Celestial Atlas
(NGC 7100 - 7149) ←NGC Objects: NGC 7150 - 7199→ (NGC 7200 - 7249)
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7150, 7151, 7152, 7153, 7154, 7155, 7156, 7157, 7158, 7159, 7160, 7161, 7162, 7163, 7164, 7165, 7166,
7167, 7168, 7169, 7170, 7171, 7172, 7173, 7174, 7175, 7176, 7177, 7178, 7179, 7180, 7181, 7182, 7183,
7184, 7185, 7186, 7187, 7188, 7189, 7190, 7191, 7192, 7193, 7194, 7195, 7196, 7197, 7198, 7199

Page last updated Apr 25, 2022
Updated all positions, Steinicke magnitudes/designations, original discoverers
Checked all NGC/IC/IC2 entries and all IDs (w/help of Corwin's & Gottlieb's notes), de Vaucouleurs entries
Added best images available, added/updated physical information (LEDA/NED/etc)
Added IDs based on original NGC positions as well as later corrections
NEXT: need to clean up almost all PanSTARRS images
(look for physical information for "not 7175", GAIA data for 7186)
LATER: Update corresponding PGC, UGC, HCG entries (HCG 90 already finished?)

NGC 7150
(= "PGC 5067412")

Recorded (Feb 10, 1848) by
George Bond
A group of stars in Cygnus (RA 21 50 24.1, Dec +49 45 24)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7150 (= GC 5077, G. P. Bond (#25, HN 1), 1860 RA 21 45 13, NPD 40 53.8) is "a nebula, no description." The position precesses to RA 21 50 24.1, Dec +49 45 24, dead center on the small group of stars listed above. Although not a nebula, Corwin notes that when he first observed NGC 7150 with a 6-inch reflector in the 1960's it looked like "a small, faint nebula, clearly defined, yet unresolved," and other observers have said similar things, so there is no doubt that the asterism is what Bond saw, and just didn't have enough resolution to see it for what it was.
Discovery Note: Gottlieb notes that this was the first deep sky object discovered in the United States.
Note About PGC Designation: As in the case of most NGC objects, HyperLEDA assigned a PGC designation to this group, even though it isn't a galaxy; however, also as in most such cases a search of the database for that designation returns no result, so it is shown in quotes.
Physical Information: NGC 7150 consists of several faint stars, ranging from 14th to 16th magnitude, arranged in the shape of a horseshoe; this arrangement undoubtedly helps explain its so easily being mistaken for a nebula with small instruments.
DSS image of region near stellar group NGC 7150
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7150
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the group
DSS image of stellar group NGC 7150

NGC 7151
(= PGC 67634 = ESO 237-015)

Discovered (Jul 8, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)cd) in Indus (RA 21 55 03.9, Dec -50 39 28)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7151 (= GC 4713 = JH 3896, 1860 RA 21 45 46, NPD 141 19.2) is "very faint, pretty large, a little extended, very gradually brighter middle, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 21 55 00.1, Dec -50 39 42, about 0.6 arcmin west-southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its western outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1680 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7151 is about 75 to 80 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 65 to 90 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.3 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 to 55 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7151
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7151
Below, a 2.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7151

NGC 7152
(= PGC 67601 = ESO 466-013 = MCG -05-51-020)

Discovered (Aug 18, 1835) by
John Herschel
Looked for but not found (prior to Nov 1, 1862?) by William Lassell
Also observed (Jul 1898 - Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.6 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b? pec) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 21 53 59.1, Dec -29 17 21)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7152 (= GC 4714 = JH 3897, 1860 RA 21 45 50, NPD 119 56.6) is "most extremely faint, very small (Lassell not found);" but though Lassell could not find the object, the second IC notes "Observed by Howe". The position precesses to RA 21 53 57.5, Dec -29 17 10, barely off the northwestern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Howe's paper states "It is a small, exceedingly faint, and diffuse stain on the sky." Herschel's GC states that Lassell couldn't find JH 3897 in a region half a degree in radius centered on Herschel's position; this was presumably communicated to Herschel in a note written by Lassell on Nov 1, 1862 (Steinicke's historical reference S214).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 6350 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7152 is about 295 to 300 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 215 to 300 million light-years. Given that and an apparent size of about 1.5 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below) counting a faint northern extension of the western arm, or about 1.15 by 0.6 arcmin if ignoring that extension, the main galaxy spans about 100 thousand light-years, and it and its northern extension span about 130 thousand light-years.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7152
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7152
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7152

NGC 7153
(= PGC 67624 = ESO 466-016 = MCG -05-51-022)

Discovered (Sep 28, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SABxb? sp) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 21 54 35.3, Dec -29 03 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7153 (= GC 4715 = JH 3898, 1860 RA 21 46 30, NPD 119 41.5) is "extremely faint, small, extended or has extremely faint star near." The position precesses to RA 21 54 36.6, Dec -29 01 59, about 1.8 arcmin north-northeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 6720 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7153 is about 310 to 315 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.95 by 0.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 175 to 180 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: The "sp" in the galaxy type stands for "spindle", meaning that we see it nearly edge-on (the dust lane just above the nucleus indicates that it is tilted slightly upward in front relative to our line of sight). That makes it hard to determine other aspects of its "type", hence the question mark in "b?". The x indicates the presence of an x-shaped "box" running through the nucleus; this poorly understood feature is sometimes indicated by the subscript "x", and sometimes by adding "pec" (peculiar) to the classification. Ron Buta's papers suggest that the "box" is associated with bars, but since bars are hard to detect in edge-on spirals and the "box" feature is almost never seen in spirals that aren't edge-on, that conclusion is controversial (Corwin points out that PGC 30775 is a spectacular example of such a feature; unfortunately, available images of that galaxy aren't as good). My choice of AB as the barred/unbarred classification is based on the extended brighter area near the nucleus which suggests the possibility of a bar, but a lack of anything in the image that proves the existence of such a structure.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7153
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7153
Below, a 2.25 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7153

NGC 7154
(= PGC 67641 = ESO 404-008 = MCG -06-48-005)

Discovered (Sep 23, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.4 spiral galaxy (type SBm?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 21 55 21.1, Dec -34 48 51)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7154 (= GC 4716 = JH 3900, 1860 RA 21 46 59, NPD 125 28.4) is "bright, pretty large, irregularly round, gradually a little brighter middle, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 21 55 19.5, Dec -34 48 49, well within the western outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2355 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7154 is about 110 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 70 to 110 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.65 by 2.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 85 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7154
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7154
Below, a 3.2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 7154

NGC 7155 (=
IC 5143)
(= PGC 67663 = ESO 237-016)

Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by John Herschel (and later listed as NGC 7155)
Discovered (Sep 17, 1897) by Lewis Swift (and later listed as IC 5143)
A magnitude 12.2 lenticular galaxy (type SB(r)00) in Indus (RA 21 56 09.7, Dec -49 31 19)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7155 (= GC 4717 = JH 3899, 1860 RA 21 46 59, NPD 140 10.8) is "pretty bright, small, a little extended, much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 21 56 07.2, Dec -49 31 11, almost dead center on the faint star within the western outline of the galaxy, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Note About Duplicate Entry: See IC 5143 for a discussion of Swift's duplicate entry.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1790 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7155 is about 80 to 85 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 65 to 130 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.2 by 1.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 to 55 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7155
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7155
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy and its faint outer envelope
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7155

NGC 7156
(= PGC 67622 = UGC 11843 = CGCG 376-053 = MCG +00-55-029)

Discovered (Oct 8, 1785) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 13, 1827) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)c?) in Pegasus (RA 21 54 33.6, Dec +02 56 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7156 (= GC 4718 = JH 2135 = WH III 452, 1860 RA 21 47 28, NPD 87 43.0) is "faint, pretty large, round, brighter middle, mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 21 54 33.7, Dec +02 56 33, almost dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 3635 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7156 is about 170 million light-years away, much further than redshift-independent distance estimates of about 65 to 75 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.5 by 1.45 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is only about 30 thousand light-years across if at the median redshift-independent distance estimate of about 70 million light-years, but about 70 to 75 thousand light-years across if at the Hubble Flow distance.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7156
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7156
Below, a 2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7156

NGC 7157
(= PGC 67693 = ESO 532-003 = MCG -04-51-015)

Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Looked for but not found (Nov 14, 1891) by Rudolf Spitaler
Looked for but not found (Jul 1898 - Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude spiral 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SB(r)0+) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 21 56 56.7, Dec -25 21 02)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7157 (Leavenworth list I (#244), 1860 RA 21 48 15, NPD 116 02.5) is "very faint, very small, round, suddenly brighter middle and nucleus, bright double star preceding (to the west) 8 seconds of time." The first IC notes "Not found by Spitaler;" the second IC adds "Not found by Howe." The position precesses to RA 21 56 13.0, -25 22 48, but there is nothing there, so it is hardly surprising that neither Spitaler nor Howe could find it. However, the Leander McCormick positions are often off by quite a bit in right ascension, and there is a faint galaxy about 40 seconds of time to the east that does have a bright double star 8 seconds of time to its west, so that is undoubtedly what Leavenworth observed, and the galaxy listed above has been universally accepted as the correct identification of NGC 7157.
Discovery Note: Howe's paper notes that "BD * p 8s." might not mean bright double star, but Bonn Durchmusterung star." However, since there is a bright double to the west of this galaxy, the original interpretation is undoubtedly the correct one. At any rate, Howe couldn't find a bright double star near Leavenworth's incorrect position, or any nebula, and noted that Spitaler also failed to find anything, so the first and second IC notes are correct. Gottlieb suggests that Spitaler and Howe failed to find the object because the "bright double star" is very difficult to resolve, and the apparent absence of a double star would be confusing.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 8460 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7157 is about 390 to 395 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 380 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 385 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 115 to 120 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: Different references classify this as either a spiral galaxy (type (R)SB(r)a) or a borderline lenticular/spiral (type (R)SB(r)0+ or (R)SB(r)0/a). I have chosen a lenticular type because the images below show no sign of spiral structure; but NGC 7157 is certainly a peculiar galaxy no matter how one looks at it, and almost certainly had some kind of encounter with another galaxy in the not terribly distant past (thinking in terms of the very long timescales appropriate for galaxies), equally certainly looked different prior to that encounter and will probably look different from the way it does now in the not terribly distant future (again, thinking in terms of timescales that are long compared to the few million years that humans have been around).
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7157
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7157
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7157

