 155 to 170 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.85 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 95 to 100 thousand light-years across. Because of its brilliant nucleus, NGC 4785 is classified as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2).
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4785
Above, a 12 arcmin DSS image centered on NGC 4785
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4785
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4785

NGC 4786
(= PGC 43922 = MCG -01-33-046)

Discovered (Apr 25, 1784) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 11.7 elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Virgo (RA 12 54 32.4, Dec -06 51 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4786 (= GC 3297 = WH II 187, 1860 RA 12 47 21, NPD 96 06.1) is "pretty bright, pretty small, much brighter middle, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 12 54 36.0, Dec -06 51 43, only 0.9 arcmin east of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4980 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4786 is about 190 million light-years away, in good agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 70 to 345 million light-years, with a median value of about 210 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.1 by 1.7 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 140 thousand light-years across. Not only is this a substantial size, but since elliptical galaxies are spheroids instead of flattened disks, they contain far more stars (and mass) than spirals of similar size, so the galaxy must have a mass even more impressive than its supposed size.
PanSTARRS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4786
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4786
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 4786

NGC 4787
(= PGC 43875 = UGC 8026
= CGCG 159-111 = CGCG 160-006 = MCG +05-30-121)

Discovered (Apr 3, 1867) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 05.5, Dec +27 04 07)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4787 (= GC 5675, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 47 22, NPD 62 10.5) is "very faint, very small, II 345 following (to east)," WH II 345 being NGC 4789. The position precesses to RA 12 54 10.9, Dec +27 03 52, almost dead center on a star of magnitude 14.8, and about 1.2 arcmin east-southeast of the galaxy listed above. Given the nearly equal magnitudes of the star and the galaxy and the fact that both are to the west of NGC 4789, either could be considered a possible candidate for NGC 4787 given only the NGC entry. However, d'Arrest's original paper states that his "nova" was 13.6 seconds of time to the west of II 345, and the galaxy is 13.4 seconds of time to the west of NGC 4789, so the identification of the galaxy as NGC 4787 is certain.
Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7860 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 4787 is about 365 to 370 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 355 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 360 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.35 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 105 to 110 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4787, also showing NGC 4789 and PGC 43869 (which is sometimes called NGC 4789A)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4787, also showing NGC 4789 and PGC 43869
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4787

NGC 4788
(= PGC 43874 = CGCG 159-112 = CGCG 160-007 = MCG +05-30-123)

Discovered (Apr 23, 1865) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A magnitude 14.4 lenticular galaxy (type SB0/a pec) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 16.0, Dec +27 18 14)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4788 (= GC 5676, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 47 23, NPD 61 56.2) is "very faint, small." The position precesses to RA 12 54 11.7, Dec +27 18 10, just under an arcmin nearly due west of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 6685 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4788 is about 310 to 315 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.27 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 70 to 75 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: Most references list this as an SB0/a galaxy, but the images below do not show any evidence of a bar. However, there appears to be a faint x-shaped structure associated with the nucleus, and there are a number of galaxies with structures like that, and in almost every case I have read suggestions that they are caused by some kind of off-axis bar-like structure. Given that, I have left the "B" in the galaxy type shown in the description line, and added "pec".
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4788
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4788
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4788

NGC 4789
(= PGC 43895 = UGC 8028
= CGCG 159-113 = CGCG 160-008 = MCG +05-30-124)

Discovered (Apr 6, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 26, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 lenticular galaxy (type SA0?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 19.0, Dec +27 04 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC (= GC 3298 = JH 1473 = WH II 345, 1860 RA 12 47 30, NPD 62 10.0) is "faint, round, 9th magnitude star attached 1 arcmin to north." The position precesses to RA 12 54 18.9, Dec +27 04 23, on the northern rim of the galaxy listed above and between it and the star noted in the NGC entry, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 8640 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 4789 is about 400 to 405 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 275 to 485 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 390 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 395 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below, admittedly difficult to determine due to the interference of the "nearby" star), the galaxy is about 140 to 145 thousand light-years across. Though not visible in the images below, NGC 4789 has a radio jet, probably associated with a supermassive black hole at or near its center.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4789, also showing NGC 4797 and PGC 43869 (which is sometimes called NGC 4789A)
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4789, also showing NGC 4787 and PGC 43869
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4789