NGC 7158
Recorded (1886) by
Frank Muller
Also observed (Sep 10, 1888) by Guillaume Bigourdan
Also observed (Jul 1898 - Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe
Three stars in Capricornus (RA 21 57 27.9, Dec -11 35 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7158 (Muller list II (#464), 1860 RA 21 49 25, NPD 102 15.4) is "a very faint nebulous star, 9.5 magnitude star 3' north-following (to northeast)." The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan and Howe) of 21 49 56. The original NGC position precesses to RA 21 56 56.1, Dec -11 35 36, but there is nothing there. However, there is a magnitude 10.5 star just over half a minute of time to the east which lies 3' northeast of the triplet of stars listed above, and per Gottlieb, at 220x the triplet looks like a nebulous star that won't focus properly, so that group is almost certainly what Muller observed, and given the text accompanying Howe's description of the object, the identification is considered certain.
Discovery Note: Howe's paper states "This nebulous star is of mag. 13. It may be double at 270°. The position is 21h 57m 57s, -20° 48'.1." That position is for the equinox of 1900.0, and was converted to the equinox of 1860.0 by Dreyer for the IC2 note. The corrected position precesses to RA 21 57 27.0, Dec -11 35 33, practically touching the triplet listed above, so there is no doubt that Howe also believed that the triplet of stars must be what Muller observed.
Additional Identification Note: Corwin states "It is precisely identified by Muller's note '* 9.5 PA = 40 deg, distance = 2.8 arcmin.' Both Bigourdan and Howe found the object 0.6 minutes (of time) following a typically poor Leander McCormick position."
Misidentification Note: Gottlieb notes that the RNGC misidentifies PGC 67698, about 9 arcmin to the southwest, as NGC 7158, so it is discussed in the following entry.
Physical Information: Going from east to west, the stars' visual magnitudes are about 14.4, 15.4 and 15.9.
DSS image centered on the three stars listed as NGC 7158
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the three stars listed as NGC 7158

PGC 67698 (not =
NGC 7158)
(= PGC 163476)

Not an NGC object but listed here because misidentified as NGC 7158 in the RNGC and in LEDA
A magnitude 17.3(?) spiral galaxy (type Sab?) in (RA 21 56 56.7, Dec -11 39 31)
Historical Misidentification: As noted in the entry for NGC 7158, the RNGC misidentified this galaxy as NGC 7158, and LEDA has followed suit, so a warning about the error seems appropriate; hence this entry. (NED correctly states that this is not NGC 7158.) The reason for the misidentification is probably that it is only 4 arcmin due south of Muller's position; but there is no bright star 3' to its northeast, so it cannot be what Muller observed.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 8090 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 67698 is about 375 to 380 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 365 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 370 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.7 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 75 thousand light-years across. The galaxy is listed as a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy1) because of its exceptionally bright nucleus.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 67698, which is often misidentified as NGC 7158
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on PGC 67698, which is not NGC 7158
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy PGC 67698, which is often misidentified as NGC 7158

NGC 7159
(= PGC 67674 = CGCG 428-003)

Discovered (Nov 14, 1886) by
Lewis Swift
Also observed (Sep to Dec, 1897) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 14.3 spiral galaxy (type Sbc?) in Pegasus (RA 21 56 25.6, Dec +13 33 45)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7159 (Swift list VI (#94), 1860 RA 21 49 47, NPD 77 06.0) is "most extremely faint, extremely small, round, very faint star south-following (to southeast)." The second IC notes (per Howe) "The star south-following (to the southeast) is involved." The position precesses to RA 21 56 34.2, Dec +13 33 47, about 2 arcmin due east of the galaxy listed above, the description is perfect and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Gottlieb notes that Swift's description includes a "pretty faint star with very faint distant companion 5' south. A mag 10.7 star is 4' due south with a mag 13 companion 46" NW", and points out that none of these stars is the one that Howe mentions (which is not surprising, since none of them fit the NGC description).
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 10590 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 5179 is about 490 to 495 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 470 to 475 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 480 to 485 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.65 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 100 to 105 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7159
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7159
Below, a 1.0 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7159

NGC 7160
(= OCL 236 = "PGC 3518428")

Discovered (Nov 9, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 7, 1829) by John Herschel
A magnitude 6.1 open cluster (type II3p) in Cepheus (RA 21 53 43.0, Dec +62 36 30)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7160 (= GC 4719 = JH 2136 = WH VIII 67, 1860 RA 21 49 48, NPD 28 03.0) is "a cluster, poor, very little compressed." The position precesses to RA 21 53 49.4, Dec +62 36 38, between the two brightest stars in the cluster listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: The cluster consists of half a dozen brighter and about a dozen or two fainter stars scattered across a region about 6 by 4 arcmin in size.
Note About PGC Designation: As is usually the case for NGC objects, HyperLEDA assigned a PGC designation to this object, even though it isn't a galaxy; but although a search for NGC 7160 returns a page stating that it is only an open cluster, a search of the database for the PGC designation returns no result, so it is shown in quotes.
DSS image of region near open cluster NGC 7160
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7160
Below, a 7 arcmin wide DSS image of the cluster
DSS image of open cluster NGC 7160

NGC 7161
(= "PGC 5067756")

Recorded (Sep 13, 1862) by
Heinrich d'Arrest
A pair of magnitude 14.6 and 14.8 stars in Pegasus (RA 21 56 57.0, Dec +02 55 41)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7161 (= GC 4720, d'Arrest, 1860 RA 21 49 53, NPD 87 42.7) is "a cluster, very small, stars of 19th magnitude, between two 16th magnitude stars." The position precesses to RA 21 56 58.8, Dec +02 57 07, just under 1.5 arcmin north-northeast of the pair of stars listed above, which are now generally considered to be NGC 7161. However, since there is nothing between the two stars, if we were to base things on only the NGC description it might be appropriate to say that NGC 7161 is a nonexistent object, even though the pair of stars must be what d'Arrest observed (he mentions a magnitude 10-11 (actually 10.8) star that lies 11 seconds of time to the west, placing it 3 1/4 arcmin distant from and slightly to the south of "the elongated nebula", which makes the pair of stars listed above the only possible candidate for the NGC object, since they lie within 1/4 of an arcmin of d'Arrest's description of their position). At one point Corwin suggested (somewhat skeptically) that NGC 7161 might be the trio of double stars that includes the two considerably fainter pairs to the south of the one listed above, but he later rejected that idea, partly because they would have been outside d'Arrest's field of view at the high (231x) magnification that he used to observe his "nova", and he and Steinicke now list only the pair of stars above as NGC 7161.
 As to whether NGC 7161 could be thought of as nonexistent (treating the double star as merely two stars flanking the supposed cluster) or as the pair of stars, it seems obvious that the "cluster" was an illusion caused by overlapping of the light from the two stars. Such illusions are undoubtedly why so many pairs of stars (and even single stars) listed in the NGC were misidentified as nebulae; and if we were to say that NGC 7161 is nonexistent because there is nothing between the pair, we would have to throw out all the other misidentified stellar objects in the NGC, which is not going to happen. In addition, although one of d'Arrest's (two) observations includes mention of a small cluster, the other only mentions an elongated object, which is what the pair of stars must have looked like to him, so there is more than one reason to justify treating the pair as an NGC object, even if it isn't a nebula or cluster, as all the objects in the NGC were supposed to be.
Note About PGC Designation: As is usually the case for NGC objects, HyperLEDA assigned a PGC designation to this object, even though it isn't a galaxy; but although a search for NGC 7161 returns a page stating that it is only a double star, a search of the database for the PGC designation returns no result, so it is shown in quotes.
DSS image of region near the double star listed as NGC 7161
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on the double star listed as NGC 7161
Also shown is the star that makes the identification certain

NGC 7162
(= PGC 67795 = ESO 288-026 = MCG -07-45-003)

Discovered (Sep 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.7 spiral galaxy (type (R')SA(r)bc) in Grus (RA 21 59 39.0, Dec -43 18 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7162 (= GC 4721 = JH 3901, 1860 RA 21 50 58, NPD 133 58.5) is "considerably faint, considerably large, considerably extended, gradually a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 21 59 40.7, Dec -43 18 29, barely southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its outline, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2090 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7162 is about 95 to 100 million light years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 90 to 125 million light years. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.1 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 85 to 90 thousand light years across. It is listed in NED as a member of a pair, presumably with PGC 67818, and that pair may well be connected with NGC 7166, as well.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7162
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7162
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7162
Below, a 1.5 by 3.0 arcmin wide HST image superimposed on the image above (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
Hubble Legacy Archive image superimposed on a DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7162
Below, a 20 arcmin wide DSS image centered between NGC 7162 and PGC 67818, also showing NGC 7166
DSS image of region between spiral galaxies NGC 7162 and PGC 67818 (which is also known as NGC 7162A), also showing NGC 7166

PGC 67818
(= ESO 288-028 = MCG -07-45-005 = "NGC 7162A")

Not an NGC object but listed here because sometimes called NGC 7162A
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)m) in
Grus (RA 22 00 35.9, Dec -43 08 24)
Warning About Non-Standard Designations: Since there are no rules involving the addition of letters to NGC/IC designations, it is not uncommon for the same letter designation to be used for two or more galaxies, raising the risk of assigning data for one object to another one. For that (among other) reasons, the use of such non-standard designations should be avoided, and is only made use of in this catalog as a warning.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2045 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 67818 is about 95 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 50 to 115 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.65 by 2.4 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 70 to 75 thousand light-years across. The galaxy is listed in NED as a member of a pair, presumably with NGC 7162, and that pair may well be connected with NGC 7166, as well.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy PGC 67818, also known as NGC 7162A
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on PGC 67818; see NGC 7162 for a wider view
Below, a 3 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 67818, also known as NGC 7162A

NGC 7163
(= PGC 67785 = ESO 466-030 = MCG -05-51-035)

Discovered (Sep 27, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type SBb?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 21 59 20.4, Dec -31 52 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7163 (= GC 4722 = JH 3902, 180 RA 21 51 11, NPD 122 33.1) is "faint, pretty large, very little extended, very gradually a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 21 59 22.3, Dec -31 53 05, well within the eastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2480 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7163 is about 115 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 70 to 185 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.55 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 to 55 thousand light-years across.
Note About "Apparent" Companion: The galaxy to the north of NGC 7163 (PGC 700107) has been suggested as a possible companion, but as discussed in its entry (below) it is a much more distant background galaxy, and has no relationship to the NGC object.
Note About Classification: Some surprisingly detailed classifications can be found in the literature (e.g., in NED, (R')SB(rs)ab pec?), but unless there are far better images available than the ones shown below, the quality of the images doesn't seem to justify anything more detailed than shown in the description line above.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7163, also showing PGC 700107
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7163, also showing PGC 700107
Below, a 2 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7163

PGC 700107
Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 7163
A magnitude 17(?) elliptical(?) galaxy (type E?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 21 59 19.9, Dec -31 51 47)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 27545 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 700107 is about 1280 to 1285 million light-years away (so it is not a companion of NGC 7163, but a far more distant background galaxy). However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 1150 to 1155 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 1205 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.15 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 thousand light-years across (obviously, with a large uncertainty in its apparent and actual size).
Note About Classification: The only available image is too poor to determine the galaxy's type, but it is indistinguisable from what an elliptical galaxy would look like, so that seems the best choice.
DSS image of region near NGC 7163, also showing PGC 700107
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7163, also showing PGC 700107
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the far more distant "apparent companion"
DSS image of PGC 700107

NGC 7164
(= PGC 67673 = PGC 190800 = CGCG 377-006)

Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 14.2 lenticular galaxy (type SAB(rs)0+ pec?) in Aquarius (RA 21 56 23.6, Dec +01 21 50)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7164 (Leavenworth list II (#465), 1860 RA 21 51 28, NPD 89 14.5) is "extremely faint, round, 4 very faint stars to north". The position precesses to RA 21 58 36.5, Dec +01 25 29, but there is nothing there. However, Leander McCormick observations are notorious for errors in the right ascension, and per Corwin there is a suitable candidate (particularly given the note about "4 very faint stars to north") a little over 2 minutes of time nearly due west of the NGC position, and nothing else in the region that could be Leavenworth's object, so the identification is considered certain.
Discovery Note: Gottlieb points out that although Dreyer precessed Leavenworth's position to a second of time, it was only recorded to the nearest minute, and the string of stars extending to its north makes the identification of the galaxy listed above as NGC 7164 certain. He also mentions that this is the northernmost galaxy discovered at the Leander McCormick Observatory.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 18420 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7164 is about 855 to 860 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 795 to 800 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 820 to 825 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below, counting the faint arc just to the north of the main galaxy), the galaxy is about 220 thousand light-years across, meaning that this apparently small galaxy is actually unusually large.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7164
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7164
Below, a 1.2 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7164

NGC 7165
(= PGC 67788 = MCG -03-56-002)

Discovered (Sep 6, 1793) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 5, 1826) by John Herschel
Also observed (Jul 1898 - Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.7 spiral galaxy (type SB(r)bc?) in Aquarius (RA 21 59 26.1, Dec -16 30 44)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7165 (= GC 4723 = JH 2137 = WH III 930, 1860 RA 21 51 49, NPD 107 10.7) is "extremely faint." A note at the end of the NGC states "h 2137 = III 930. Not seen by Ld R [William Parsons] (1 obs.[Sep 19, 1857]) Not looked for by d'A." The second IC adds "Observed by Howe, is brighter middle equivalent to 13th-magnitude star." The position precesses to RA 21 59 28.6, Dec -16 30 39, only about 0.6 arcmin east-northeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and barely outside its eastern outline, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4945 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7165 is about 230 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.0 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 65 to 70 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7165
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7165
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7165

NGC 7166
(= PGC 67817 = ESO 288-027 = MCG -07-45-004)

Discovered (Sep 5, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0) in Grus (RA 22 00 32.9, Dec -43 23 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7166 (= GC 4724 = JH 3903, 1860 RA 21 51 54, NPD 134 03.5) is "considerably bright, small, very little extended, suddenly much brighter middle and nucleus." The position precesses to RA 22 00 36.3, Dec -43 23 23, only 0.6 arcmin east of the center of the galaxy listed above and barely outside its eastern outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2240 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7166 is about 105 million light-years away, in almost inevitable agreement with widely-varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 65 to 250 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.0 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 60 thousand light-years across. There is a very good chance that NGC 7166 is part of a triplet with NGC 7162 and PGC 67818, as all three have estimated distances of around 100 million light-years (give or take a few million, which is inevitable with estimates of galaxian distances).
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7166
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7166
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7166
Below, a 20 arcmin wide DSS image centered between NGC 7162 and PGC 67818, also showing NGC 7166
DSS image of region between spiral galaxies NGC 7162 and PGC 67818 (which is also known as NGC 7162A), also showing NGC 7166

NGC 7167
(= PGC 67816 = ESO 532-009 = MCG -04-52-001)

Discovered (Jul 29, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(s)c) in Aquarius (RA 22 00 30.6, Dec -24 37 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7167 (= GC 4725 = JH 3905, 1860 RA 21 52 37, NPD 115 18.3) is "faint, pretty small, round, very gradually a little brighter middle, 10th magnitude star following (to the east)." The position precesses to RA 22 00 32.0, Dec -24 38 09, well within the southeastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description is a perfect fit and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2270 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7167 is about 105 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 95 to 110 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.5 by 1.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 45 thousand light-years across.
Note About Apparent Companion: Corwin lists an apparent companion of NGC 7167 at RA 22 00 31.4, Dec -24 37 25 (just off the northern rim of the galaxy and slightly east of its nucleus), which the close-up image below suggests is a spiral galaxy (of type SBb?); but there is nothing about that object in any of the standard databases, except for an obvious blunder in the GAIA database which, if correct, would make it a star in our own galaxy! So all that can be said about the "companion" is that it is a much more distant background galaxy.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7167
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7167
Below, a 2.0 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7167

NGC 7168
(= PGC 67882 = ESO 237-026)

Discovered (Jul 8, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 elliptical galaxy (type E3) in Indus (RA 22 02 7.4, Dec -51 44 35)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7168 (= GC 4726 = JH 3904, 1860 RA 21 52 54, NPD 142 25.1) is "pretty bright, small, round, pretty suddenly brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 22 02 06.7, Dec -51 44 51, on the southern edge of the central portion of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2580 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7168 is about 120 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 65 to 125 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.9 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 65 to 70 thousand light-years across. In the wide-field image below PGC 101233 is also labeled, because it has been suggested as a possible companion; but as shown in its entry, it is a much more distant background galaxy.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7168, also showing PGC 101233
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7168, also showing PGC 101233
Below, a 3.0 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 7168

PGC 101233
Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 7168
A magnitude 15.0 elliptical galaxy (type E1) in Indus (RA 22 02 18.1, Dec -51 47 06)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of ? km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 101233 is about 500 million light-years away, about 20% further than a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 385 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 475 to 480 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 485 to 490 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.8 by 0.75 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 110 thousand light-years across. Its much greater distance means that PGC 101233 is not a companion of NGC 7168, but only a background galaxy.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7168, also showing elliptical galaxy PGC 101233
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7168, also showing PGC 101233
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 101233
DSS image of elliptical galaxy PGC 101233

NGC 7169
(= PGC 67913 = ESO 237-028)

Discovered (Sep 30, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/SB0?) in Grus (RA 22 02 48.6, Dec -47 41 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7169 (= GC 4727 = JH 3906, 1860 RA 21 53 07, NPD 138 21.8) is "extremely faint, small, round, 8th magnitude star north-preceding (to northwest)." The position precesses to RA 22 02 03.2, Dec -47 41 32, about 45 seconds of time to the west of the galaxy listed above, but the description fits and the magnitude 8.8 star to the galaxy's northwest makes the identification certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 9760 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7169 is about 455 million light-years away, about 30% further than a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 345 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 435 to 440 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 445 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 140 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7169
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7169

NGC 7170
(= PGC 67848 = PGC 191112)

Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (Oct 8, 1887) by Ormond Stone
Also observed (Oct 27, 1888) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type E/SA0) in Aquarius (RA 22 01 26.3, Dec -05 25 58)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7170 (Leavenworth list I (#245), 1860 RA 21 53 26, NPD 96 07.6) is "very faint, pretty small, irregularly round, brighter middle and nucleus, double star 36 seconds of time preceding (to west)." The first IC lists a corrected RA (per Ormond Stone) of 21 55 07. The second IC lists a different RA (per Bigourdan) of 21 54 06. The three positions (NGC/IC/IC2) precess to RA 22 00 46.0, Dec -05 27 24, RA 22 02 26.9, Dec -05 27 13, and RA 22 01 25.9, Dec -05 27 19, respectively. Leavenworth's typically erroneous right ascension lies to the west of the double star he was presumably referring to, and Stone's supposed position lies in an empty region more than a minute of time to the east of any possible candidate's position, while Bigourdan's position would lie exactly on the galaxy listed above if Dreyer had bothered to use his declination as well (and even without that, lies less than 1.4 arcmin south of the galaxy). In addition to the error in Leavenworth's right ascension, his estimate of the distance to the double star is twice as large as the actual distance (19 seconds of time); but his description fits and there is nothing else anywhere near, so the identification based on Bigourdan's position is certain.
Note About Stone's Position: Gottlieb states that Stone's position (shown in Southern Nebulae) was accurate, but the IC entry added a minute of time to the right ascension. It appears that Dreyer applied Stone's correction of 2m 9s for list I #245 to Leavenworth's nova's right ascension; but the Δα was actually measured relative to the star to the west of Leavenworth's nova, HD 208881 (1890 RA 21 52 27.31, Dec -06 00 08.1 = J2000 RA 21 59 18.1, Dec -05 28 35 = 1860 RA 21 51 58.0, Dec -06 08 38). This means that Stone's position for the nebula was (1860) RA 21 54 07, which is indeed a minute of time to the west of the IC position and essentially identical to Bigourdan's IC2 position, and therefore precesses to the same location, less than 1.4 arcmin nearly due south of the galaxy listed above. So there were only two positions for the NGC object, not three, and the second and third measurements were both correct.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7820 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7170 is about 365 million light-years away, identical to a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 365 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 350 to 355 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 355 to 360 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 125 to 130 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7170
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7170
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7170

NGC 7171
(= PGC 67839 = PGC 191068 = MCG -02-56-005)

Discovered (Aug 12, 1787) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 9, 1825) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b) in Aquarius (RA 22 01 02.0, Dec -13 16 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7171 (= GC 4728 = JH 2138 = WH III 692, 1860 RA 21 53 27, NPD 103 56.5) is "very faint, considerably large, extended 124°, very gradually brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 22 01 00.4, Dec -13 16 17, well within the western outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2390 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7171 is about 110 to 115 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 80 to 155 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.3 by 1.2 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 75 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7171
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7171
Below, a 2.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7171