PGC 43869
(= UGC 8024 = CGCG 159-109 = CGCG 160-004 = MCG +05-30-120
= "NGC 4789A")

Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 4789A
A magnitude 13.6 irregular galaxy (type IBm?) in
Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 05.5, Dec +27 08 51)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: There are no standards for assigning letters to NGC/IC designations, so it is not unusual for the same designation to be assigned to different galaxies, all too often leading to data for one object being mistakenly applied to another. For that reason, such non-standard designations should never be used, and the only reason for noting that designation for this galaxy is as a warning against its use.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 650 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 43869 is about 30 million light-years away, in poor agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 10 to 20 million light-years. In some ways that is hardly unexpected, as for galaxies that are that close to us, peculiar velocities (motions relative to neighboring galaxies that are unrelated to the expansion of the Universe) can substantially affect the distance calculated from the recessional velocity. The HST press release uses a distance of 14 to 15 million light-years, which is close to the median of the redshift-independent distance estimates, and that is what I have adopted here. Given that and the galaxy's apparent size of about 2.1 by 1.1 arcmin for the brighter central regions and about 2.7 by 1.6 arcmin including the fainter outer regions (from the images below), the brighter regions span about 9 thousand light-years, while the fainter regions span an additional 2 to 3 thousand light-years, making it a "dwarf" irregular galaxy. The mixture of young, hot blue Main Sequence stars and older, cooler red giants shows that stars have been forming in the galaxy throughout its existence.
SDSS image of region near irregular galaxy PGC 43869, also known as NGC 4789A, also showing NGC 4787 and NGC 4789
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on PGC 43869, also showing NGC 4787 and 4789
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of irregular galaxy PGC 43869, also known as NGC 4789A
Below, a 2.0 by 2.2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
(Image Credit ESA/Hubble/NASA; Acknowledgement Judy Schmidt)
HST image of irregular galaxy PGC 43869, also known as NGC 4789A

NGC 4790
(= PGC 43972 = PGC 980503 = MCG -02-33-056)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1786) by
William Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)c?) in Virgo (RA 12 54 51.9, Dec -10 14 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4790 (= GC 3299 = WH II 560, 1860 RA 12 47 32, NPD 99 28.6) is "pretty faint, pretty small, irregularly round." The position precesses to RA 12 54 49.5, Dec -10 14 13, less than 0.9 arcmin northwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1680 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4790 is about 75 to 80 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 55 to 85 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.55 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 35 thousand light-years across.
  The 14th magnitude star enclosed in a circle to the south of NGC 4790 is a high-proper motion star that moved noticeably to the south during the roughly 25 years between images were acquired for the DSS2 and PanSTARRS-1 image databases. It appears to have no official designation, but could be referred to as J2000 125450.0-101654.6, representing its coordinates in the GAIA survey.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4790
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4790
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4790
Below, a 1.7 by 1.1 arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy (Image Credit NASA, ESA, J. DePasquale (STScI))
(Original image includes blowup of region with a supernova/pulsar (SN 2012au); hence the box and lines)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 4790; in the original image the box and lines lead to blowups of a region containing a new supernova