NGC 7172 (=
HCG 90A)
(= PGC 67874 = ESO 466-038 = MCG -05-52-007)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 90)

Discovered (Sep 23, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.9 spiral galaxy (type Sa sp pec) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 02 01.9, Dec -31 52 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7172 (= GC 4729 = JH 3908, 1860 RA 21 53 52, NPD 122 32.6) is "pretty bright, pretty large, a little extended, gradually brighter middle, 1st of 4," the others being NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176 (with which it comprises Hickson Compact Group 90). The position precesses to RA 22 02 02.1, Dec -31 52 18, right on the galaxy listed above and the description fits, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Because NGC 7172 is part of a group of galaxies, the best estimate of it (and their) distance is one that uses all of their recessional velocities relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background (usually abbreviated 3K Vr because the CMB is nearly identical to black-body radiation of about 3 Kelvin), and any redshift-independent distance estimates also available. For NGC 7172, the 3K Vr is about 2330 km/sec, and a single redshift-independent distance estimate is about 110 million light-years. For NGC 7173, the corresponding values are about 2225 km/sec and multiple redshift-independent distance estimates of about 70 to 215 million light-years, with a median value of about 112 million light-years. For NGC 7174, the corresponding values are about 2385 km/sec and multiple redshift-independent distance estimate of about 95 to 115 million light-years, with a median value of about 113 million light-years. And for NGC 7176, the corresponding values are about 2235 km/sec and multiple redshift-independent distance estimates of about 40 to 215 million light-years, with a median value of about 110 million light-years. This means that for the group as a whole, the average recession velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background is about 2295 km/sec, and redshift-independent distance estimates range from about 40 to 215 million light-years, with a median value of about 111 million light-years (which should be rounded off to "about 110 million", to avoid the appearance of an accuracy which, given the very wide range of values, is obviously impossible). Using a value for H0 of 70 km/sec/Mpc, the average recessional velocity corresponds to a distance of about 105 to 110 million light-years, in good agreement with the average of the redshift-distance estimates, so it appears (though it may not be true) that any value between about 105 and 110 million light-years is close to the group's actual distance. (This value is used without all the gory details for the three other galaxies in the group.)
 Given that distance and its apparent size of about 2.1 by 1.3 arcmin (from the images below), NGC 7172 is about 65 to 70 thousand light years across. It is a Seyfert galaxy (type Sy 2), and the largest member of Hickson Compact Group 90 (which also includes NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176).
Classification Note: The "sp" in the type shown in the description line stands for "spindle", meaning a nearly edge-on spiral galaxy.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7172, also showing part of NGC 7173, another member of Hickson Compact Group 90
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7172, also showing part of NGC 7173
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 7172, a member of Hickson Compact Group 90
Below, a 2.0 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit ESA/Hubble & NASA, D. J. Rosario, A. Barth, Acknowledgement L. Shatz)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 7172, a member of Hickson Compact Group 90

NGC 7173 (=
HCG 90C)
(= PGC 67878 = UGCA 422 = ESO 466-039 = MCG -05-52-008)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 90)

Discovered (Sep 25, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 elliptical galaxy (type E1 pec) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 02 03.2, Dec -31 58 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7173 (= GC 4730 = JH 3909, 1860 RA 21 53 53, NPD 122 38.1) is "considerably bright, considerably small, round, suddenly brighter middle like star, 2nd of 4," the others being NGC 7172, 7174 and 7176 (with which it comprises Hickson Compact Group 90). The position precesses to RA 22 02 03.3, Dec -31 57 48, just north of the galaxy listed above and its description and the relative position of its companions fit, so the identification is certain.
Misidentification Note: Per Gottlieb, RNGC reversed the identifications of NGC 7173 and 7174, so some other references may repeat the mistake.
Discovery Note: Per Gottlieb, Joseph Turner and Pietro Baracchi later sketched the group of galaxies that comprise HCG 90 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope, but their drawing was never published.
Physical Information: NGC 7173 is the northernmost member of a triplet of interacting galaxies (NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176) that comprise 3/4 of Hickson Compact Group 90 (the fourth member is NGC 7172), so it must be at about the same distance as its companions, or (as discussed in detail in the entry for NGC 7172) about 105 to 110 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.95 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 30 thousand light years across.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7173, also showing NGC 7172, NGC 7174, and NGC 7176, with which it comprises Hickson Compact Group 90
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7173, also showing NGC 7172, 7174 and 7176
Below, a 7 by 7.4 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7173, showing faint nebulosity surrounding the triplet
(Rough size of the nebulosity 6 arcmin north to south, 4 arcmin east to west)
DSS image of nebulosity near NGC 7173 and its companions, NGC 7174 and NGC 7176
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide HST image of the southern members of HCG 90 (NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176)
(Image Credit NASA, ESA, and R. Sharples (University of Durham))
HST image of the southern members (NGC 7173, NGC 7174 and NGC 7176) of Hickson Compact Group 90
Below, a 1.3 arcmin wide image of NGC 7173 (Image Credit as above)
The dust lane on the left is an extension of its southern neighbor, NGC 7174
HST image of elliptical galaxy NGC 7173, a member of Hickson Compact Group 90, also showing part of the northern extension of NGC 7174

NGC 7174 ( =
HCG 90D)
(= PGC 67881 = ESO 466-040 = MCG -05-52-010)
A member of Hickson Compact Group 90

Discovered (Sep 28, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 13.3 spiral galaxy (type Sab sp pec) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 02 06.4, Dec -31 59 34)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7174 (= GC 4731 = JH 3910, 1860 RA 21 53 55, NPD 122 40.0) is "considerably faint, small, round, preceding (western) of double nebula (the other being NGC 7176), 3rd of 4," the others being NGC 7172, 7173 and 7176 (with which it comprises Hickson Compact Group 90). The position precesses to RA 22 02 05.4, Dec -31 59 42, on the southern rim of the galaxy listed above, and its description and the relative position of its companion fit, so the identification is certain.
Misidentification Note: Per Gottlieb, RNGC reversed the identifications of NGC 7173 and NGC 7174, so some other references may repeat the mistake.
Discovery Note: Per Gottlieb, Joseph Turner and Pietro Baracchi later sketched the group of galaxies that comprise HCG 90 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope, but their drawing was never published.
Physical Information: NGC 7174 is the southwestern member of a triplet of interacting galaxies (NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176) that comprise 3/4 of Hickson Compact Group 90 (the fourth member is NGC 7172), so it must be at about the same distance as its companions, or (as discussed in detail in the entry for NGC 7172) about 105 to 110 million light years away. (The dust lanes in 7174 appear to lie in front of its neighbors, so it is probably slightly closer than them, but given its considerable distortion, any difference in their distance must be negligible in comparison with their distance from us.) Given that and its apparent size of about 1.6 by 0.6 arcmin (counting its western extension, but not its fainter northern one), or 1.6 by 1.6 arcmin (counting both extensions) (both sizes from the images below) it spans about 50 thousand light years (and in the second DSS image there are hints of even fainter nebulosity well to the north and south of the triplet).
Classification Note: The "sp" in the type shown in the description line stands for "spindle", meaning a nearly edge-on spiral galaxy.
HST image of the southern members (NGC 7173, NGC 7174 and NGC 7176) of Hickson Compact Group 90
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide HST image of the southern members of HCG 90 (NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176)
(Image Credit NASA, ESA, and R. Sharples (University of Durham)) For wide-field images of NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176, see the entry for 7173
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide image of NGC 7314, also showing part of NGC 7173 and 7176 (Image Credit as above)
HST image of spiral galaxy NGC 7174, a member of Hickson Compact Group 90, also showing part of NGC 7173 and NGC 7176

NGC 7175
(= "PGC 5067691")

Recorded (Sep 25, 1829) by
John Herschel
A star-filled region in Cygnus (RA 21 58 27.0, Dec +54 48 36)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7175 (= GC 4732 = JH 2141, 1860 RA 21 53 56, NPD 35 50.8) is "a cluster, very large, pretty rich, a little compressed." The position precesses to RA 21 58 51.7, Dec +54 49 20, only 0.3 arcmin north of a magnitude 9.6 star (HD 12025, located at J2000 RA 21 58 51.6, Dec +54 49 01) which Herschel stated in his original Sweeps record was the object whose position he measured, and although there is a modern controversy about what field of view should be considered to be NGC 7175, there cannot be any doubt that what Herschel observed was the region of the Milky Way "pretty rich of large and small stars" near that star.
Controversy About Identification: Per Corwin, Herschel's Sweeps record shows that the star in question is the one whose position matches the NGC entry, and a 14 second error in Herschel's reduction of the star's right ascension is insignificant in comparison to the size of the region involved, so there is no question about what Herschel observed. However, Corwin also notes that there is a real cluster of stars about 17 arcmin south of Herschel's position (the northern part of which is part of JH 2141), and the desire of modern astronomers to have NGC objects correspond to real objects and not just some random field of stars has led to a gradually increasing push to assign NGC 7175 to that cluster. That is historically incorrect, but means that NGC 7175 may be misidentified as the cluster to its south. Given the nature of what Herschel actually observed, Corwin has no problem with people treating the cluster to the south as NGC 7175 (as he himself did before deciding that it was just too small to be what Herschel observed); but I feel that just because there happens to be something of interest near an NGC "object" does not justify altering the historical record, so I have assigned the false identity to the following entry.
Note About PGC Designation: As usual, HyperLEDA assigned a PGC designation to this NGC object even though it isn't a galaxy, and although a search of the database for NGC 7175 returns a result, a search for the PGC designation does not, so it is shown in quotes.
Physical Information: As noted by Corwin, Herschel stated that his cluster filled two fields of view, and based on that and the Palomar plates used for the DSS, he believes that a region about 30 arcmin east-west by 20 arcmin north-south centered on the position shown in the description line is what Herschel observed. That is the region shown in the image below.
DSS image of region centered on Herschel's JH 2141, which although not an actual 'object', is the historically correct NGC 7175
Above, a 36 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Corwin's position for NGC 7175, showing the star Herschel measured
The oval is a 30 by 20 arcmin wide region roughly corresponding to NGC 7175
The northern part of ASCC 116, which may be misidentified as NGC 7175, is at the bottom of the image

ASCC 116 (not =
NGC 7175)
(= [KPR2005] 116)

Not an NGC object but listed here because it is (often?) misidentified as NGC 7175
An open star cluster in Cygnus (RA 21 59 04.0, Dec +54 32 18)
Historical Misidentification: As discussed in Controversy About Identification for NGC 7175, that "object" is simply a region of the Milky Way that John Herschel took to be a pretty large cluster "pretty rich in large and small stars" (that is, bright and faint stars). But since NGC 7175 is not a cluster, there has been a push in recent years to treat the cluster about 17 arcmin to its south as if it were the NGC object. That is historically wrong, but not unprecedented; as noted by Corwin (in his NGC Notes), Herschel also observed what he called a cluster (but is probably only a region of the Milky Way) that happens to lie only a few arcmin from a globular cluster (GCL 107) that has been misidentified by astronomers as NGC 6749 for many decades. It is, in fact, blunders like this that led me to start work on a corrected historical identification of all NGC/IC objects (not that I could have hoped to accomplish that without the decades of work done by those I have tried to give credit to in the Introduction to my NGC/IC/etc pages).
Note About Designations: Per Corwin this was first described in Kharchenko and Roeser's All-sky compiled catalogue of 2.5 million stars as ASCC 116, but it is only listed in SIMBAD as [KPR2005] 116, so that is probably the best designation to use in searching for information not presented here.
Physical Information: (note to self: need to see if can find anything)
DSS image of region near ASCC 116, which is often misidentified as NGC 7175
Above, a 15 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Corwin's position for ASCC 116 (which is not NGC 7175)
The northern part of this cluster is also shown at the bottom of the image of NGC 7175

NGC 7176 (=
HCG 90B)
(= PGC 67883 = PGC 198475 = UGCA 423 = ESO 466-001 = MCG -05-52-011)
(A member of Hickson Compact Group 90)

Discovered (Sep 23, 1834) by John Herschel
A magnitude 11.4 elliptical galaxy (type E0 pec) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 02 08.4, Dec -31 59 23)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7176 (= GC 4733 = JH 3911, 1860 RA 21 53 59, NPD 122 39.5) is "bright, pretty large, round, following (eastern) of double nebula (the other being NGC 7174), 4th of 4," the others being NGC 7172, 7173 and 7174 (with which it comprises Hickson Compact Group 90). The position precesses to RA 22 02 09.4, Dec -31 59 11, on the northeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, and its description and the relative position of its companion fit, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Per Gottlieb, Joseph Turner and Pietro Baracchi later sketched the group of galaxies that comprise HCG 90 using the 48" Great Melbourne Telescope, but their drawing was never published.
Physical Information: NGC 7176 is the northeastern member of a triplet of interacting galaxies (NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176) that comprise 3/4 of Hickson Compact Group 90 (the fourth member is NGC 7172), so it must be at about the same distance as its companions, or (as discussed in detail in the entry for NGC 7172) about 105 to 110 million light years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 1.1 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 35 thousand light years across.
HST image of the southern members (NGC 7173, NGC 7174 and NGC 7176) of Hickson Compact Group 90
Above, a 2.4 arcmin wide HST image of the southern members of HCG 90 (NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176)
(Image Credit NASA, ESA, and R. Sharples (University of Durham)) For wide-field images of NGC 7173, 7174 and 7176, see the entry for 7173
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide image of NGC 7176 (Image Credit as above)
HST image of elliptical galaxy NGC 7176, a member of Hickson Compact Group 90, also showing part of NGC 7174

NGC 7177
(= PGC 67823 = UGC 11872 = CGCG 451-002 = MCG +03-56-003)

Discovered (Oct 15, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 7, 1825) by John Herschel
Also observed (Aug 31, 1854) by R. J. Mitchell
Also observed (Oct 13, 1903) by Stephane Javelle
A magnitude 11.2 spiral galaxy (type SAB(rs)b) in Pegasus (RA 22 00 41.2, Dec +17 44 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7177 (= GC 4734 = JH 2139 = WH II 247, 1860 RA 21 54 01, NPD 72 55.9) is "pretty bright, pretty small, round, brighter middle and nucleus, mottled but not resolved, star south-preceding (to southwest)." The position precesses to RA 22 00 41.4, Dec +17 44 20, nearly dead center on the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: The mention of Mitchell's sketch is from Steve Gottlieb's site and is shown in the 3rd Lord Rosse's 1861 publication; Javelle's observation is noted on Wolfgang Steinicke's site (as part of an Excel spreadsheet) and was published in Javelle's third Catalogue de Nebuleuses.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 800 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7177 is about 35 to 40 million light-years away, in fair but not convincing agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 40 to 165 million light-years (with a median of about 80 million light-years). Obviously the redshift-independent distance estimates are not as reliable as one would desire, and for objects with such a small recessional velocity, galaxies' peculiar velocities (random motions relative to their neighbors) can considerably alter their Hubble Flow distances, so although an estimate of 40 million light-years is probably as good a guess as any, it should be taken with more than a grain of salt. Given that supposition and NGC 7177's apparent size of about 2.85 by 1.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 30 to 35 thousand light-years across. The galaxy exhibits strong emission lines associated with rapid star formation heating interstellar gases, and is therefore classified as a LINER.
Possible Alternative: The size obtained in the previous paragraph seems unusually small for such a spectacular galaxy, so perhaps the median of the redshift-independent distance estimates is a more appropriate value to use. Since that is twice as distant as the one used above, the apparent size would then correspond to 65 to 70 thousand light-years, which seems more likely; but only a better determination of the distance to this galaxy will tell what distance and size are really appropriate.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7177
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7177
Below, a 3.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7177
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide HST image of the galaxy's nucleus (Image Credit NASA/ESA/STSci, Jason Major, Creative Commons License)
HST image of central portion of spiral galaxy NGC 7177

NGC 7178
(= PGC 67898 = ESO 404-022 = MCG -06-48-016)

Discovered (Aug 31, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 14.1 spiral galaxy (type SABb?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 02 25.2, Dec -35 47 25)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7178 (= GC 4735 = JH 3912, 1860 RA 21 54 06, NPD 126 28.8) is "extremely faint, small, round, 8th magnitude star 2' to south." The position precesses to RA 22 02 25.5, Dec -35 48 28, just over an arcmin south of the galaxy listed above and between it and halfway between it and the magnitude 8.0 star to its south, the description fits and there is nothing else in the field that could possibly be what Herschel observed, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 9150 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7178 is about 425 million light-years away, about a third further away than redshift-independent distance estimates of about 325 to 345 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 410 to 415 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 415 to 420 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 125 thousand light-years across.
Note About Apparent Companion: In the wide-field image below, PGC 132494 is shown as an apparent companion; but as noted in its entry it is a foreground galaxy, and not an actual companion of NGC 7178.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7178, also showing PGC 132494
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7178, also showing PGC 132494
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7178

PGC 132494
Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 7178
A magnitude 15.5(?) irregular galaxy (type Irr?) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 02 12.0, Dec -35 50 03)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 5605 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), PGC 132494 is about 260 million light-years away, meaning that it is not a companion of NGC 7178, but a foreground galaxy. Given its distance and its apparent size of about 0.65 by 0.35 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near NGC 7178, also showing irregular galaxy PGC 132494
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7178, also showing PGC 132494
Below, a ? arcmin wide DSS image of the apparent companion
DSS image of irregular galaxy PGC 132494

NGC 7179
(= PGC 67995 = ESO 180-011)

Discovered (Jun 22, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc) in Indus (RA 22 04 49.4, Dec -64 02 49)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7179 (= GC 4736 = JH 3907, 1860 RA 21 54 21, NPD 154 43.2) is "considerably faint, pretty small, very gradually brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 22 04 47.0, Dec -64 02 44, within the western outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2865 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7179 is about 130 to 135 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 115 to 185 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.65 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 65 thousand light-years across.
Note About Apparent Companion: As discussed in its entry, next to nothing is known about PGC 127638, and as a result, whether it is in any way associated with NGC 7179 or merely in more or less the same direction is also unknown.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7179, also showing its apparent companion, PGC 127638
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7179, also showing PGC 127638
Below, a 2.0 arcmin wide DSS image of NGC 7179
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7179

PGC 127638
Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 7179
A magnitude 15(?) galaxy (type IB?) in Indus (RA 22 04 24.2, Dec -64 05 47)
Physical Information: Since no recessional velocity or other estimate of its distance exists, whether PGC 127638 is a companion of NGC 7179 or merely in the same part of the sky is unknown, and since its distance is unknown, even though its apparent size (about 1.15 by 0.75 arcmin, from the images below) is known, its physical size is also unknown.
DSS image of region near NGC 7179, also showing its apparent companion, irregular galaxy PGC 127638
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7179, also showing PGC 127638
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide DSS image of PGC 127638
DSS image of irregular galaxy PGC 127638

NGC 7180
(= PGC 67890 = ESO 601-006 = MCG -04-52-008)

Not observed (Sep 11, 1787) by
William Herschel
Discovered (Sep 23, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 lenticular galaxy (type SAB00) in Aquarius (RA 22 02 18.4, Dec -20 32 52)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7180 (= GC 4737 = JH 2140 = WH III 693, 1860 RA 21 54 27, NPD 111 13.4) is "very faint, small, round, a little brighter middle, preceding (western) of 2," the other being NGC 7185. The position precesses to RA 22 02 13.4, Dec -20 33 04, about 1.2 west-southwest of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Although the younger Herschel recorded his father's III 693 as being the same as his own JH 2140 in his Slough Catalogue (1833), and that mistake was perpetuated in the GC (1864) and NGC (1888), III 693 is actually an observation of NGC 7185, the eastern member of the pair of galaxies, which see for more about the error.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1130 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7180 is about 50 to 55 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 40 to 80 million light-years (but see the note below). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.4 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 25 thousand light-years across.
Note About Distances: Different references give different recessional velocities relative to the CMB, ranging from 925 to 1353 km/sec; the one used here is in the middle of the range, but may or may not be correct. In any event, peculiar velocities (random motions relative to a galaxy's neighbors) can have large effects on the recessional velocity of a galaxy, so almost every distance given for galaxies more than a hop, skip and a jump from the Milky Way should probably be treated with suspicion. That's why all distances, apparent and physical sizes in this catalog should be preceded by "about" (and hopefully are).
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7180
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7180
Below, a 1.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7180