NGC 4791
(= PGC 43950 = CGCG 043-060 = MCG +01-33-021)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SAB(r)ab, SBN) in Virgo (RA 12 54 43.9, Dec +08 03 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4791 (= GC 5677, Marth #243, 1860 RA 12 47 40, NPD 81 11) is "extremely faint, very small, a little extended, a very little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 54 44.1, Dec +08 03 23, less than 0.2 arcmin north northeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and barely outside its northern rim, the description fits and there is nothing nearby other than NGC 4795, which is clearly not the object in question, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2850 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4971 is about 130 to 135 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 30 to 35 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: The type shown above (provided by Dr. Corwin, based on the SDSS image) includes SBN to refer to the faint bar running through the nucleus from east (left) to west (right). Similarly, the underlined A in AB indicates that the overall classification is in between a barred and unbarred galaxy, and a little closer to unbarred, because the bar is so poorly defined. The (r) refers to the fact that the spiral "arms" look more like a faint patchy ring than actual arms. Corwin notes that based on the PanSTARRS image, the type could be listed as SAB(rs)ab, since the spiral structure is more obvious than in the SDSS image.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4791, also showing NGC 4795
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4791, also showing NGC 4795
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4791
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide g-band PanSTARRS image clearly shows weak spiral features
PanSTARRS g-band image of spiral galaxy NGC 4791

NGC 4792
(= PGC 43999)

Discovered (1882) by
Wilhelm Tempel
Probably not observed (Jul 1898 to Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 4792)
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Corvus (RA 12 55 03.7, Dec -12 29 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4792 (Tempel list V, 1860 RA 12 47 43, NPD 101 46.5) is "very small, round, 7 arcmin north-northpreceding of (north-northwest of) II 538," WH III 538 being NGC 4794 (which see for a note about the mistaken designation as II 538). The second IC adds (per Howe) "Doubtful". The position precesses to RA 12 55 02.2, Dec -12 32 06, about 2.3 arcmin south-southwest of the galaxy listed above, but the description is reasonable and PGC 43999 is almost exactly 7 arcmin north-northwest of NGC 4794, so the identification is certain. (As noted in the entry for NGC 4794, the error in its NGC position is responsible for 2/3 of the error in the NGC position of NGC 4792.)
Discovery Notes: As in the case of many of Tempel's discoveries, his paper only gives a general description of the position of this object; but per p.11 of the NGC, Tempel provided positions for most such objects to Dreyer by private communication. Howe's paper states that he looked for this while observing NGC 4794, and suggests that it might be a suspicious looking star of magnitude 11. Since that is far brighter than the galaxy, what Howe thought might be 4792 almost certainly wasn't.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4720 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4792 is about 220 million light-years away, in fair agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 170 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 to 55 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4792, also showing PGC 117533
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4792, also showing PGC 117533
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4792

PGC 117533
Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes mentioned as a possible companion of
NGC 4792
A magnitude 15.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Corvus (RA 12 54 53.8, Dec -12 30 17)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 5160 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 117533 is about 240 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.35 by 0.15 arcmin (from the image below), the galaxy is about 25 thousand light-years across.
Is This A Companion Of NGC 4792? It has been suggested that PGC 117533 might be a companion of NGC 4792, and though their recessional velocities differ by about 440 km/sec, so that PGC 117533 is either about 20 million light-years more distant or has an unusually large peculiar velocity (a relative motion not related to the expansion of the Universe) relative to NGC 4792, so they might be companions, but even if they are not, the fact that it has been suggested that they could be justifies discussing the idea, hence this entry.
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 117533
Above, a 1., arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of PGC 117533; for a wide-field image see NGC 4792

NGC 4793
(= PGC 43939 = PGC 1850802 = UGC 8033
= CGCG 159-116 = CGCG 160-011 = MCG +05-31-003)

Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Mar 30, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.6 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 40.6, Dec +28 56 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4793 (= GC 3300 = JH 1475 = WH I 93, 1860 RA 12 47 54, NPD 60 18.1) is "pretty bright, pretty small, a little extended, 8th magnitude star north-following 1 arcmin (to northeast)." The position precesses to RA 12 54 41.0, Dec +28 56 18, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description is a perfect fit and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2755 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4793 is about 125 to 130 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 75 to 125 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.1 by 1.8 arcmin (from the images below, including the outer arms), the galaxy is about 115 thousand light-years across.
 The faint "galaxy" to its southeast (PGC 214037) has a similar recessional velocity and is a probable companion of NGC 4793, though "deep" images of the pair suggest that it might not even be a separate object, but simply a starburst region at the end of the southern arm of the larger galaxy, or perhaps some combination of the two concepts, involving a recent interaction between a very small galaxy and NGC 4793. Because of its bright nucleus NGC 4793 is also considered a starburst galaxy, and it is quite possible that both objects are undergoing rapid star formation because of a recent interaction, and if so, odds are that at some future date the smaller "object", whatever it should be called now, will be torn apart and its stars will become part of NGC 4793, just as many small galaxies that were once neighbors of our own galaxy have been torn to pieces and are now "streams" of stars scattered around our galaxy.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4793 and the starburst region or irregular galaxy listed as PGC 214037
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4793, also showing PGC 214037
Below, a 3.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the pair
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4793 and the starburst region or irregular galaxy listed as PGC 214037

PGC 214037
Not an NGC object but listed here as a companion or part of
NGC 4793
A magnitude 17.0(?) irregular galaxy (type IBm?) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 45.4, Dec +28 55 31)
or a starburst region at the end of NGC 4793's southern arm,
or (most likely) a small galaxy interacting with NGC 4793 which is now both of the above
The Nature of PGC 214037: As noted in the discussion of NGC 4793 and in the three lines of the description above, PGC 214037 is probably a small galaxy that is interacting with its larger neighbor, is now (meaning when the light by which we see the pair left them, about 125 million years ago) as much a starburst region at the end of that galaxy's southern arm as a separate object, and will eventually be disrupted and have its stellar contents become part of NGC 4793. But though that is its probable future, for now it is probably best to consider it a separate object, as has been done with this entry.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2615 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 214037 is about 120 to 125 million light-years away. However, given its apparent interaction with NGC 4793, it is just as likely that it is at the same 125 to 130 million light-year distance as large neighbor. Despite that slight uncertainty in its distance, PGC 214037's apparent size of about 0.4 by 0.2 arcmin (from the image below) suggests that the object spans about 15 thousand light-years from one fuzzy and indeterminate end to the other.
SDSS image of irregular 'galaxy' PGC 214037, which is a companion or part of NGC 4793
Above, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 214037; for wide-field images see NGC 4793

NGC 4794
(= PGC 44012 = MCG -02-33-060)

Discovered (Mar 27, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Jul 1898 to Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe (while listed as NGC 4794)
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)a pec) in Corvus (RA 12 55 10.5, Dec -12 36 31)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4794 (= GC 3301 = WH II 538, 1860 RA 12 47 55, NPD 101 52.1) is "very faint, small, 2 or 3 stars near." In his 1912 summary of errors in the NGC related to a study of Herschel's scientific papers Dreyer notes that this is not WH II 538, but WH III 538. The position precesses to RA 12 55 14.4, Dec -12 37 42, about 1.5 arcmin southeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain. (Note: Since the NGC position for NGC 4792 was determined from its position relative to NGC 4794, about 2/3 of the error in the NGC position for 4792 is due to the error in the NGC position for 4794.)
Discovery Note: Howe's observation is noted here because the second IC2 note for NGC 4792 states that he looked for (but obviously did not find, as discussed in that entry) that object while measuring the position of 4794. He does state that the central condensation of 4794 is about magnitude 13, which is in good agreement with the actual magnitude of the galaxy, and notes that the brightest of the stars mentioned by Herschel is on the northeastern border of the nebula, but although proving that he observed 4794, his note doesn't affect the certainty of its identification.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4300 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4794 is about 200 million light-years away, in fair agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 160 to 165 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.75 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 100 to 105 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: Although its prominent spiral arms make it clear that this galaxy must be classified as a spiral, the exceptional smoothness of its features is more typical of a gas- and dust-free lenticular galaxy, so if such a classification were possible it could have been listed as type SB(rs)0/a; but since that is a nonexistent classification I have added "pec" to its "type".
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4794
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 4794
Below, a 2 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4794

NGC 4795
(= PGC 43998 = UGC 8037 = CGCG 043-064 = MCG +01-33-024)