NGC 7181
(= PGC 67859 = PGC 191144 = CGCG 377-014)

Discovered (Jul 31, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 14.0 lenticular galaxy (type S0) in Aquarius (RA 22 01 43.5, Dec -01 57 38)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7181 (= GC 6016, Marth #458, 1860 RA 21 54 32, NPD 92 38) is "extremely faint, very small, stellar." The position precesses to RA 22 01 46.1, Dec -01 57 41, only about 0.6 arcmin east of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7535 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7181 is about 350 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 320 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 340 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 345 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.85 by 0.7 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 85 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7181
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7181
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7181

NGC 7182
(= PGC 67864 = CGCG 377-015 = MCG +00-56-006)

Discovered (Jul 31, 1864) by
Albert Marth
Probably also observed (Sep 19, 1876) by Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 14.4 spiral galaxy (type (R')SAB(r)a) in Aquarius (RA 22 01 51.7, Dec -02 11 48)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7182 (= GC 6017, Marth #459, 1860 RA 21 54 37, NPD 92 52) is "extremely faint, very small, stellar." The position precesses to RA 22 01 51.5, Dec -02 11 41, barely 0.1 arcmin north of the center of the galaxy listed above and despite its small size on its norhtern rim, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Gottlieb writes that Stephan probably observed this object as well (whence the line about his observation), but the position was poor, which would explain Dreyer's failing to mention him.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7680 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7182 is about 355 to 360 million light-years away, in good agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 350 to 355 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 345 to 350 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 350 to 355 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.75 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 75 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: As of early 2022 NED and LEDA classifications, based on poorer images, make this a lenticular galaxy; Corwin provided a more appropriate "type", based on the better images shown below.
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7182, also showing its probable companion, PGC 191149
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7182, also showing PGC 191149
Below, a 1.0 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 7182
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7182

PGC 191149
Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable companion of
NGC 7182
A magnitude 15.5(?) spiral galaxy (type Sc?) in Aquarius (RA 22 01 45.1, Dec -02 10 55)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7730 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 191149 is about 360 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 350 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 355 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.28 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 25 to 30 thousand light-years across.
 As noted in the after-title line, since PGC 191149's distance appears to be nearly identical to that of NGC 7182, the pair are probably physical companions.
SDSS image of NGC 7182, also showing its probable companion, spiral galaxy PGC 191149
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7182, also showing PGC 191149
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 191149
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 191149

NGC 7183
(= PGC 67892 = PGC 862138 = ESO 601-008 = MCG -03-56-004)

Discovered (Sep 23, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 8, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.0 spiral galaxy (type Sa pec?) in Aquarius (RA 22 02 21.6, Dec -18 54 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7183 (= GC 4738 = JH 2142 = WH II 595, 1860 RA 21 54 38, NPD 109 34.2) is "very faint, pretty large, extended 90°, a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 22 02 21.3, Dec -18 53 51, about an arcmin north of the galaxy listed above, there is nothing else nearby and it fits the description, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2325 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7183 is about 105 to 110 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 115 to 120 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 3.5 by 1.0 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 110 thousand light-years across.
Note About Apparent Companion: As noted in the following entry, PGC 135307 is listed as an apparent companion; but it is actually a far more distant background galaxy, and not a physical companion.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7183, also showing PGC 135307
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7183, also showing PGC 135307
Below, a 4.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy (also showing PGC 135307)
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7183, also showing PGC 135307

PGC 135307
Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 7183
A magnitude 15(?) lenticular galaxy (type S(r)0+?) in Aquarius (RA 22 02 16.6, Dec -18 53 18)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 10535 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 135307 is about 490 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 470 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 480 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.33 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 45 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near NGC 7183, also showing lenticular galaxy PGC 135307
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7183, also showing PGC 135307
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of PGC 135307
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 135307

NGC 7184
(= PGC 67904 = UGCA 425 = ESO 601-009 = MCG -04-52-009)

Discovered (Oct 28, 1783) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Sep 23, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 10.9 spiral galaxy (type SBc?) in Aquarius (RA 22 02 39.8, Dec -20 48 46)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7184 (= GC 4739 = JH 2143 = WH II 1, 1860 RA 21 54 53, NPD 111 29.0) is "pretty bright, pretty large, much extended 64°, between 3 stars, extremely mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 22 02 39.8, Dec -20 48 37, barely north of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its outline, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Gottlieb points out that William Herschel discovered this on the first night of his systematic sweeps, which over the following decades resulted in thousands of additional discoveries.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2310 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7184 is about 105 to 110 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 40 to 125 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 6.2 by 1.4 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 195 thousand light-years across.
Use By The deVaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 7184 is used by The deVaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as an example of type SB(r)b.
MountLemmon SkyCenter image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7184
Above, a 12 arcmin wide image centered on NGC 7184
(Image Credit & © above and below Adam Block/Mount Lemmon SkyCenter/University of Arizona; used by permission)
Below, a 6 arcmin wide image of the galaxy
Mount Lemmon SkyCenter image of spiral galaxy NGC 7184
Below, a 6 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of spiral galaxy NGC 7184

NGC 7185
(= PGC 67919 = ESO 601-010 = MCG -04-52-011)

Discovered (Sep 11, 1787) by
William Herschel
Discovered (Sep 23, 1830) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.6 lenticular galaxy (type E/SAB0) in Aquarius (RA 22 02 56.7, Dec -20 28 17)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7185 (= GC 4740 = JH 2144, 1860 RA 21 55 11, NPD 111 08.6) is "very faint, pretty large, irregularly round, very gradually a little brighter middle, following (eastern) of 2," the other being NGC 7180. The position precesses to RA 22 02 57.1, Dec -20 28 11, barely northwest of the center of the galaxy listed above and well within its outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: As noted in the entry for NGC 7180, although the younger Herschel mistakenly recorded his father's III 693 as being the same as his own JH 2140 (which became NGC 7180) in his Slough Catalogue (1833), and that mistake was perpetuated in the GC (1864) and NGC (1888), III 693 was not an observation of NGC 7180, but is actually an observation of NGC 7185, hence the inclusion of William Herschel in the discovery list for that galaxy. (Steinicke notes that although John Herschel's published catalogues were in error, his original sweeps records have the correct identification.)
Note About Visual Appearance: The NGC description suggests that this is a fairly large galaxy, but in modern images it doesn't look nearly as impressive as many others listed as "pretty large" in the NGC. That's because early visual observers could only see the bright central cores of what modern photographs show as much larger, more impressive structures, and the bright central region of NGC 7185 is just as impressive as the relatively small cores of galaxies that look far more impressive to us.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1485 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7185 is about 70 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 65 to 95 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.15 by 1.35 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 40 to 45 thousand light-years across.
PanSTARRS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7185
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7185
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7185

NGC 7186
(= "PGC 5067639")

Discovered (Sep 13, 1784) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Aug 24, 1884) by Guillaume Bigourdan
A group of stars in Pegasus (RA 22 01 04.8, Dec +35 04 33)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7186 (= GC 4741 = WH III 165, 1860 RA 21 55 14, NPD 55 33.9) is "very faint, among 5 or 6 stars." The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Bigourdan) of 21 54 57. The original NGC position precesses to RA 22 01 18.5, Dec +35 06 26, about 3.3 arcmin northeast of the group of stars listed above, which is the only thing in the area that could possibly fit the description. Bigourdan apparently thought the same thing, as his position precesses to RA 22 01 01.4, Dec +35 06 24, about 2 arcmin north-northeast of the asterism listed above (and if Dreyer had used Bigourdan's declination as well, the position would have fallen right on the group). There is nothing there but the stars, but the elongated group makes up a fairly obvious "cluster" of sorts, and there is no doubt that they are exactly what Herschel and Bigourdan observed.
Note About PGC Designation: As usual for NGC objects, HyperLEDA assigned a PGC designation to this object, even though it isn't a galaxy; however, although a search of the database for NGC 7186 returns a result, a search for the PGC designation does not, so it is shown in quotes.
Physical Information: A small group of stars running about 2 arcmin long (by half an arcmin wide) from northeast to southwest, distinguishable only by comparison with the otherwise empty area near it. Almost certainly not a physical grouping, but I need to check GAIA's parallaxes and proper motions before stating that with absolute certainty.
DSS image of region near the asterism of stars listed as NGC 7186
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7186

NGC 7187
(= PGC 67909 = ESO 404-024 = MCG -06-48-018)

Discovered (1886) by
Francis Leavenworth
A magnitude 12.5 lenticular galaxy (type (R)SAB(r)0+) in Piscis Austrinus (RA 22 02 44.5, Dec -32 48 11)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7187 (Leavenworth list I (#246), 1860 RA 21 55 15, NPD 123 27.6) is "pretty faint, pretty small, round, a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 22 03 26.6, Dec -32 47 09, just over 40 seconds of time east-northeast of the galaxy listed above (the error in right ascension being pretty typical of Leander McCormick observations), and though the position isn't the best, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: Steinicke points out that this is the southernmost NGC galaxy discovered with the 26-inch telescope at the Leander McCormick Observatory.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2400 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7187 is about 110 to 115 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 0.8 arcmin for the main galaxy and about 2.0 by 1.6 arcmin for its outer ring (from the images below), the galaxy is about 25 thousand light-years across and its outer ring spans about 65 thousand light-years. The galaxy features two rings, an exceptionally prominent perfectly round inner one, and a relatively faint and elongated outer one; whether their origin is due to internal or external causes is unclear, and likely to remain so.
Use By The deVaucouleurs Atlas: NGC 7187 is used by The deVaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies as an example of type (R)SAB(r)0+. AB means that the classification is intermediate between barred and unbarred, but with its unbarred structure more obvious; in this case the "bar" is represented by a very slight elongation of the nucleus from slightly northwest to slightly southeast (whether you can see it in the images below depends on your imagination). The + indicates that the galaxy is on the borderline between a lenticular and a spiral, in this case because of the blue color of the inner ring, which is caused by rapid star formation atypical of lenticular galaxies.
DSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7187
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7187
Below, a 2.4 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7187
Below, a 2 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit deVaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxies)
deVaucouleurs Atlas image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7187

NGC 7188
(= PGC 67943 = ESO 601-011 = MCG -04-52-012)

Discovered (Oct 9, 1885) by
Francis Leavenworth
Also observed (Jul 1898 - Jun 1899) by Herbert Howe
A magnitude 13.2 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)bc pec) in Aquarius (RA 22 03 29.0, Dec -20 19 04)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7188 (Leavenworth list I (#247), 1860 RA 21 55 20, NPD 111 00.6) is "extremely faint, pretty small, extended, a little brighter middle." The second IC lists a corrected RA (per Howe) of 21 55 44. The original NGC position precesses to RA 22 03 05.8, Dec -20 20 10, about 5 1/2 arcmin west-southwest of the galaxy listed above, but the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain. Howe's position precesses to RA 22 03 29.7, Dec -20 20 08, just over an arcmin south-southeast of the galaxy listed above, showing that he agreed with that identification.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 1445 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7188 is about 65 to 70 million light-years away, in fair agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 45 to 50 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.25 by 0.6 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 25 thousand light-years across. (If at the smaller distance of 45 to 50 million light-years, it would only be about 15 to 20 thousand light-years across.)
Classification Note: Some references add (R') to the type, indicating a partial external ring; but since the images below show no sign of such a ring, I have omitted it in the description line. On the other hand, I have added "pec" because the disk appears to be significantly warped.
PanSTARRS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7188
Above, a 12 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image centered on NGC 7188
Below a 1.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7188
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide overlay of an HST image on the PanSTARRS image (Image Credit Hubble Legacy Archive)
HST/PanSTARRS composite image of spiral galaxy NGC 7188

NGC 7189
(= PGC 67934 = UGC 11882 = CGCG 377-017 = MCG +00-56-007)

Discovered (Oct 12, 1863) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.5 spiral galaxy (type SB(rs)b pec) in Aquarius (RA 22 03 16.0, Dec +00 34 16)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7189 (= GC 6018, Marth #460, 1860 RA 21 56 07, NPD 90 06) is "faint, small, a little extended." The position precesses to RA 22 03 16.9, Dec +00 34 28, only 0.3 arcmin northeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and practically within its outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 8670 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7189 is about 400 to 405 million light-years away, in good agreement with a single redshift-independent distance estimate of about 380 to 385 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 390 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 395 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.15 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 130 thousand light-years across. The galaxy has unusually strong emission lines caused by heating of interstellar gases by large numbers of hot, bright young stars, and is therefore classified as a LINER.
SDSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7189
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7189
Below, a 1.4 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7189

NGC 7190
(= PGC 67928 = UGC 11885 = CGCG 428-019)

Discovered (Sep 28, 1869) by
Édouard Stephan
A magnitude 13.8 lenticular galaxy (type SB0) in Pegasus (RA 22 03 06.7, Dec +11 11 57)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7190 (= GC 6019 = GC 6020, Stephan list II (#28) & list IV (#7), 1860 RA 21 56 15, NPD 79 28.6) is "extremely faint, very small, irregularly round, a little brighter middle." A note at the end of the NGC states "Occurs both in Stephan's 2nd and 4th list. In the latter the place of the comparison star is only taken from the D.M., but it is Lam. 2895, which gives a place for the neb agreeing perfectly with that of the 2nd list." The position precesses to RA 22 03 07.3, Dec +11 11 52, on the southeastern rim of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Discovery Note: As for many of Stephan's discoveries, the date shown above is earlier than the one usually given in the literature; that date is when, after obtaining a filar micrometer, he was able to measure a precise position, which he then published. The date shown above is when, based on his original notes, he first observed the object.
Warning About Designation Errors: Gottlieb notes that UGC and the original PGC reversed the identifications of NGC 7190 (UGC 11885) and IC 5160 (UGC 11884), and although HyperLEDA has corrected the identifications, the original error may still show up at times, hence this warning.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 8435 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that NGC 7190 is about 390 to 395 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 380 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 385 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.9 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 100 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7190
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7190
(Note: An earlier version of this image mislabeled the galaxy as NGC 7191)
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7190

NGC 7191
(= PGC 68059 = ESO 108-013)

Discovered (Jun 22, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 12.9 spiral galaxy (type SAB(s)c?) in Indus (RA 22 06 51.8, Dec -64 38 05)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7191 (= GC 4742 = JH 3913, 1860 RA 21 56 20, NPD 155 19.1) is "very faint, small, a little extended, very gradually brighter middle." The position precesses to RA, only half an arcmin southwest of the center of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby (other than NGC 7192, which lies well to the southeast and was observed by Herschel on the same night), so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2825 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7191 is about 130 to 135 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 100 to 130 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.3 by 0.45 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 50 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7191
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7191
Below, a 1.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7191

NGC 7192
(= PGC 68057 = ESO 108-012)

Discovered (Jun 22, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.2 elliptical galaxy (type E/SA0) in Indus (RA 22 06 50.1, Dec -64 18 59)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7192 (= GC 4743 = JH 3914, 1860 RA 21 56 25, NPD 154 59.4) is "pretty bright, small, round, pretty much brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 22 06 50.3, Dec -64 18 43, on the northern rim of the nucleus of the galaxy shown above and well within its overall outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby (other than NGC 7191, which lies well to the northwest and was observed by Herschel on the same night), so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2865 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7192 is about 130 to 135 million light-years away, in almost inevitable agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 45 to 155 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.6 by 2.5 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 100 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: NGC 7192 is used by The de Vaucouleurs Atlas of Galaxy Types as an example of galaxy type SA0- (which is equivalent to the type shown in the description line).
DSS image of region near galaxy NGC 7192
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7192
Below, a 3.6 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of galaxy NGC 7192
Below, a 3.0 arcmin wide image of the galaxy (Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of galaxy NGC 7192

NGC 7193
Discovered (Oct 13, 1825) by
John Herschel
A group of stars in Pegasus (RA 22 02 58.0, Dec +10 48 42)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7193 (= GC 4744 = JH 2145, 1860 RA 21 56 43, NPD 79 51.4) is "a cluster, a little rich, a little compressed, stars from 9th to 10th magnitude." The position precesses to RA 22 03 36.0, Dec +10 49 07, just east of a striking group of about two dozen stars of the specified magnitude (and numerous fainter stars), and since the description seems a perfect fit to the group, the identification appears to be certain.
Discovery Note: Corwin notes that this is one of numerous clusters listed as "non-existent" in the RNGC (which is filled with errors of omission and commission), and that although Herschel's position is off by about a minute of time Herschel cautioned his readers that his early observations (this was only his 14th Sweep, so it was certainly "early") had unreliable positions, so such an error is not unexpected. Corwin also notes that the group is clearly visible in the DSS (as shown in the wide-field image below), so as stated above there is no doubt that this group of stars is JH 2145 and therefore NGC 7193.
Physical Information: Corwin describes the core of the cluster as a band of 11 stars, 6 by 1 arcmin, stretching northwest to southeast, with other stars scattered around that, particularly to the south and west. The NGC description does not state how large the cluster is, but Herschel's first (Slough) catalogue of 1833 describes JH 2145 as "A coarse straggling cluster", which suggests that he probably observed the entire scattering of stars centered at Corwin's position (shown in the description line), which spans a region about 15 by 7 arcmin in size (see the image below). Gottlieb notes that a 2016 preprint (Investigation of Galactic open cluster remnants: the case of NGC 7193) concludes that NGC 7193 is a 2.5 billion-year-old open cluster remnant composed of 15 confirmed and 19 probable members about 500 pc (about 1630 light-years) from the Sun. Given that and its 15 by 7 arcmin apparent size, the remnant spans about 7 or 8 light-years. A typical region of that size in our part of the galaxy would contain only half a dozen or so stars, so although "sparse" for a cluster, NGC 7193 still retains enough stars to hint at its origin as a more obvious cluster.
A Caveat About A Cluster: I checked the GAIA database for all of the brighter stars in this apparent group, and found that about a third of them do have parallaxes near 2 milli-arcseconds, which corresponds to a 500 parsec distant cluster; but their proper motions are all over the place, so although the paper mentioned by Gottlieb suggests that this group is a cluster remnant, it appears that the "remnant", if real, is only a portion of the stars in Herschel's "cluster", and many (if not most) of the "obvious" cluster members are actually foreground or background stars.
DSS image of region near the cluster or group of stars listed as NGC 7193
Above, a 20 arcmin wide DSS image centered on Corwin's position for NGC 7193; JH's position and IC 5160 are also shown

NGC 7194
(= PGC 67945 = UGC 11888 = CGCG 428-024 = MCG +02-56-008)

Discovered (Nov 9, 1884) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 13.1 elliptical galaxy (type E2) in Pegasus (RA 22 03 30.9, Dec +12 38 12)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7194 (Swift list II (#91), 1860 RA 21 56 49, NPD 78 00.5) is "very faint, very small, round, a little brighter middle." The position precesses to RA 22 03 38.9, Dec +12 40 02, about 2.6 arcmin northeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the only comparable object nearby is Swift's slightly more northerly II-90, which became NGC 7195, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: As it happens, NGC 7194 and 7195 are almost certainly physical companions, so the best estimate of their distances is one based on distance information for both of them. Their recessional velocities relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation are 7690 km/sec for NGC 7194, and 7540 km/sec for NGC 7195, yielding an average of 7615 km/sec. Based on that (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that the pair are about 355 million light-years away, in reasonable agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 370 to 400 million light-years. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the pair was about 345 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 350 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.85 arcmin (from the images below), NGC 7194 is about 110 thousand light-years across.
Possible Companions: Several galaxies are listed as possible companions of NGC 7194 (and since it is almost certainly in a pair with NGC 7195, of that galaxy as well). They are shown in the images below, and have individual entries following the entry for NGC 7195.
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195, PGC 67935, PGC 214796, PGC 214797 and J220331+123848
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195 and possible companions
Below, the central 6 arcmin wide region of the image above, better showing PGC 67935 and other "companions"
SDSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195, PGC 67935, PGC 214796, PGC 214797 and J220331+123848
Below, a 2.0 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 7194, also showing PGC 214796, PGC 214797 and J220331+123848
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy NGC 7194, also showing PGC 214796, PGC 214797 and J220331+123848

NGC 7195
(= PGC 67940 = CGCG 428-022 = MCG +02-56-009)