Discovered (Jan 23, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Dec 27, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.1 spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(r)a pec) in Virgo (RA 12 55 02.9, Dec +08 03 56)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4795 (= GC 3302 = JH 1474 = WH II 21, 1860 RA 12 47 59, NPD 81 10.9) is "pretty faint, pretty large, round, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 12 55 03.1, Dec +08 03 30, about 0.4 arcmin nearly due south of the center of the galaxy listed above and on its southern rim, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: NGC 4795 is obviously interacting with NGC 4796, so the most appropriate recessional velocity is the average of their individual values (about 3105 km/sec for NGC 4795 and about 2730 km/sec for NGC 4796, the difference being their "peculiar velocity" relative to each other, and both values being compared to the Cosmic Microwave Background). Based on an averaged recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of about 2915 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4795 and 4796 are about 135 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.35 by 1.65 arcmin (from the images below), NGC 4795 is about 90 to 95 thousand light-years across.
Usage By The de Vaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 4795 is not shown in the de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies, but it is shown in Ron Buta's supplement as an example of type (R')SB(rs)a pec, whence the classification above.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4794 and its companion, NGC 4796, also showing NGC 4971
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4795, also showing NGC 4791 and 4796
Below, a 3 arcmin wide image of NGC 4795 and its companion, NGC 4796
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4794 and its companion, NGC 4796

NGC 4796
(= PGC 93119)

Discovered (Mar 25, 1865) by
Albert Marth
Also seen (Dec 27, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 14.5 lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Virgo (RA 12 55 04.7, Dec +08 03 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4796 (= GC 5678, Marth #244, 1860 RA 12 48 01, NPD 81 11) is "extremely faint, extremely small, almost stellar, close following (to east of) h 1474," JH 1474 being NGC 4795. The position precesses to RA 12 55 05.1, Dec +08 03 24, about 0.6 arcmin nearly due south of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and its position relative to NGC 4795 (and the nearly identical error in their NGC positions) makes the identification certain.
Discovery Note: Herschel saw this object while examining NGC 4795, noting "a very small (faint) star included, following (to the east)"; but since he thought it was a star, the discovery of its nebular nature belongs to Marth.
Physical Information: NGC 4796 and NGC 4795 are a physically interacting pair, so as noted in the entry for NGC 4795, their individual recessional velocities should be averaged to determine their distance, which as stated there, is about 135 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.25 by 0.12 arcmin (from the images below), NGC 4796 is about 10 thousand light-years across. As noted in the entry for NGC 4795, that galaxy is distorted because of its interaction with NGC 4796, as they are a physical pair and in the distant future, may well become a single galaxy.
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4976, also showing its larger companion, spiral galaxy NGC 4975
Above, a 3 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 4975 (which see for more images) and NGC 4976
Below, a 1 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 4796 and part of the eastern half of NGC 4795
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4976, also showing part of the eastern half of NGC 4975

NGC 4797 (=
NGC 4798)
(= PGC 43981 = UGC 8038
= CGCG 159-118 = CGCG 160-013 = MCG +05-31-004)

Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4798)
Also observed (Apr 13, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4798)
Also observed (Apr 21, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4797)
Also observed (Apr 20, 1901) by Max Wolf (while listed as NGC 4798)
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0(r) pec) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 55.1, Dec +27 24 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4797 (= GC 5679, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 12 48 07, NPD 61 54.4) is "faint, small, round, a little brighter middle." The second IC states (per Wolf list III) "Not on Heidelberg plate". The position precesses to RA 12 54 55.4, Dec +27 20 00, but (as noted by Wolf) there is nothing there. d'Arrest observed this region on April 21 and April 23 of 1865. On April 21 he observed the "nova" which became NGC 4797, but did not see the galaxy about 4.7 arcmin due north of the position recorded for his nova. On April 23 he did not see his nova, but did observe the galaxy to its north, which he correctly realized must be WH II 382 (= NGC 4798). Since his descriptions of the objects on the two nights in question are essentially identical, and there is only one galaxy in the region, it is obvious that NGC 4797 is simply a misrecorded observation of NGC 4798, as shown in the title of this entry.
Note About Wolf's Observation: Wolf did observe this object, as NGC 4798 (#119 in one of the tables in Wolf's list III); but since NGC 4797 is the same object but with the wrong position he had no way of realizing that, so his statement that he could not find 4797 was correct.
Physical Information: Although NGC 4798 is the correctly observed entry for PGC 43981, it is more or less standard practice to call NGC objects by their "earlier" numerical designations, even when those represent poor observations. As a result, NGC 4798 is almost always called 4797, and as a result this is the appropriate entry to discuss its physical characteristics.
 Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 8135 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 4797 (= NGC 4798) is about 375 to 380 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 280 to 375 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 365 to 370 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 370 to 375 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 115 to 120 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: The primary appearance of the galaxy is fairly typical for a galaxy with characteristics between those of an elliptical and lenticular galaxy, hence the E/S0 classification. However, the obvious dust lanes surrounding the nucleus are another matter, and are the reason for the (r) pec.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 4797, also known as NGC 4798
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4797/4798
Below, a 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 4797, also known as NGC 4798

NGC 4798 (=
NGC 4797)
(= PGC 43981 = UGC 8038
= CGCG 159-118 = CGCG 160-013 = MCG +05-31-004)

Discovered (Apr 11, 1785) by William Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4798)
Also observed (Apr 13, 1831) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 4798)
Also observed (Apr 21, 1865) by Heinrich d'Arrest (and later listed as NGC 4797)
Also observed (Apr 20, 1901) by Max Wolf (while listed as NGC 4798)
A magnitude 13.2 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0(r) pec) in Coma Berenices (RA 12 54 55.1, Dec +27 24 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4798 (= GC 3303 = JH 1477 = WH II 382, 1860 RA 12 48 07, NPD 61 49.3) is "pretty faint, pretty small, gradually brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 12 54 55.3, Dec +27 25 06, barely outside the northern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby (as pointed out in the discussion of the duplicate entry for NGC 4797), so the identification is certain.
Note About Wolf's Observation: Normally, only observers noted by Dreyer (or early observers whose observations were unknown to Dreyer) are mentioned in these pages; but in this case, Dreyer noted Wolf's failure to observe NGC 4797 in the second IC, and since (as stated in the entry for NGC 4797) Wolf did observe the object in question, because it was simply a misrecorded position for NGC 4798, I have chosen to mention Wolf's observation in both entries for the galaxy.
Physical Information: Although NGC 4798 is the correctly observed entry for PGC 43981, it is more or less standard practice to call NGC objects by their "earlier" numerical designations, even when those represent poor observations. As a result, NGC 4798 is almost always called NGC 4797 (which see for anything else).

NGC 4799
(= PGC 44017 = UGC 8043 = CGCG 043-066 = MCG +01-33-025)

Discovered (Apr 30, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Apr 7, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.4 spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Virgo (RA 12 55 15.5, Dec +02 53 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 4799 (= GC 3304 = JH 1476 = WH III 548, 1860 RA 12 48 08, NPD 86 20.3) is "considerably faint, small, very small (faint) star attached." The position precesses to RA 12 55 15.9, Dec +02 54 07, only 0.3 arcmin north-northeast of the galaxy listed above, the description is reasonable and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3120 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 4799 is about 145 million light-years away, in good agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimates of about 150 to 155 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.35 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 55 to 60 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: Since the galaxy is more nearly edge-on than not, its type is uncertain, and different references list types anywhere from Sa to Sd. The type shown above is based on the apparent size of the nucleus, which tends to be large for "early-type" spirals (Sa etc) and small for "late-type" (Sd etc), and the lack of well-defined spiral arms (which though obviously present, appear more chaotic than not).
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 4799
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 4799
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 4799
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 4700 - 4749) ←NGC Objects: NGC 4750 - 4799→ (NGC 4800 - 4849)