Discovered (Nov 9, 1884) by
Lewis Swift
A magnitude 14.7 lenticular galaxy (type (R')SB(s)0/a pec) in Pegasus (RA 22 03 30.3, Dec +12 39 39)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7195 (Swift list II (#90), 1860 RA 21 56 49, NPD 77 59.5) is "most extremely faint, round, very difficult." The position precesses to RA 22 03 38.9, Dec +12 41 01, about 2.5 arcmin east-northeast of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and the only comparable object nearby is Swift's slightly more southerly II-91, which became NGC 7194, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: As noted in the entry for NGC 7194, NGC 7195 is almost certainly a physical companion of that galaxy, and if so, it was also about 345 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see them was emitted, about 350 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.55 by 0.5 arcmin (from the images below), NGC 7194 is about 55 thousand light-years across.
Possible Companions: Several galaxies are listed as possible companions of NGC 7194 (and since it is almost certainly in a pair with NGC 7195, of that galaxy as well). They are shown in the images of NGC 7194, and have individual entries immediately following this one.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7195, also showing NGC 7194 and numerous supposed companions of the pair
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7195, also showing NGC 7194 and their possible companions
Below, a 0.75 arcmin wide SDSS image of NGC 7195
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7195

PGC 67935
(= CGCG 428-021)

Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable companion of
NGC 7194 and 7195
A magnitude 15.5(?) lenticular galaxy (type SAB0) in Pegasus (RA 22 03 22.6, Dec +12 38 58)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7830 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 67935 is about 365 million light-years away. The recessional velocity and distance are close enough to those for NGC 7194 and 7195 that there is a good chance that they are physical companions of PGC 67935 and at about the same distance from us; but the following calculation is based on the assumption that they might not actually be companions, and are 5 to 10 million light-years from PGC 67935. As noted for NGC 7194, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that if the galaxy is not a companion of NGC 7194 and 7195 then it was about 350 to 355 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 355 to 360 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.45 by 0.25 arcmin (from the images below), PGC 67935 is about 45 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195, lenticular galaxy PGC 67935, PGC 214796, PGC 214797 and J220331+123848
Above, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195 and possible companions
For a 12 arcmin wide image of the region, see NGC 7194
Below, a 0.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 67935
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 67935

PGC 214796
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 7194 and 7195
A magnitude 16(?) lenticular galaxy (type S0?) in Pegasus (RA 22 03 31.5, Dec +12 37 34)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 7300 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 214796 is about 340 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 330 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 335 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.3 by 0.15 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 25 to 30 thousand light-years across.
 Given the difference in their recessional velocities and corresponding approximate distances, it is possible that PGC 214796 is a companion of NGC 7194 and 7195 (as part of a large and loosely bound group), but it is more likely that it is a foreground galaxy.
SDSS image of region near galaxy NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195, PGC 67935, PGC 214796, spiral galaxy PGC 214797 and J220331+123848
Above, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195 and possible companions
For a 12 arcmin wide image of the region, see NGC 7194
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 214796
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy PGC 214796

PGC 214797
Not an NGC object but listed here as a possible companion of
NGC 7194 and 7195
A magnitude 16.5(?) spiral galaxy (type SBb? sp pec) in Pegasus (RA 22 03 33.5, Dec +12 38 54)
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation of 8545 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), a straightforward calculation indicates that PGC 214797 is about 395 to 400 million light-years away. However, for objects at such distances we should take into account the expansion of the Universe during the time it took their light to reach us. Doing that shows that the galaxy was about 385 million light-years away at the time the light by which we see it was emitted, about 390 million years ago (the difference between the two numbers being due to the expansion of the intervening space during the light-travel time). Given that and its apparent size of about 0.35 by 0.1 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 40 thousand light-years across.
 Given the difference in their recessional velocities and corresponding approximate distance, odds are that PGC 214797 is not a companion of NGC 7194 and 7195, but is only a background galaxy.
SDSS image of region near galaxy NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195, PGC 67935, PGC 214796, spiral galaxy PGC 214797 and J220331+123848
Above, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195 and possible companions
For a 12 arcmin wide image of the region, see NGC 7194
Below, a 0.5 arcmin wide SDSS image of PGC 214797
SDSS image of spiral galaxy PGC 214796

J220331+123848
(= WISEA J220330.86+123847.9)

Not an NGC object but listed here as an apparent companion of
NGC 7194 and 7195
A magnitude 17(?) elliptical galaxy (type E0?) in Pegasus (RA 22 03 30.8, Dec +12 38 48)
Physical Information: Other than what can be determined from the images below (namely, its apparent size of about 0.1 arcmin and probable classification) there appears to be nothing available for this galaxy, so whether it is a companion of NGC 7194 and 7195 or a completely unrelated object is unknown.
SDSS image of region near galaxy NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195, PGC 67935, PGC 214796, spiral galaxy PGC 214797 and J220331+123848
Above, a 6 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7194, also showing NGC 7195 and possible companions
For a 12 arcmin wide image of the region, see NGC 7194
Below, a 0.25 arcmin wide SDSS image of J220331+123848
SDSS image of elliptical galaxy J220331+123848

NGC 7196
(= PGC 68020 = ESO 237-036)

Discovered (Jul 8, 1834) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 11.5 elliptical galaxy (type E(nr)2 pec) in Indus (RA 22 05 54.8, Dec -50 07 10)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7196 (= GC 4745 = JH 3915, 1860 RA 21 56 51, NPD 140 48.0) is "considerably bright, small, round, among stars." The position precesses to RA 22 05 53.5, Dec -50 07 21, well within the southwestern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing comparable nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2730 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7196 is about 125 to 130 million light-years away, in almost inevitable agreement with widely varying redshift-independent distance estimates of about 80 to 275 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 2.3 by 1.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 85 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: At first glance NGC 7196 appears to be a perfectly normal elliptical galaxy; but the closeup image below shows ringlike structures in its nucleus, hence my addition of (nr) and pec to what would otherwise be the usual classification of E2.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7196, also showing PGC 129874
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7196, also showing PGC 129874
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide image of the galaxy and its apparent companion
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of elliptical galaxy NGC 7196

PGC 129874
Not an NGC object but listed here as a probable companion of
NGC 7196
A magnitude 14(?) elliptical galaxy (type E3?) in Indus (RA 22 06 00.2, Dec -50 06 30)
Physical Information: The recessional velocity of PGC 129874 relative to the Cosmic Background Radiation is 2645 km/sec, only 85 km/sec less than that of NGC 7196, so it is probably not only an apparent companion of its larger neighbor, but an actual physically bound companion. For that reason its most likely distance is the same 125 to 130 million light-year distance of NGC 7196, and given that and its apparent size of about 0.6 by 0.4 arcmin (from the images below), it is about 20 to 25 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near elliptical galaxy NGC 7196, also showing PGC 129874
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7196, also showing PGC 129874
Below, a 2.75 arcmin wide image of the galaxy and its apparent companion
(Image Credit & © Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey; used by permission)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of elliptical galaxy NGC 7196
Below, a 1.0 arcmin wide image of PGC 129874 (Image Credit as above)
Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey image of elliptical galaxy PGC 129874

NGC 7197
(= PGC 67921 = UGC 11887 = CGCG 530-003 = MCG +07-45-005)

Discovered (Oct 17, 1786) by
William Herschel
Also observed (Oct 1, 1828) by John Herschel
A magnitude 12.8 spiral galaxy (type Sa?) in Lacerta (RA 22 02 58.0, Dec +41 03 32)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7197 (= GC 4746 = JH 2146 = WH II 599, 1860 RA 21 57 09, NPD 49 37.2) is "faint, considerably small, considerably extended, very gradually a little brighter middle, extremely mottled but not resolved." The position precesses to RA 22 02 58.8, Dec +41 03 19, well within the south-southeastern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4060 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7197 is about 190 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.95 by 0.9 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 105 to 110 thousand light-years across.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7197
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7197
Below, a 2.5 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7197
Below, a 2.5 arcmin wide PanSTARRS image of the galaxy
PanSTARRS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7197

NGC 7198
(= PGC 68006 = PGC 191310 = CGCG 377-023 = MCG +00-56-008)

Discovered (Jul 31, 1864) by
Albert Marth
A magnitude 13.3 lenticular galaxy (type E/S0?) in Aquarius (RA 22 05 14.2, Dec -00 38 54)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7198 (= GC 6021, Marth #461, 1860 RA 21 58 03, NPD 91 20) is "extremely faint, very small, stellar." The position precesses to RA 22 05 14.9, Dec -00 39 20, less than half an arcmin south-southeast of the center of the galaxy listed above and barely outside its outline, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 4435 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7198 is about 205 to 210 million light-years away, in good agreement with redshift-independent distance estimates of about 190 to 220 million light-years. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.1 by 0.95 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 65 to 70 thousand light-years across.
SDSS image of region near lenticular galaxy NGC 7198
Above, a 12 arcmin wide SDSS image centered on NGC 7198
Below, a 1.5 by 1.6 arcmin wide SDSS image of the galaxy
SDSS image of lenticular galaxy NGC 7198

NGC 7199
(= PGC 68124 = ESO 108-014)

Discovered (Jun 22, 1835) by
John Herschel
A magnitude 13.1 spiral galaxy (type (R')SB(r)a?) in Indus (RA 22 08 29.8, Dec -64 42 22)
Historical Identification: Per Dreyer, NGC 7199 (= GC 4747 = JH 3916, 1860 RA 21 58 04, NPD 155 23.0) is "very faint, small, round, pretty suddenly a little brighter middle, 11th magnitude star 3' preceding (to west)." The position precesses to RA 22 08 30.3, Dec -64 42 09, well within the northern outline of the galaxy listed above, the description fits and there is nothing else nearby, so the identification is certain.
Physical Information: Based on a recessional velocity relative to the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation of 2755 km/sec (and H0 = 70 km/sec/Mpc), NGC 7199 is about 125 to 130 million light-years away. Given that and its apparent size of about 1.05 by 0.8 arcmin (from the images below), the galaxy is about 40 thousand light-years across.
Classification Note: The images shown here hardly justify a detailed classification (the one above is based on those in LEDA and NED), except perhaps for the (r) and added (R'); but the strong bluish color does suggest a spiral, rather than an elliptical or lenticular galaxy, so with the addition of a question mark perhaps the type can be justified.
DSS image of region near spiral galaxy NGC 7199
Above, a 12 arcmin wide DSS image centered on NGC 7199
Below, a 1.25 arcmin wide DSS image of the galaxy
DSS image of spiral galaxy NGC 7199
Celestial Atlas
(NGC 7100 - 7149) ←NGC Objects: NGC 7150 - 7199→ (NGC 7200 - 7249)